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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/08912963.2019.1617289

The smallest of the largest: new volumetric body mass estimate and in-vivo restoration of the dwarf elephant Palaeoloxodon ex gr. P. falconeri from Spinagallo Cave (Sicily)

04 Mar 2021-Historical Biology (Taylor & Francis)-Vol. 33, Iss: 3, pp 340-353
Abstract: In the present paper we provide a new estimate of the body mass (BM) of the dwarf elephant Palaeoloxodon ex gr. P. falconeri from Spinagallo cave (Sicily) at three different ontogenetic stages. The...

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Topics: Palaeoloxodon (65%), Cave (52%)

11 results found

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1371/JOURNAL.PONE.0236417
13 Aug 2020-PLOS ONE
Abstract: Natural history collections are yielding more information as digitization brings specimen data to researchers, connects specimens across museums, and as new technologies allow for more large-scale data collection. Therefore, a key goal in specimen digitization is developing methods that both increase access and allow for the highest yield of phenomic data. 3D digitization is increasingly popular because it has the potential to meet both aspects of that key goal. However, current methods overlook or do not prioritize some of the most sought-after phenotypic traits, those involving the external appearance of specimens, especially color. Here, we introduce an efficient and cost-effective pipeline for 3D photogrammetry to capture the external appearance of natural history specimens and other museum objects. 3D photogrammetry aligns and compares sets of dozens, hundreds, or even thousands of photos to create 3D models. The hardware set-up requires little physical space and around $3,000 in initial investment, while the software pipeline requires $1,400/year for proprietary software subscriptions (with open-source alternatives). The creation of each 3D model takes 1-2 hours/specimen and much of the software pipeline is automated with minimal supervision required, including the onerous step of mesh processing. We showcase the method by creating 3D models for most of the type specimens in the Moore Laboratory of Zoology bird collection and show that digital bill measurements are comparable to hand-taken measurements. Color data, while not included as part of this pipeline, is easily extractable from the models and one of the most promising areas of data collection. Future advances can adapt the method for ultraviolet reflectance capture and increased efficiency and model quality. Combined with genomic data, phenomic data from 3D models including photogrammetry will open new doors to understanding organismal evolution.

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Topics: Photogrammetry (55%), Pipeline (software) (52%), Digitization (52%)

8 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/08912963.2019.1631819
Marco Romano1, Fabio ManucciInstitutions (1)
03 Apr 2021-Historical Biology
Abstract: Body size is one of the most crucial biological properties, with a major influence on ecology, metabolism and several physiological aspects. Recently the exceptionally large dicynodont Lisowicia bo...

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Topics: Dicynodont (50%)

8 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/08912963.2019.1640219
Marco Romano1, Bruce S. Rubidge1Institutions (1)
03 Apr 2021-Historical Biology
Abstract: Dinocephalians were the earliest large terrestrial tetrapods from Gondwana, making this group crucial in understanding body mass (BM) evolution in basal synapsids, but no detailed weight de...

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5 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1098/RSPB.2020.1537
Abstract: The relative body masses of predators and their prey strongly affect the predators' ecology. An accurate estimate of the mass of an extinct predator is therefore key to revealing its biology and th...

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Topics: Thylacine (54%)

5 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41598-020-76757-0
Julien Benoit1, Lucas J. Legendre2, A. A. Farke3, James M. Neenan4  +4 moreInstitutions (5)
11 Nov 2020-Scientific Reports
Abstract: For over a century, researchers have assumed that the plane of the lateral semicircular canal of the inner ear lies parallel to the horizon when the head is at rest, and used this assumption to reconstruct head posture in extinct species. Although this hypothesis has been repeatedly questioned, it has never been tested on a large sample size and at a broad taxonomic scale in mammals. This study presents a comprehensive test of this hypothesis in over one hundred “ungulate” species. Using CT scanning and manual segmentation, the orientation of the skull was reconstructed as if the lateral semicircular canal of the bony labyrinth was aligned horizontally. This reconstructed cranial orientation was statistically compared to the actual head posture of the corresponding species using a dataset of 10,000 photographs and phylogenetic regression analysis. A statistically significant correlation between the reconstructed cranial orientation and head posture is found, although the plane of the lateral semicircular canal departs significantly from horizontal. We thus caution against the use of the lateral semicircular canal as a proxy to infer precisely the horizontal plane on dry skulls and in extinct species. Diet (browsing or grazing) and head-butting behaviour are significantly correlated to the orientation of the lateral semicircular canal, but not to the actual head posture. Head posture and the orientation of the lateral semicircular canal are both strongly correlated with phylogenetic history.

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Topics: Bony labyrinth (53%)

4 Citations


116 results found

Open accessBook
01 Jan 1984-

2,515 Citations

Open accessProceedings ArticleDOI: 10.1109/CVPR.2006.19
Steven M. Seitz1, Brian Curless1, J. Diebel2, Daniel Scharstein3  +1 moreInstitutions (4)
17 Jun 2006-
Abstract: This paper presents a quantitative comparison of several multi-view stereo reconstruction algorithms. Until now, the lack of suitable calibrated multi-view image datasets with known ground truth (3D shape models) has prevented such direct comparisons. In this paper, we first survey multi-view stereo algorithms and compare them qualitatively using a taxonomy that differentiates their key properties. We then describe our process for acquiring and calibrating multiview image datasets with high-accuracy ground truth and introduce our evaluation methodology. Finally, we present the results of our quantitative comparison of state-of-the-art multi-view stereo reconstruction algorithms on six benchmark datasets. The datasets, evaluation details, and instructions for submitting new models are available online at

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Topics: Computer stereo vision (59%), Stereo cameras (57.99%), Ground truth (52%) ... show more

2,364 Citations

Open accessBook
01 Sep 1975-

2,014 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3733/HILG.V06N11P315
01 Jan 1932-
Abstract: does not appear. First page follows. The statement that the basal metabolism of animals differing in size is nearly proportional to their respective body surfaces, is called the surface law. Benedict has shown that this law is already over ninety years old, Robiquet and Tillaye having formulated it quite clearly in 1839. The history of the surface law is given in the paper of (Harris and Benedict (1919)). We may here only briefly mention the different ways in which it has been found. The early writers derived the law from theoretical considerations on a rather small experimental basis, as did Bergmann, who in 1847 had already written a book on the subject. Respiration trials were carried out by Regnault and Reiset, and Rameaux based the surface law on measurements of the amount of air respired per minute by two thousand human beings of different sizes. (Rubner (1883)) demonstrated the law in accurate respiration trials on dogs and Richet rediscovered it empirically on rabbits. The latter writes (p. 223): “C’est apree coup seulement que je me suis avise que la donnee surface etait plus interessante que la donnee poids.” Although (Armsby, Fries, and Braman (1918), p. 55) found the surface law confirmed to a rather striking degree, this law is not at all so clear today as it appeared to its early discoverers. (Carman and Mitchell (1926), p. 380) state the situation very well: “In spite of the theoretical weakness of the surface law, the computation of basal metabolism to the unit of the body surface seems at present the most satisfactory method available of equalizing experimental results for differences in the size of experimental animals.”

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1,819 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1152/PHYSREV.1947.27.4.511

1,445 Citations

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