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Journal ArticleDOI

The social motivation of a sound change

01 Jan 1963-WORD (Routledge)-Vol. 19, Iss: 3, pp 273-309
TL;DR: The authors discuss dialect mixture, obsolescence and replacement, and show a very keen concern with the social mechanism of linguistic change, and include pejorativeracial terms in their discussion of dialect mixture.
Abstract: graphyand settlementhistory of Texas.His inclusionof pejorativeracial terms is a very valuable contribution. His discussion of dialect mixture, obsolescenceand replacement, shows a very keen concern with the social mechanism of linguistic change. The many students of American English who will use these materials must feel a very real senseof obligation towards the author for these advances,as well as for his successin ■tting this very large piece of the American puzzle into place.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors proposed a framework for the analysis of identity as produced in linguistic interaction, based on the following principles: identity is the product rather than the source of linguis... and identity is generated from linguistic interaction.
Abstract: The article proposes a framework for the analysis of identity as produced in linguistic interaction, based on the following principles: (1) identity is the product rather than the source of linguis...

2,419 citations


Cites background from "The social motivation of a sound ch..."

  • ...The traditional forms of these approaches have been valuable for documenting largescale sociolinguistic trends; they are often less effective in capturing the more nuanced and flexible kinds of identity relations that arise in local contexts (but see, e.g. Labov, 1963)....

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Book
01 Jan 1986
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a survey of the sociolinguistics and the Sociology of Language Methodological Concerns in the context of Pidgin to Creole and beyond.
Abstract: Preface. Acknowledgements. 1. Introduction Knowledge of Language Variation Language and Society Sociolinguistics and the Sociology of Language Methodological Concerns Overview Further Reading Part I: Languages and Communities: 2. Languages, Dialects, and Varieties Language or Dialect? Standardization Regional Dialects Social Dialects Styles, Registers, and Beliefs Further Reading 3. Pidgins and Creoles Lingua Francas Definitions Distribution and Characteristics Origins From Pidgin to Creole and Beyond Further Reading 4. Codes Diglossia Bilingualism and Multilingualism Code-Switching Accommodation Further Reading 5. Speech Communities Definitions Intersecting Communities Networks and Repertoires Further Reading Part II: Inherent Variety: 6. Language Variation Regional Variation The Linguistic Variable Social Variation Data Collection and Analysis Further Reading 7. Some Findings and Issues An Early Study New York City Norwich and Reading A Variety of Studies Belfast Controversies Further Reading 8. Change The Traditional View Some Changes in Progress The Process of Change Further Reading Part III: Words at Work: 9. Words and Culture Whorf Kinship Taxonomies Color Prototypes Taboo and Euphemism Further Reading 10. Ethnographies Varieties of Talk The Ethnography of Speaking Ethnomethodology Further Reading 11. Solidarity and Politeness Tu and Vous Address Terms Politeness Further Reading 12. Talk and Action Speech Acts Cooperation Conversation Further Reading Part IV: Understanding and Intervening: 13. Gender Differences Possible Explanations Further Reading 14. Disadvantage Codes Again African American English Consequences for Education Further Reading 15. Planning Issues A Variety of Situations Further Examples Winners and Losers Further Reading 16. Conclusion References Index

2,182 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jun 1988-Language

1,617 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors argue that the meanings of variables are not precise or fixed but rather constitute a field of potential meanings, any one of which can be activated in the situated use of the variable, and each new activation has the potential to change the field by building on ideological connections.
Abstract: This paper argues for a focus on the social meaning of variation, based in a study of stylistic practice. It is common in the study of variation to interpret variables as reflections of speakers’ membership in social categories. Others have argued more recently that variables are associated not with the categories themselves, but with stances and characteristics that constitute those categories. The paper reviews some variation studies that showthatvariablesdonothavestaticmeanings,butrathergeneralmeanings that become more specific in the context of styles. Building on Michael Silverstein’s notion of indexical order, I argue that the meanings of variables are not precise or fixed but rather constitute a field of potential meanings ‐ an indexical field, or constellation of ideologically related meanings, any one of which can be activated in the situated use of the variable. The field is fluid, and each new activation has the potential to change the field by building on ideological connections. Thus variation constitutes an indexical system that embeds ideology in language and that is in turn part and parcel of the construction of ideology.

1,167 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Control methods used in the evaluation of effects of language and dialectal backgrounds and vocal and auditory characteristics of the individuals concerned in a vowel study program at Bell Telephone Laboratories are discussed.
Abstract: Relationships between a listener's identification of a spoken vowel and its properties as revealed from acoustic measurement of its sound wave have been a subject of study by many investigators. Both the utterance and the identification of a vowel depend upon the language and dialectal backgrounds and the vocal and auditory characteristics of the individuals concerned. The purpose of this paper is to discuss some of the control methods that have been used in the evaluation of these effects in a vowel study program at Bell Telephone Laboratories. The plan of the study, calibration of recording and measuring equipment, and methods for checking the performance of both speakers and listeners are described. The methods are illustrated from results of tests involving some 76 speakers and 70 listeners.

2,909 citations

Book
01 Jan 1958

1,498 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jun 1928-Language

1,285 citations