Open accessJournal Article

# The SPHERE infrared survey for exoplanets (SHINE) -- II. Observations, Data reduction and analysis Detection performances and early-results

Abstract: Over the past decades, direct imaging has confirmed the existence of substellar companions (exoplanets or brown dwarfs) on wide orbits (>10 au) from their host stars. To understand their formation and evolution mechanisms, we have initiated in 2015 the SPHERE infrared survey for exoplanets (SHINE), a systematic direct imaging survey of young, nearby stars to explore their demographics.} {We aim to detect and characterize the population of giant planets and brown dwarfs beyond the snow line around young, nearby stars. Combined with the survey completeness, our observations offer the opportunity to constrain the statistical properties (occurrence, mass and orbital distributions, dependency on the stellar mass) of these young giant planets.} {In this study, we present the observing and data analysis strategy, the ranking process of the detected candidates, and the survey performances for a subsample of 150 stars, which are representative of the full SHINE sample. The observations were conducted in an homogeneous way from February 2015 to February 2017 with the dedicated ground-based VLT/SPHERE instrument equipped with the IFS integral field spectrograph and the IRDIS dual-band imager covering a spectral range between 0.9 and 2.3 $\mu$m. We used coronographic, angular and spectral differential imaging techniques to reach the best detection performances for this study down to the planetary mass regime.}

Topics: Brown dwarf (57%), Exoplanet (54%), Stellar mass (53%) ... show more
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6 results found

Open accessJournal Article
Arthur Vigan1, C. Fontanive2, Michael Meyer3, Beth Biller  +112 moreInstitutions (16)
Abstract: The SHINE project is a 500-star survey performed with SPHERE on the VLT for the purpose of directly detecting new substellar companions and understanding their formation and early evolution. Here we present an initial statistical analysis for a subsample of 150 stars that are representative of the full SHINE sample. Our goal is to constrain the frequency of substellar companions with masses between 1 and 75 MJup and semimajor axes between 5 and 300 au. We adopt detection limits as a function of angular separation from the survey data for all stars converted into mass and projected orbital separation using the BEX-COND-hot evolutionary tracks and known distance to each system. Based on the results obtained for each star and on the 13 detections in the sample, we use a MCMC tool to compare our observations to two different types of models. The first is a parametric model based on observational constraints, and the second type are numerical models that combine advanced core accretion and gravitational instability planet population synthesis. Using the parametric model, we show that the frequencies of systems with at least one substellar companion are $23.0_{-9.7}^{+13.5}\%$, $5.8_{-2.8}^{+4.7}\%$, and $12.6_{-7.1}^{+12.9}\%$ for BA, FGK, and M stars, respectively. We also demonstrate that a planet-like formation pathway probably dominates the mass range from 1-75 MJup for companions around BA stars, while for M dwarfs, brown dwarf binaries dominate detections. In contrast, a combination of binary star-like and planet-like formation is required to best fit the observations for FGK stars. Using our population model and restricting our sample to FGK stars, we derive a frequency of $5.7_{-2.8}^{+3.8}\%$, consistent with predictions from the parametric model. More generally, the frequency values that we derive are in excellent agreement with values obtained in previous studies.

Topics: Type (model theory) (55%), Brown dwarf (54%), Stars (53%) ... show more

41 Citations

Open accessJournal Article
Arthur Vigan1, C. Fontanive2, Michael Meyer3, Beth Biller  +112 moreInstitutions (16)
Abstract: The SpHere INfrared Exoplanet (SHINE) project is a 500-star survey performed with SPHERE on the Very Large Telescope for the purpose of directly detecting new substellar companions and understanding their formation and early evolution. Here we present an initial statistical analysis for a subsample of 150 stars spanning spectral types from B to M that are representative of the full SHINE sample. Our goal is to constrain the frequency of substellar companions with masses between 1 and 75 MJup and semimajor axes between 5 and 300 au. For this purpose, we adopt detection limits as a function of angular separation from the survey data for all stars converted into mass and projected orbital separation using the BEX-COND-hot evolutionary tracks and known distance to each system. Based on the results obtained for each star and on the 13 detections in the sample, we use a Markov chain Monte Carlo tool to compare our observations to two different types of models. The first is a parametric model based on observational constraints, and the second type are numerical models that combine advanced core accretion and gravitational instability planet population synthesis. Using the parametric model, we show that the frequencies of systems with at least one substellar companion are 23.0−9.7+13.5, 5.8−2.8+4.7, and 12.6−7.1+12.9% for BA, FGK, and M stars, respectively. We also demonstrate that a planet-like formation pathway probably dominates the mass range from 1–75 MJup for companions around BA stars, while for M dwarfs, brown dwarf binaries dominate detections. In contrast, a combination of binary star-like and planet-like formation is required to best fit the observations for FGK stars. Using our population model and restricting our sample to FGK stars, we derive a frequency of 5.7−2.8+3.8%, consistent with predictions from the parametric model. More generally, the frequency values that we derive are in excellent agreement with values obtained in previous studies.

41 Citations

Open accessJournal Article
R. Asensio-Torres1, Th. Henning1, Faustine Cantalloube1, P. Pinilla1  +30 moreInstitutions (15)
Abstract: The detection of a wide range of substructures such as rings, cavities, and spirals has become a common outcome of high spatial resolution imaging of protoplanetary disks, both in the near-infrared scattered light and in the thermal millimetre continuum emission. The most frequent interpretation of their origin is the presence of planetary-mass companions perturbing the gas and dust distribution in the disk (perturbers), but so far the only bona fide detection has been the two giant planets carving the disk around PDS 70. Here, we present a sample of 15 protoplanetary disks showing substructures in SPHERE scattered-light images and a homogeneous derivation of planet detection limits in these systems. To obtain mass limits we rely on different post-formation luminosity models based on distinct formation conditions, which are critical in the first million years of evolution. We also estimate the mass of these perturbers through a Hill radius prescription and a comparison to ALMA data. Assuming that one single planet carves each substructure in scattered light, we find that more massive perturbers are needed to create gaps within cavities than rings, and that we might be close to a detection in the cavities of RX J1604.3-2130A, RX J1615.3-3255, Sz Cha, HD 135344B, and HD 34282. We reach typical mass limits in these cavities of 3–10 M Jup . For planets in the gaps between rings, we find that the detection limits of SPHERE high-contrast imaging are about an order of magnitude away in mass, and that the gaps of PDS 66 and HD 97048 seem to be the most promising structures for planet searches. The proposed presence of massive planets causing spiral features in HD 135344B and HD 36112 are also within SPHERE’s reach assuming hot-start models. These results suggest that the current detection limits are able to detect hot-start planets in cavities, under the assumption that they are formed by a single perturber located at the centre of the cavity. More realistic planet mass constraints would help to clarify whether this is actually the case, which might indicate that perturbers are not the only way of creating substructures.

Topics: Hill sphere (56%), Planetary mass (56%), Planet (55%)

5 Citations

Open accessPosted Content
Abstract: We present the multiple stellar systems observed within the SpHere INfrared survey for Exoplanet (SHINE). SHINE searched for substellar companions to young stars using high contrast imaging. Although stars with known stellar companions within SPHERE field of view (<5.5 arcsec) were removed from the original target list, we detected additional stellar companions to 78 of the 463 SHINE targets observed so far. 27% of the systems have three or more components. Given the heterogeneity of the sample in terms of observing conditions and strategy, tailored routines were used for data reduction and analysis, some of which were specifically designed for these data sets. We then combined SPHERE data with literature and archival ones, TESS light curves and Gaia parallaxes and proper motions, to characterise these systems as completely as possible. Combining all data, we were able to constrain the orbits of 25 systems. We carefully assessed the completeness of our sample for the separation range 50-500 mas (period range a few years - a few tens of years), taking into account the initial selection biases and recovering part of the systems excluded from the original list due to their multiplicity. This allowed us to compare the binary frequency for our sample with previous studies and highlight some interesting trends in the mass ratio and period distribution. We also found that, for the few objects for which such estimate was possible, the values of the masses derived from dynamical arguments were in good agreement with the model predictions. Stellar and orbital spins appear fairly well aligned for the 12 stars having enough data, which favour a disk fragmentation origin. Our results highlight the importance of combining different techniques when tackling complex problems such as the formation of binaries and show how large samples can be useful for more than one purpose.

Topics: Stars (51%)

1 Citations

Open accessPosted Content
Abstract: Orbital monitoring of exoplanetary and stellar systems is fundamental for analysing their architecture, dynamical stability and evolution, and mechanisms of formation. Current high-contrast extreme-adaptive optics imagers like SPHERE, GPI, and SCExAO+CHARIS explore the population of giant exoplanets and brown dwarf and stellar companions beyond typically 10 au, covering generally a small fraction of the orbit (<20%) leading to degeneracies and biases in the orbital parameters. Precise and robust measurements over time of the position of the companions are critical, which require good knowledge of the instrumental limitations and dedicated observing strategies. The homogeneous dedicated calibration strategy for astrometry implemented for SPHERE has facilitated high-precision studies by its users since its start of operation in 2014. As the precision of exoplanet imaging instruments is now reaching milliarcseconds and is expected to improve with the upcoming facilities, we initiated a community effort, triggered by the SPHERE experience, to share lessons learned for high-precision astrometry in direct imaging. A homogeneous strategy would strongly benefit the VLT community, in synergy with VLTI instruments like GRAVITY/GRAVITY+, future instruments like ERIS and MAVIS, and in preparation for the exploitation of the ELT's first instruments MICADO, HARMONI, and METIS.

Topics: Population (51%), Astrometry (51%)

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163 results found

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1086/498708
Abstract: Between 1997 June and 2001 February the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) collected 25.4 Tbytes of raw imagingdatacovering99.998%ofthecelestialsphereinthenear-infraredJ(1.25 � m),H(1.65 � m),andKs(2.16 � m) bandpasses. Observations were conducted from two dedicated 1.3 m diameter telescopes located at Mount Hopkins, Arizona,andCerroTololo,Chile.The7.8sofintegrationtimeaccumulatedforeachpointontheskyandstrictquality control yielded a 10 � point-source detection level of better than 15.8, 15.1, and 14.3 mag at the J, H, and Ks bands, respectively, for virtually the entire sky. Bright source extractions have 1 � photometric uncertainty of <0.03 mag and astrometric accuracy of order 100 mas. Calibration offsets between any two points in the sky are <0.02 mag. The 2MASS All-Sky Data Release includes 4.1 million compressed FITS images covering the entire sky, 471 million source extractions in a Point Source Catalog, and 1.6 million objects identified as extended in an Extended Source Catalog.

11,219 Citations

Open accessJournal Article
Abstract: Context. We present the second Gaia data release, Gaia DR2, consisting of astrometry, photometry, radial velocities, and information on astrophysical parameters and variability, for sources brighter than magnitude 21. In addition epoch astrometry and photometry are provided for a modest sample of minor planets in the solar system. Aims: A summary of the contents of Gaia DR2 is presented, accompanied by a discussion on the differences with respect to Gaia DR1 and an overview of the main limitations which are still present in the survey. Recommendations are made on the responsible use of Gaia DR2 results. Methods: The raw data collected with the Gaia instruments during the first 22 months of the mission have been processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) and turned into this second data release, which represents a major advance with respect to Gaia DR1 in terms of completeness, performance, and richness of the data products. Results: Gaia DR2 contains celestial positions and the apparent brightness in G for approximately 1.7 billion sources. For 1.3 billion of those sources, parallaxes and proper motions are in addition available. The sample of sources for which variability information is provided is expanded to 0.5 million stars. This data release contains four new elements: broad-band colour information in the form of the apparent brightness in the GBP (330-680 nm) and GRP (630-1050 nm) bands is available for 1.4 billion sources; median radial velocities for some 7 million sources are presented; for between 77 and 161 million sources estimates are provided of the stellar effective temperature, extinction, reddening, and radius and luminosity; and for a pre-selected list of 14 000 minor planets in the solar system epoch astrometry and photometry are presented. Finally, Gaia DR2 also represents a new materialisation of the celestial reference frame in the optical, the Gaia-CRF2, which is the first optical reference frame based solely on extragalactic sources. There are notable changes in the photometric system and the catalogue source list with respect to Gaia DR1, and we stress the need to consider the two data releases as independent. Conclusions: Gaia DR2 represents a major achievement for the Gaia mission, delivering on the long standing promise to provide parallaxes and proper motions for over 1 billion stars, and representing a first step in the availability of complementary radial velocity and source astrophysical information for a sample of stars in the Gaia survey which covers a very substantial fraction of the volume of our galaxy.

Topics: Astrometry (56%)

7,024 Citations

Open accessJournal Article
28 Nov 2008-Science
Abstract: Direct imaging of exoplanetary systems is a powerful technique that can reveal Jupiter-like planets in wide orbits, can enable detailed characterization of planetary atmospheres, and is a key step toward imaging Earth-like planets. Imaging detections are challenging because of the combined effect of small angular separation and large luminosity contrast between a planet and its host star. High-contrast observations with the Keck and Gemini telescopes have revealed three planets orbiting the star HR 8799, with projected separations of 24, 38, and 68 astronomical units. Multi-epoch data show counter clockwise orbital motion for all three imaged planets. The low luminosity of the companions and the estimated age of the system imply planetary masses between 5 and 13 times that of Jupiter. This system resembles a scaled-up version of the outer portion of our solar system.

1,865 Citations

Open accessJournal Article
Isabelle Baraffe1, Gilles Chabrier2, Travis S. Barman3, F. Allard2  +1 moreInstitutions (4)
Abstract: We present evolutionary models for cool brown dwarfs and extra-solar giant planets. The models reproduce the main trends of observed methane dwarfs in near-IR color-magnitude diagrams. We also present evolutionary models for irradiated planets, coupling for the first time irradiated atmosphere profiles and inner structures. We focus on HD 209458-like systems and show that irradiation effects can substantially affect the radius of sub-jovian mass giant planets. Irradiation effects, however, cannot alone explain the large observed radius of HD 209458b. Adopting assumptions which optimise irradiation effects and taking into account the extension of the outer atmospheric layers, we still find $\\sim$ 20% discrepancy between observed and theoretical radii. An extra source of energy seems to be required to explain the observed value of the first transit planet.

Topics: Brown dwarf (63%), Jupiter mass (61%), Planetary mass (61%) ... show more

1,725 Citations

Open accessJournal Article
Isabelle Baraffe1, Gilles Chabrier1, Travis S. Barman2, F. Allard1  +1 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: We present evolutionary models for cool brown dwarfs and extra-solar giant planets. The models reproduce the main trends of observed methane dwarfs in near-IR color-magnitude diagrams. We also present evolutionary models for irradiated planets, coupling for the first time irradiated atmosphere profiles and inner structures. We focus on HD 209458-like systems and show that irradiation effects can substantially affect the radius of sub-jovian mass giant planets. Irradiation effects, however, cannot alone explain the large observed radius of HD 209458b. Adopting assumptions which optimise irradiation effects and taking into account the extension of the outer atmospheric layers, we still find $\sim$ 20% discrepancy between observed and theoretical radii. An extra source of energy seems to be required to explain the observed value of the first transit planet.