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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/BIOMEDICINES9030253

The Therapeutic Potential of Carnosine/Anserine Supplementation against Cognitive Decline: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis.

04 Mar 2021-Biomedicines (MDPI AG)-Vol. 9, Iss: 3, pp 253
Abstract: Carnosine is a natural occurring endogenous dipeptide that was proposed as an anti-aging agent more than 20 years ago. Carnosine can be found at low millimolar concentrations at brain level and different preclinical studies have demonstrated its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-aggregation activity with neuroprotective effects in animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A selective deficit of carnosine has also been linked to cognitive decline in AD. Different clinical studies have been conducted to evaluate the impact of carnosine supplementation against cognitive decline in elderly and AD subjects. We conducted a systematic review with meta-analysis, in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines coupled to the PICOS approach, to investigate the therapeutic potential of carnosine against cognitive decline and depressive symptoms in elderly subjects. We found five studies matching the selection criteria. Carnosine/anserine was administered for 12 weeks at a dose of 1 g/day and improved global cognitive function, whereas no effects were detected on depressive symptoms. These data suggest a preliminary evidence of clinical efficacy of carnosine against cognitive decline both in elderly subjects and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients, although larger and long-term clinical studies are needed in MCI patients (with or without depression) to confirm the therapeutic potential of carnosine.

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Topics: Cognitive decline (63%), Carnosine (61%)
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12 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/BIOMEDICINES9040340
Lehel Balogh1, Masaru Tanaka, Nóra Török2, László Vécsei2  +1 moreInstitutions (2)
27 Mar 2021-Biomedicines
Abstract: Psychotherapy is a comprehensive biological treatment modifying complex underlying cognitive, emotional, behavioral, and regulatory responses in the brain, leading patients with mental illness to a new interpretation of the sense of self and others. Psychotherapy is an art of science integrated with psychology and/or philosophy. Neurological sciences study the neurological basis of cognition, memory, and behavior as well as the impact of neurological damage and disease on these functions, and their treatment. Both psychotherapy and neurological sciences deal with the brain; nevertheless, they continue to stay polarized. Existential phenomenological psychotherapy (EPP) has been in the forefront of meaning-centered counseling for almost a century. The phenomenological approach in psychotherapy originated in the works of Martin Heidegger, Ludwig Binswanger, Medard Boss, and Viktor Frankl, and it has been committed to accounting for the existential possibilities and limitations of one’s life. EPP provides philosophically rich interpretations and empowers counseling techniques to assist mentally suffering individuals by finding meaning and purpose to life. The approach has proven to be effective in treating mood and anxiety disorders. This narrative review article demonstrates the development of EPP, the therapeutic methodology, evidence-based accounts of its curative techniques, current understanding of mood and anxiety disorders in neurological sciences, and a possible converging path to translate and integrate meaning-centered psychotherapy and neuroscience, concluding that the EPP may potentially play a synergistic role with the currently prevailing medication-based approaches for the treatment of mood and anxiety disorders.

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Topics: Anxiety (55%), Mental illness (55%), Logotherapy (54%) ... show more

6 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/ANTIOX10091439
09 Sep 2021-Antioxidants
Abstract: There is a growing body of scientific research showing the link between depression and dementia in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The chronic stress contributes to the formation of oxidative stress in the parts of the brain involved in the development of depression and AD. The scientific literature reports the significant role of antioxidants, which are highly effective in treating these diseases. In this review, we have summarized the relationship between chronic stress, oxidative stress, and the changes in the brain they cause occurring in the brain. Among all the compounds showing antioxidant properties, the most promising results in AD treatment were observed for Vitamin E, coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), melatonin, polyphenols, curcumin, and selenium. In case of depression treatment, the greatest potential was observed in curcumin, zinc, selenium, vitamin E, and saffron.

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Topics: Oxidative stress (55%), Chronic stress (55%), Dementia (51%)

3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/BIOMEDICINES9050477
26 Apr 2021-Biomedicines
Abstract: Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) is a naturally occurring endogenous peptide widely distributed in excitable tissues such as the brain. This dipeptide has well-known antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-aggregation activities, and it may be useful for treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In this disease, peripheral infiltrating macrophages play a substantial role in the clearance of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides from the brain. Correspondingly, in patients suffering from AD, defects in the capacity of peripheral macrophages to engulf Aβ have been reported. The effects of carnosine on macrophages and oxidative stress associated with AD are consequently of substantial interest for drug discovery in this field. In the present work, a model of stress induced by Aβ1-42 oligomers was investigated using a combination of methods including trypan blue exclusion, microchip electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence, flow cytometry, fluorescence microscopy, and high-throughput quantitative real-time PCR. These assays were used to assess the ability of carnosine to protect macrophage cells, modulate oxidative stress, and profile the expression of genes related to inflammation and pro- and antioxidant systems. We found that pre-treatment of RAW 264.7 macrophages with carnosine counteracted cell death and apoptosis induced by Aβ1-42 oligomers by decreasing oxidative stress as measured by levels of intracellular nitric oxide (NO)/reactive oxygen species (ROS) and production of peroxynitrite. This protective activity of carnosine was not mediated by modulation of the canonical inflammatory pathway but instead can be explained by the well-known antioxidant and free-radical scavenging activities of carnosine, enhanced macrophage phagocytic activity, and the rescue of fractalkine receptor CX3CR1. These new findings obtained with macrophages challenged with Aβ1-42 oligomers, along with the well-known multimodal mechanism of action of carnosine in vitro and in vivo, substantiate the therapeutic potential of this dipeptide in the context of AD pathology.

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Topics: Carnosine (68%), Amyloid beta (55%), Oxidative stress (54%) ... show more

3 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.PHARMTHERA.2021.108013
Abstract: Dietary polyphenols have been the focus of major interest for their potential benefits on human health. Several preclinical studies have been conducted to provide a rationale for their potential use as therapeutic agents in preventing or ameliorating cognitive decline. However, results from human studies are scarce and poorly documented. The aim of this review was to discuss the potential mechanisms involved in age-related cognitive decline or early stage cognitive impairment and current evidence from clinical human studies conducted on polyphenols and the aforementioned outcomes. The evidence published so far is encouraging but contrasting findings are to be taken into account. Most studies on anthocyanins showed a consistent positive effect on various cognitive aspects related to aging or early stages of cognitive impairment. Studies on cocoa flavanols, resveratrol, and isoflavones provided substantial contrasting results and further research is needed to clarify the therapeutic potential of these compounds. Results from other studies on quercetin, green tea flavanols, hydroxycinnamic acids (such as chlorogenic acid), curcumin, and olive oil tyrosol and derivatives are rather promising but still too few to provide any real conclusions. Future translational studies are needed to address issues related to dosage, optimal formulations to improve bioavailability, as well as better control for the overall diet, and correct target population.

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Topics: Cognitive decline (64%)

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/ANTIOX10071075
05 Jul 2021-Antioxidants
Abstract: Rescue of cognitive function represents an unmet need in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Nutraceuticals deliver a concentrated form of a presumed bioactive(s) agent(s) that can improve cognitive function alone or in combination with current approved drugs for the treatment of cognitive disorders. Nutraceuticals include different natural compounds such as flavonoids and their subclasses (flavan-3-ols, catechins, anthocyanins, and flavonols), omega-3, and carnosine that can improve synaptic plasticity and rescue cognitive deficits through multiple molecular mechanisms. A deficit of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) pathway is an early event in the pathophysiology of cognitive impairment in different neuropsychiatric disorders, from depression to AD. In the present review, we provide evidence that different nutraceuticals, such as Hypericum perforatum (hypericin and hyperforin), flavonoids such as hesperidin, omega-3, and carnosine, can target TGF-β1 signaling and increase TGF-β1 production in the central nervous system as well as cognitive function. The bioavailability of these nutraceuticals, in particular carnosine, can be significantly improved with novel formulations (nanoparticulate systems, nanoliposomes) that increase the efficacy and stability of this peptide. Overall, these studies suggest that the synergism between nutraceuticals targeting the TGF-β1 pathway and current approved drugs might represent a novel pharmacological approach for reverting cognitive deficits in AD patients.

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2 Citations


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83 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1371/JOURNAL.PMED.1000097
David Moher1, David Moher2, Alessandro Liberati3, Jennifer Tetzlaff2  +1 moreInstitutions (4)
21 Jul 2009-PLOS Medicine
Abstract: David Moher and colleagues introduce PRISMA, an update of the QUOROM guidelines for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses

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Topics: Systematic review (53%)

53,418 Citations


Open accessJournal Article
David Moher1, David Moher2, Alessandro Liberati3, Jennifer Tetzlaff1  +1 moreInstitutions (4)
21 Jul 2009-Open Medicine
Abstract: Systematic reviews and meta-analyses have become increasingly important in health care. Clinicians read them to keep up to date with their field,1,2 and they are often used as a starting point for developing clinical practice guidelines. Granting agencies may require a systematic review to ensure there is justification for further research,3 and some health care journals are moving in this direction.4 As with all research, the value of a systematic review depends on what was done, what was found, and the clarity of reporting. As with other publications, the reporting quality of systematic reviews varies, limiting readers' ability to assess the strengths and weaknesses of those reviews. Several early studies evaluated the quality of review reports. In 1987, Mulrow examined 50 review articles published in 4 leading medical journals in 1985 and 1986 and found that none met all 8 explicit scientific criteria, such as a quality assessment of included studies.5 In 1987, Sacks and colleagues6 evaluated the adequacy of reporting of 83 meta-analyses on 23 characteristics in 6 domains. Reporting was generally poor; between 1 and 14 characteristics were adequately reported (mean = 7.7; standard deviation = 2.7). A 1996 update of this study found little improvement.7 In 1996, to address the suboptimal reporting of meta-analyses, an international group developed a guidance called the QUOROM Statement (QUality Of Reporting Of Meta-analyses), which focused on the reporting of meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials.8 In this article, we summarize a revision of these guidelines, renamed PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses), which have been updated to address several conceptual and practical advances in the science of systematic reviews (Box 1). Box 1 Conceptual issues in the evolution from QUOROM to PRISMA

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Topics: Systematic review (63%), Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (52%), Meta-analysis (51%) ... show more

42,533 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1136/BMJ.L4898
28 Aug 2019-BMJ
Abstract: Assessment of risk of bias is regarded as an essential component of a systematic review on the effects of an intervention. The most commonly used tool for randomised trials is the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. We updated the tool to respond to developments in understanding how bias arises in randomised trials, and to address user feedback on and limitations of the original tool.

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3,021 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1037/1082-989X.7.1.105
Scott B. Morris1, Richard P. DeShon2Institutions (2)
Abstract: When a meta-analysis on results from experimental studies is conducted, differences in the study design must be taken into consideration. A method for combining results across independent-groups and repeated measures designs is described, and the conditions under which such an analysis is appropriate are discussed. Combining results across designs requires that (a) all effect sizes be transformed into a common metric, (b) effect sizes from each design estimate the same treatment effect, and (c) meta-analysis procedures use design-specific estimates of sampling variance to reflect the precision of the effect size estimates.

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1,749 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/J.2044-8317.1988.TB00901.X
Betsy Jane Becker1Institutions (1)
Abstract: A new approach is presented for the meta-analysis of data from pre-test-post-test designs. With this approach, data from studies using different designs may be compared directly and studies without control groups need not be omitted. The approach is based on a ‘standardized mean-change’ measure, computed for each sample within a study, and involves analysis of the standardized mean changes and differences in the standardized mean changes. Analyses are illustrated using results of studies of the effectiveness of mental practice on motor-skill development.

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647 Citations


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No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
YearCitations
202112