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The transnationalization of environmental movements

01 Jan 2004-
TL;DR: In this article, the authors explore the factors and processes that contribute to the transnationalization of environmental movements from their origins in the global North to their increasing prevalence in the countries of the global South.
Abstract: This paper explores the factors and processes that contribute to the transnationalization of environmental movements from their origins in the global North to their increasing prevalence in the countries of the global South. It also considers the obstacles that confront transnationalization and their consequences. Its empirical starting point is a critical examination of the development of transantional environmentalism in the European Union, based upon surveys of organizations, interviews with activists, and scrutiny of newspaper reports. Developments in several key British environmental organizations are considered more closely as exemplars of processes and influences that are of wider significance. The character of transnational movement networks is considered, as is their relationship with environmental campaigns in both post-communist and newly industrializing countries in Europe and south-east Asia. Among the factors contributing to the transnationalizatin of environmental movements are changing patterns of opportunity associated with the development of international and transnational political institutions, and social changes of which the expansion of higher education and mass media, and increased ease of communication, are the most important. Nevertheless, the chief drivers to transnationalization of environmentalism, and to the expansion of its agenda to embrace global social justice, are developments substantially endogenous to the knowledge, belief and value systems of environmental movement organizations themselves.
Citations
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Dissertation
01 Sep 2012
TL;DR: A case study of the Feminist International Network of Resistance to Reproductive and Genetic Engineering (FINRRAGE) is presented in this paper, where the authors explore the processes by which the network pursued a project of creating an evidence-based position of resistance to the development of reproductive and genetic technologies through empirical research, publication and continuous negotiation between women from very different social contexts.
Abstract: Although questions about the production of knowledge are finally beginning to be asked within social movements studies, these tend to rely on a very vague definition of 'knowledge', obscuring activists' engagement with informal and formal research, as well as social forms of knowledge. This thesis employs an analytic framework in which social movements are theorised as producing a distinctive cognitive praxis, in order to examine the ways in which movements emerge, develop, and operationalise their knowledge in pursuit of their goals. In order to do this, I will create a contextualised case study of the Feminist International Network of Resistance to Reproductive and Genetic Engineering (FINRRAGE), examining the ways it sought to develop a knowledge project around new reproductive technologies and present itself as a network of credible knowers. Beginning as a reaction to a 1984 conference panel on new reproductive technology entitled 'Death of the Female', in its strongest phase (1984-1997) FINRRAGE comprised over a thousand women in thirty-seven countries. Although identified as an instance of radical opposition, its strategy relied upon knowledge generation, rather than protest. Employing a textual analysis of archival documents, published writings and lifecourse interviews with an international selection of twenty-four women, the thesis explores the processes by which the network pursued a project of creating an evidence-based position of resistance to the development of reproductive and genetic technologies through empirical research, publication, and continuous negotiation between women from very different social contexts. As such, the study also provides an opportunity to (re)consider feminist engagement with a specific area of technology over an historical period. It is hoped that the result will be a contribution to the academic literature on the development of collective knowledge and expertise for both social movements theory and science and technology studies, as well as to feminist history and theory.

21 citations

Dissertation
01 Jan 2015
TL;DR: In this paper, a statement of originality and a table of Table of Table 1 is presented, together with a Table of Tables of Table 2 and Table 3 of the abstracts.
Abstract: ................................................................................................................................................... i Statement of Originality ......................................................................................................................... iii Table of

17 citations


Cites background from "The transnationalization of environ..."

  • ...social movement and environmental literature and in practice, these narratives remain strong and relevant (della Porta & Diani, 2006; Doherty, Plows, & Wall, 2007; Potter, 2011; Rootes, 2004; Wapner, 2009)....

    [...]

  • ...Importantly, it has institutional and non-institutional elements (see for example Cotgrove & 13 Duff; Doyle, 2000; Liddick, 2006; Long, 2004; Rootes, 2004)....

    [...]

  • ...2.1 The Environmental Movement and the “Radical Fringe” As a social movement, the environmental movement is diverse and complex (see for example Brulle, 2000; Dowie, 1996; Doyle, 2000; Manes, 1990; Oelschlaeger, 1991; Rootes, 1999, 2004; Scarce, 1990; Taylor, 2010)....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a case study of a youth oriented-environmental NGO, Koalisi Pemuda Hijau Indonesia (KOPHI), which has experienced rapid growth in recent years in Indonesia, is presented.
Abstract: This article presents a case study of a youth oriented-environmental NGO, Koalisi Pemuda Hijau Indonesia (KOPHI), which has experienced rapid growth in recent years in Indonesia. As a network organization, KOPHI has been able to accommodate youth in many cities throughout Indonesia, especially in prompting university students to get involved in numerous environmental actions. Its main activity is environmental conservation that is able to involve children, youth and communities in a number of cities. In contrast to established environmental NGOs, KOPHI has also been able to develop a mechanism for self-financing, so that it is not dependent on foreign aid agencies. The capacity of KOPHI in implementing the three dimensions of the strategic triangle (value creation, support & legitimacy, and operational capacity) is a key to the success in the sustainable growth of the organization and in its role in conserving the environment in Indonesia.

7 citations


Cites background from "The transnationalization of environ..."

  • ...KOPHI’s activities are conservation oriented (Castells, 2010; Rootes, 2004)....

    [...]

Dissertation
01 Nov 2013
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present the findings of an in-depth qualitative study of corporate responses to stakeholder pressures in the context of Canada's oil sands, finding that corporations and their field level organisations respond relationally (attempting to build new relationships with stakeholder groups, or their own competitors) use existing social networks, mimic these relations through mass marketing communication channels and embed themselves more within local communities.
Abstract: This study presents the findings of an in-depth qualitative study of corporate responses to stakeholder pressures in the context of Canada’s oil sands. The study applies institutional theory and particularly, theory of organisational fields, strategic responses, institutional pressures and institutional work to examine interactions between stakeholders and oil companies. I argue that existing organisational theory often neglects to consider the tactics and mechanisms through which key stakeholder groups attempt to change, maintain or disrupt prevailing institutions. Furthermore, I argue that existing work in this area has failed to fully consider the potential significance of communities as powerful stakeholders. The study finds that the logics of protest used by social movement stakeholders to exert pressures differ from the logics and associated tactics currently suggested in the existing literature. More specifically, the findings indicate that the core logic used to pressure oil companies and the collective industry, are based on ‘bearing witness’. Another contribution that this study makes is to understand corporate responses to stakeholder pressures (specifically the public, non-government organisations, communities and through establishing an inter-organisational collaboration) at an individual and field level. This reveals that corporations and their field level organisations respond relationally (attempting to build new relationships with stakeholder groups, or their own competitors) use existing social networks, mimic these relations through mass marketing communication channels and embed themselves more within local communities. The responses used also aim to shape the external environment to make it more supportive in the future.

7 citations


Cites background from "The transnationalization of environ..."

  • ...Environmentalists may be more likely to be motivated by a post-material concern for environmental issues or climate change (Rootes, 2004)....

    [...]

  • ...They may also have different socio-economic backgrounds as community activists have typically been more likely to be poor, female and less educated than professional environmentalists (Rootes, 2004)....

    [...]

  • ...They foreground the issue of local people’s connections to the environment and demonstrate that their relationship to the natural environment is deeper than a ‘not in my backyard’ campaigner (Rootes, 2004)....

    [...]

  • ...Community, in this sense, is comparable to an interest group or social movement (Calvano, 2008; Rootes, 2004)....

    [...]

  • ...Local community groups, based in a particular area may be linked closely, loosely or not at all with national or international movements (Rootes 2004)....

    [...]

01 Jan 2015
TL;DR: A comprehensive literature-review-based overview of the current understanding of local food systems, including alternative definitions; estimates of market size and reach; descriptions of the characteristics of local consumers and producers; and an examination of early evidence on the economic and health impacts of such systems as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: This study provides a comprehensive literature-review-based overview of the current understanding of local food systems, including: alternative definitions; estimates of market size and reach; descriptions of the characteristics of local food consumers and producers; and an examination of early evidence on the economic and health impacts of such systems Iran has a long history of traditional markets in the towns and villages in the north, Some of which came from foreign tourists in the north of Iran were subject to local markets Considering that local markets have a long history in the Middle East, especially the Iranian cities and the economic transactions of an important cultural functions are also enjoys cultural transmission of rich and tangled that alone will cause cultural richness

6 citations


Cites background from "The transnationalization of environ..."

  • ...It is only when organizations (and other, usually less formally organized actors) are networked and engaged in collective action, whether or not it involves protest, that an environmental movement exists (Diani 1995; Rootes 2004)....

    [...]

References
More filters
Dissertation
01 Sep 2012
TL;DR: A case study of the Feminist International Network of Resistance to Reproductive and Genetic Engineering (FINRRAGE) is presented in this paper, where the authors explore the processes by which the network pursued a project of creating an evidence-based position of resistance to the development of reproductive and genetic technologies through empirical research, publication and continuous negotiation between women from very different social contexts.
Abstract: Although questions about the production of knowledge are finally beginning to be asked within social movements studies, these tend to rely on a very vague definition of 'knowledge', obscuring activists' engagement with informal and formal research, as well as social forms of knowledge. This thesis employs an analytic framework in which social movements are theorised as producing a distinctive cognitive praxis, in order to examine the ways in which movements emerge, develop, and operationalise their knowledge in pursuit of their goals. In order to do this, I will create a contextualised case study of the Feminist International Network of Resistance to Reproductive and Genetic Engineering (FINRRAGE), examining the ways it sought to develop a knowledge project around new reproductive technologies and present itself as a network of credible knowers. Beginning as a reaction to a 1984 conference panel on new reproductive technology entitled 'Death of the Female', in its strongest phase (1984-1997) FINRRAGE comprised over a thousand women in thirty-seven countries. Although identified as an instance of radical opposition, its strategy relied upon knowledge generation, rather than protest. Employing a textual analysis of archival documents, published writings and lifecourse interviews with an international selection of twenty-four women, the thesis explores the processes by which the network pursued a project of creating an evidence-based position of resistance to the development of reproductive and genetic technologies through empirical research, publication, and continuous negotiation between women from very different social contexts. As such, the study also provides an opportunity to (re)consider feminist engagement with a specific area of technology over an historical period. It is hoped that the result will be a contribution to the academic literature on the development of collective knowledge and expertise for both social movements theory and science and technology studies, as well as to feminist history and theory.

21 citations

Dissertation
01 Jan 2015
TL;DR: In this paper, a statement of originality and a table of Table of Table 1 is presented, together with a Table of Tables of Table 2 and Table 3 of the abstracts.
Abstract: ................................................................................................................................................... i Statement of Originality ......................................................................................................................... iii Table of

17 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: There is a high level of complexity in conflict between the ENGOs and APRIL, as well as in the Upper Lapland conflict, based on the differing perspectives of the situation, leading to the creation of a tool, ethical analysis, which may facilitate the resolution of conflicts of these types.
Abstract: Conflict over the utilisation of forest resources is ubiquitous, often as a result of clashing interests and values regarding their use. Though there are positive dimensions to these conflicts, they often result in the inefficient use of the resource on which many livelihoods and societies rely. Therefore, management of these conflicts is vital. A prominent feature of these conflicts are the roles played by environmental non-government organisations (ENGOs) campaigning against the operating practices of forestry industry. The main objective of this research is to analyse the various dimensions of conflicts between ENGOs and forestry related industries, culminating in the creation of a tool to facilitate resolution. The study achieves this through examining the impact of ENGO campaigns against the operating practices of Asia Pacific Resources International Holdings Ltd (APRIL), a pulp and paper company in Indonesia (paper I), and the roles of legitimacy in this arena (paper II). It also examines the motivations of ENGOs, with regards to campaigns against corporations (paper III). The final paper presents a tool for facilitating resolution of complex forest conflicts (paper IV) of which relationship between ENGOs and forest industry is a key part. The research was conducted in two stages, the first stage involved interviewing and questioning various stakeholders regarding the campaigns against APRIL in order to determine their impact as well as examine the roles of legitimacy. The second stage primarily involved over 40 ENGOs completing a questionnaire to determine how they define a successful campaign, in addition this stage also involved questioning various ENGO campaign leaders related to the APRIL campaigns, and interviewing leaders of ENGO campaigning against the Finnish Forest and Park Service, a State owned enterprise, related to its operation in Upper Lapland, Finland. The interviews and questionnaires, as well as analysis of published and unpublished documents from the various organisations showed that there is a high level of complexity in conflict between the ENGOs and APRIL, as well as in the Upper Lapland conflict, based on the differing perspectives of the situation which has foundations in the interests and values of the different parties. This complexity makes resolution of the conflict very difficult, leading to the creation of a tool, ethical analysis, which may facilitate the resolution of conflicts of these types. The findings of this research have theoretical and practical implications not least the ethical analysis tool for helping to resolve conflict, but also the need, for example, of ENGOs to take measures to protect their legitimacy.

17 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a case study of a youth oriented-environmental NGO, Koalisi Pemuda Hijau Indonesia (KOPHI), which has experienced rapid growth in recent years in Indonesia, is presented.
Abstract: This article presents a case study of a youth oriented-environmental NGO, Koalisi Pemuda Hijau Indonesia (KOPHI), which has experienced rapid growth in recent years in Indonesia. As a network organization, KOPHI has been able to accommodate youth in many cities throughout Indonesia, especially in prompting university students to get involved in numerous environmental actions. Its main activity is environmental conservation that is able to involve children, youth and communities in a number of cities. In contrast to established environmental NGOs, KOPHI has also been able to develop a mechanism for self-financing, so that it is not dependent on foreign aid agencies. The capacity of KOPHI in implementing the three dimensions of the strategic triangle (value creation, support & legitimacy, and operational capacity) is a key to the success in the sustainable growth of the organization and in its role in conserving the environment in Indonesia.

7 citations

Dissertation
01 Nov 2013
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present the findings of an in-depth qualitative study of corporate responses to stakeholder pressures in the context of Canada's oil sands, finding that corporations and their field level organisations respond relationally (attempting to build new relationships with stakeholder groups, or their own competitors) use existing social networks, mimic these relations through mass marketing communication channels and embed themselves more within local communities.
Abstract: This study presents the findings of an in-depth qualitative study of corporate responses to stakeholder pressures in the context of Canada’s oil sands. The study applies institutional theory and particularly, theory of organisational fields, strategic responses, institutional pressures and institutional work to examine interactions between stakeholders and oil companies. I argue that existing organisational theory often neglects to consider the tactics and mechanisms through which key stakeholder groups attempt to change, maintain or disrupt prevailing institutions. Furthermore, I argue that existing work in this area has failed to fully consider the potential significance of communities as powerful stakeholders. The study finds that the logics of protest used by social movement stakeholders to exert pressures differ from the logics and associated tactics currently suggested in the existing literature. More specifically, the findings indicate that the core logic used to pressure oil companies and the collective industry, are based on ‘bearing witness’. Another contribution that this study makes is to understand corporate responses to stakeholder pressures (specifically the public, non-government organisations, communities and through establishing an inter-organisational collaboration) at an individual and field level. This reveals that corporations and their field level organisations respond relationally (attempting to build new relationships with stakeholder groups, or their own competitors) use existing social networks, mimic these relations through mass marketing communication channels and embed themselves more within local communities. The responses used also aim to shape the external environment to make it more supportive in the future.

7 citations