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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/FEBS.15718

The ups and downs of growth hormone secretagogue receptor signaling

02 Mar 2021-FEBS Journal (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd)-
Abstract: The growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) has emerged as one of the most fascinating molecules from the perspective of neuroendocrine control. GHSR is mainly expressed in the pituitary and the brain, and plays key roles regulating not only growth hormone secretion but also food intake, adiposity, body weight, glucose homeostasis and other complex functions. Quite atypically, GHSR signaling displays a basal constitutive activity that can be up- or downregulated by two digestive system-derived hormones: the octanoylated-peptide ghrelin and the liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 (LEAP2), which was recently recognized as an endogenous GHSR ligand. The existence of two ligands with contrary actions indicates that GHSR activity can be tightly regulated and that the receptor displays the capability to integrate such opposing inputs in order to provide a balanced intracellular signal. This article provides a summary of the current understanding of the biology of ghrelin, LEAP2 and GHSR and discusses the reconceptualization of the cellular and physiological implications of the ligand-regulated GHSR signaling, based on the latest findings.

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Topics: Growth hormone secretagogue receptor (56%), Growth hormone secretion (56%), Ghrelin (54%) ... show more
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5 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.REPBRE.2021.07.004
Huan Zhong1, Yi Hu1, Fan Yu2Institutions (2)
01 Jun 2021-
Abstract: Ghrelin is a multifunctional peptide hormone which dominantly secreted in stomach and intestine. Ghrelin involves in growth control, food intake, energy balance, and reproductive process. Recent evidences suggested that ghrelin also interacts with hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis (HPG axis) and controls gametes maturation. In addition, current clues showed that via regulating ghrelin system (acyl ghrelin: des acyl ghrelin ratio, GOAT, GHS-R1a), glucose and weight could be regulated promising a potential way for artificial controlling of gonadal development and gamete maturation. The ghrelin signaling system may be a new target for reproductive operation in fish artificial propagation and breeding. This review summarizes the recent studies of the function of ghrelin in fish reproduction and the regulatory methods for ghrelin system.

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Topics: Ghrelin (71%)

2 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.MCE.2021.111449
Abstract: Ghrelin is a peptide hormone mainly secreted from gastrointestinal tract that acts via the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), which is highly expressed in the brain. Strikingly, the accessibility of ghrelin to the brain seems to be limited and restricted to few brain areas. Previous studies in mice have shown that ghrelin can access the brain via the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier, an interface constituted by the choroid plexus and the hypothalamic tanycytes. Here, we performed a variety of in vivo and in vitro studies to test the hypothesis that the transport of ghrelin across the blood-CSF barrier occurs in a GHSR-dependent manner. In vivo, we found that the uptake of systemically administered fluorescent ghrelin in the choroid plexus epithelial (CPE) cells and in hypothalamic tanycytes depends on the presence of GHSR. Also, we detected lower levels of CSF ghrelin after a systemic ghrelin injection in GHSR-deficient mice, as compared to WT mice. In vitro, the internalization of fluorescent ghrelin was reduced in explants of choroid plexus from GHSR-deficient mice, and unaffected in primary cultures of hypothalamic tanycytes derived from GHSR-deficient mice. Finally, we found that the GHSR mRNA is detected in a pool of CPE cells, but is nearly undetectable in hypothalamic tanycytes with current approaches. Thus, our results suggest that circulating ghrelin crosses the blood-CSF barrier mainly by a mechanism that involves the GHSR, and also possibly via a GHSR-independent mechanism.

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1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FPHAR.2021.712437
Abstract: The growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) signals in response to ghrelin, but also acts via ligand-independent mechanisms that include either constitutive activation or interaction with other G protein-coupled receptors, such as the dopamine 2 receptor (D2R). A key target of GHSR in neurons is voltage-gated calcium channels type 2.2 (CaV2.2). Recently, the liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 (LEAP2) was recognized as a novel GHSR ligand, but the mechanism of action of LEAP2 on GHSR is not well understood. Here, we investigated the role of LEAP2 on the canonical and non-canonical modes of action of GHSR on CaV2.2 function. Using a heterologous expression system and patch-clamp recordings, we found that LEAP2 impairs the reduction of CaV2.2 currents induced by ghrelin-evoked and constitutive GHSR activities, acting as a GHSR antagonist and inverse agonist, respectively. We also found that LEAP2 prevents GHSR from modulating the effects of D2R signaling on CaV2.2 currents, and that the GHSR-binding N-terminal region LEAP2 underlies these effects. Using purified labeled receptors assembled into lipid nanodiscs and Forster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) assessments, we found that the N-terminal region of LEAP2 stabilizes an inactive conformation of GHSR that is dissociated from Gq protein and, consequently, reverses the effect of GHSR on D2R-dependent Gi activation. Thus, our results provide critical molecular insights into the mechanism mediating LEAP2 modulation of GHSR.

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Topics: Growth hormone secretagogue receptor (53%), G protein-coupled receptor (52%), Receptor (51%) ... show more

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/FCP.12722
Abstract: Background The hormone ghrelin is the endogenous agonist of the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) termed growth-hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR). Ghrelin inhibits glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by activating pancreatic GHSR. Recently, Liver-Expressed Antimicrobial Peptide 2 (LEAP2) was recognized as an endogenous GHSR ligand that blocks ghrelin-induced actions. Nonetheless, the effect of LEAP2 on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic islets is unknown. Objectives We aimed at exploring the activity of LEAP2 on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Methods Islets of Langerhans isolated from rat pancreas were exposed to glucose in the presence or in the absence of LEAP2 and ghrelin and then insulin secretion was assayed. Results LEAP2 did not modulate glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. However, LEAP2 blocked the insulinostatic action of ghrelin. Conclusion Our data show that LEAP2 behaves as an antagonist of pancreatic GHSR.

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Topics: Ghrelin (61%), Pancreatic islets (61%), Secretagogue (52%) ... show more

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.MOLMET.2021.101327
Abstract: Objective The hormone liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide-2 (LEAP2) is a recently identified antagonist and an inverse agonist of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR). GHSR's other well-known endogenous ligand, acyl-ghrelin, increases food intake, body weight, and GH secretion and is lowered in obesity but elevated upon fasting. In contrast, LEAP2 reduces acyl-ghrelin-induced food intake and GH secretion and is found elevated in obesity but lowered upon fasting. Thus, the plasma LEAP2/acyl-ghrelin molar ratio could be a key determinant modulating GHSR signaling in response to changes in body mass and feeding status. In particular, LEAP2 may serve to dampen acyl-ghrelin action in the setting of obesity, which is associated with ghrelin resistance. Here, we sought to determine the metabolic effects of genetic LEAP2 deletion. Methods We generated the first known LEAP2-KO mouse line. Food intake, GH secretion, and cellular activation (c-fos induction) in different brain regions following s.c. acyl-ghrelin administration in LEAP2-KO mice and wild-type littermates were determined. LEAP2-KO mice and wild-type littermates were submitted to a battery of tests (such as measurements of body weight, food intake, and body composition; indirect calorimetry, determination of locomotor activity, and meal patterning while housed in metabolic cages) over the course of 16 weeks of high-fat diet and/or standard chow feeding. Fat accumulation was assessed in hematoxylin & eosin-stained and oil red O-stained liver sections from these mice. Results LEAP2-KO mice were more sensitive to s.c. ghrelin. In particular, acyl-ghrelin acutely stimulated food intake at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg BW in standard chow-fed LEAP2-KO mice while a 2× higher dose was required by wild-type littermates. Also, acyl-ghrelin stimulated food intake at a dose of 1 mg/kg BW in high-fat diet-fed LEAP2-KO mice while not even a 10× higher dose was effective in wild-type littermates. Acyl-ghrelin induced a 90.9% higher plasma GH level and 77.2–119.7% higher numbers of c-fos-immunoreactive cells in the arcuate nucleus and olfactory bulb, respectively, in LEAP2-KO mice than in wild-type littermates. LEAP2 deletion raised body weight (by 15.0%), food intake (by 18.4%), lean mass (by 6.1%), hepatic fat (by 42.1%), and body length (by 1.7%) in females on long-term high-fat diet as compared to wild-type littermates. After only 4 weeks on the high-fat diet, female LEAP2-KO mice exhibited lower O2 consumption (by 13%), heat production (by 9.5%), and locomotor activity (by 49%) than by wild-type littermates during the first part of the dark period. These genotype-dependent differences were not observed in high-fat diet-exposed males or female and male mice exposed for long term to standard chow diet. Conclusions LEAP2 deletion sensitizes lean and obese mice to the acute effects of administered acyl-ghrelin on food intake and GH secretion. LEAP2 deletion increases body weight in females chronically fed a high-fat diet as a result of lowered energy expenditure, reduced locomotor activity, and increased food intake. Furthermore, in female mice, LEAP2 deletion increases body length and exaggerates the hepatic fat accumulation normally associated with chronic high-fat diet feeding.

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References
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140 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/45230
09 Dec 1999-Nature
Abstract: Small synthetic molecules called growth-hormone secretagogues (GHSs) stimulate the release of growth hormone (GH) from the pituitary. They act through GHS-R, a G-protein-coupled receptor for which the ligand is unknown. Recent cloning of GHS-R strongly suggests that an endogenous ligand for the receptor does exist and that there is a mechanism for regulating GH release that is distinct from its regulation by hypothalamic growth-hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH). We now report the purification and identification in rat stomach of an endogenous ligand specific for GHS-R. The purified ligand is a peptide of 28 amino acids, in which the serine 3 residue is n-octanoylated. The acylated peptide specifically releases GH both in vivo and in vitro, and O-n-octanoylation at serine 3 is essential for the activity. We designate the GH-releasing peptide 'ghrelin' (ghre is the Proto-Indo-European root of the word 'grow'). Human ghrelin is homologous to rat ghrelin apart from two amino acids. The occurrence of ghrelin in both rat and human indicates that GH release from the pituitary may be regulated not only by hypothalamic GHRH, but also by ghrelin.

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Topics: Ghrelin secretion (76%), Ghrelin O-acyltransferase (70%), GHRP-6 (70%) ... show more

7,674 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/35038090
19 Oct 2000-Nature
Abstract: The discovery of the peptide hormone ghrelin, an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue (GHS) receptor, yielded the surprising result that the principal site of ghrelin synthesis is the stomach and not the hypothalamus Although ghrelin is likely to regulate pituitary growth hormone (GH) secretion along with GH-releasing hormone and somatostatin, GHS receptors have also been identified on hypothalamic neurons and in the brainstem Apart from potential paracrine effects, ghrelin may thus offer an endocrine link between stomach, hypothalamus and pituitary, suggesting an involvement in regulation of energy balance Here we show that peripheral daily administration of ghrelin caused weight gain by reducing fat utilization in mice and rats Intracerebroventricular administration of ghrelin generated a dose-dependent increase in food intake and body weight Rat serum ghrelin concentrations were increased by fasting and were reduced by re-feeding or oral glucose administration, but not by water ingestion We propose that ghrelin, in addition to its role in regulating GH secretion, signals the hypothalamus when an increase in metabolic efficiency is necessary

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Topics: Ghrelin secretion (84%), Ghrelin O-acyltransferase (79%), Ghrelin (75%) ... show more

3,771 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.2337/DIABETES.50.8.1714
01 Aug 2001-Diabetes
Abstract: The recently discovered orexigenic peptide ghrelin is produced primarily by the stomach and circulates in blood at levels that increase during prolonged fasting in rats. When administered to rodents at supraphysiological doses, ghrelin activates hypothalamic neuropeptide Y/agouti gene-related protein neurons and increases food intake and body weight. These findings suggest that ghrelin may participate in meal initiation. As a first step to investigate this hypothesis, we sought to determine whether circulating ghrelin levels are elevated before the consumption of individual meals in humans. Ghrelin, insulin, and leptin were measured by radioimmunoassay in plasma samples drawn 38 times throughout a 24-h period in 10 healthy subjects provided meals on a fixed schedule. Plasma ghrelin levels increased nearly twofold immediately before each meal and fell to trough levels within 1 h after eating, a pattern reciprocal to that of insulin. Intermeal ghrelin levels displayed a diurnal rhythm that was exactly in phase with that of leptin, with both hormones rising throughout the day to a zenith at 0100, then falling overnight to a nadir at 0900. Ghrelin levels sampled during the troughs before and after breakfast correlated strongly with 24-h integrated area under the curve values (r = 0.873 and 0.954, respectively), suggesting that these convenient, single measurements might serve as surrogates for 24-h profiles to estimate overall ghrelin levels. Circulating ghrelin also correlated positively with age (r = 0.701). The clear preprandial rise and postprandial fall in plasma ghrelin levels support the hypothesis that ghrelin plays a physiological role in meal initiation in humans.

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Topics: Ghrelin secretion (82%), Ghrelin O-acyltransferase (76%), Ghrelin (69%) ... show more

2,760 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1152/PHYSREV.00012.2004
Masayasu Kojima1, Kenji KangawaInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Small synthetic molecules called growth hormone secretagogues (GHSs) stimulate the release of growth hormone (GH) from the pituitary. They act through the GHS-R, a G protein-coupled receptor whose ligand has only been discovered recently. Using a reverse pharmacology paradigm with a stable cell line expressing GHS-R, we purified an endogenous ligand for GHS-R from rat stomach and named it "ghrelin," after a word root ("ghre") in Proto-Indo-European languages meaning "grow." Ghrelin is a peptide hormone in which the third amino acid, usually a serine but in some species a threonine, is modified by a fatty acid; this modification is essential for ghrelin's activity. The discovery of ghrelin indicates that the release of GH from the pituitary might be regulated not only by hypothalamic GH-releasing hormone, but also by ghrelin derived from the stomach. In addition, ghrelin stimulates appetite by acting on the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, a region known to control food intake. Ghrelin is orexigenic; it is secreted from the stomach and circulates in the bloodstream under fasting conditions, indicating that it transmits a hunger signal from the periphery to the central nervous system. Taking into account all these activities, ghrelin plays important roles for maintaining GH release and energy homeostasis in vertebrates.

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Topics: Ghrelin secretion (82%), Ghrelin O-acyltransferase (77%), Ghrelin (73%) ... show more

2,654 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1210/JCEM.86.12.8111
Alison M. Wren, L. J. Seal, Mark Cohen, Audrey E. Brynes1  +5 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Ghrelin is a recently identified endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor. It is synthesized predominantly in the stomach and found in the circulation of healthy humans. Ghrelin has been shown to promote increased food intake, weight gain and adiposity in rodents. The effect of ghrelin on appetite and food intake in man has not been determined. We investigated the effects of intravenous ghrelin (5.0 pmol/kg/min) or saline infusion on appetite and food intake in a randomised double-blind cross-over study in nine healthy volunteers. There was a clear-cut increase in energy consumed by every individual from a free-choice buffet (mean increase 28 ± 3.9%, p<0.001) during ghrelin compared with saline infusion. Visual analogue scores for appetite were greater during ghrelin compared to saline infusion. Ghrelin had no effect on gastric emptying as assessed by the paracetamol absorption test. Ghrelin is the first circulating hormone demonstrated to stimulate food intake in man. Endogenous ghr...

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Topics: Ghrelin secretion (81%), Ghrelin O-acyltransferase (74%), Ghrelin (71%) ... show more

2,387 Citations


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