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Journal ArticleDOI

The use of multivariate analysis of karyotypesto determine relationships between species of Opuntia (Cactaceae)

23 May 2000-Caryologia (Taylor & Francis Group)-Vol. 53, Iss: 2, pp 121-126
TL;DR: Somatic chromosomes were studied from roots from seven species and two varieties of the genus Opuntia collected from different localities in Eastern India, indicating a general similarity of the karyotypes.
Abstract: Somatic chromosomes were studied from roots from seven species and two varieties of the genus Opuntia collected from different localities in Eastern India. 2n = 22 chromosomes were observed in four, 2n = 44 in two and 2n = 55 chromosomes in one population. The total chromosome length is maximum in O. Ficus-indica (2n = 55) and minimum in O. microdasys var. lutea (2n = 22). The karyotypes show a similarity in basic number x = 11, except for the horticultural variety, O. monocantha variegata with 2n = 34. The chromosome sizes range from very small (0.97 mm) to medium (3.46 mm); the primary constriction varies from nearly submedian to median and the numbers of chromosomes with secondary constrictions are from four to six. Numerical analysis of data indicates a general similarity of the karyotypes, with O. Ficus-indica occupying a separate position.

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: C-DNA content and chromosome number separated Consolea species into two groups, which may correspond to two phylogenetic lineages or indicate that polyploidization occurred independently, with comparable effects on C- DNA content.
Abstract: Polyploidy, an important mechanism of plant evolution, was investigated in Consolea, an endemic Caribbean opuntioid genus represented by nine subdioecious species with very narrow distributions, including species classified as rare or threatened. Standard chromosome counting and flow cytometric analyses were used to determine chromosome numbers and ploidy of each taxon. Compared to the base number (x ¼ 11), the mitotic and meiotic counts indicated that there are seven hexaploid (2n ¼ 66) and two octoploid species (2n ¼88); no diploids were found. Histograms of intact nuclei confirmed that all species are polyploid, with C-DNA values ranging from 4.88–9.50 pg. The variation of DNA content was significantly higher for the octoploids than for the hexaploids. Male and female sexual morphs had similar DNA content, suggesting that there are no sex chromosomes. Cytomixis between cells and microsporocytes with no chromatin were observed. This provides a mechanism whereby gametes with variable chromosome numbers are produced, influencing reproduction and promoting speciation. In conclusion, C-DNA content and chromosome number separated Consolea species into two groups, which may correspond to two phylogenetic lineages or indicate that polyploidization occurred independently, with comparable effects on C-DNA content.

83 citations


Cites background from "The use of multivariate analysis of..."

  • ...…have also revealed interspecific variation in chromosome size, genome length, and chromosomes with satellites in several cactus species, e.g., Astrophytum Lemaire (Das et al., 2000a), Mammillaria Haworth (Briones et al., 2004), and Opuntia (Bandyopadhyay and Sharma, 2000; Palomino and Heras, 2001)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Karyotypes of the seven Pyrrhocactus species were studied for the first time with Feulgen staining and CMA/DAPI banding and revealed a pattern of homogeneous sized chromosomes with median and submedian centromeres is conserved in the genus.
Abstract: Karyotypes of the seven Pyrrhocactus species were studied for the first time with Feulgen staining and CMA/DAPI banding. All showed 2n = 22 (x = 11). The karyotypes were symmetrical with 9m + 2sm pairs, excepting P. catamarcensis with 8m + 2sm + 1st pairs. They had a terminal microsatellite on short arms of pair #1. Pyrrhocactus bulbocalyx possessed a second satellited pair (#2) exclusively detected with Feulgen. Increasing asymmetry was associated with a decline in karyotype size. Fluorochrome banding, applied for the first time in Cactaceae, revealed that nucleolar chromosome pair #1 had one CMA+/DAPI− terminal band in all species related to the nucleolar organizing region; additional pericentromeric bands were found. A pattern of homogeneous sized chromosomes with median and submedian centromeres is conserved in the genus. However, karyotypes can be distinguished by a combination of cytogenetic features. Species diversification in Pyrrhocactus has not been associated with large chromosome rearrangements or polyploidy, but with cumulative small and cryptic structural changes.

31 citations


Cites background or methods from "The use of multivariate analysis of..."

  • ...The presence of NORs attached to the short arms of one (or two) long m pair, as documented here, is common in Cactaceae when traditional stains are used (Cota and Wallace 1995, Palomino et al. 1999, Bandyopadhyay and Sharma 2000, Das and Mohanty 2006)....

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  • ...In Cactaceae, the majority of cytological studies only provide chromosome counts, which show that its basic chromosome number is x = 11 (e.g. Ross 1981, Pinkava et al. 1985, 1992, Parfitt 1987, Cota and Philbrick 1994, Cota and Wallace 1995, Bandyopadhyay and Sharma 2000, Powell and Weedin 2001)....

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  • ...Effectively, the largest chromosomes reached 4.5 lm (in Echinocereus: Cota and Wallace 1995) and the smallest ca. 1.5 lm (in Mammilaria, Echinopsis, and Opuntia, among other genera; Pinkava et al. 1977, Bandyopadhyay and Sharma 2000, Das et al. 2000)....

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  • ...…have been helpful in addressing systematic and evolutionary problems in many angiosperm families (e.g. Bernardello et al. 1994, Shan et al. 2003, Weiss-Schneeweiss et al. 2003), including Cactaceae (Palomino et al. 1988, Cota and Wallace 1995, Bandyopadhyay and Sharma 2000, Das and Mohanty 2006)....

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  • ...Pyrrhocactus species had small chromosomes, as it is the rule in Cactaceae (e.g. Cota and Philbrick 1994, Cota and Wallace 1995, Bandyopadhyay and Sharma 2000, Das et al. 2000)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results presented here support the hypothesis about the existence of a smaller number of Opuntia species in accordance with those currently described, but with high intraspecific genetic variation.
Abstract: Opuntia, commonly named “nopal” in Mexico, is an important crop for its agronomical, economical, ecological and cultural value. Furthermore, it is known for its taxonomic complexity. In this paper, we report the genetic variability of 52 Opuntia cultivars with agronomic and economic importance, classified into 12 different species using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) markers. Ten primers, five for each marker type, were selected to assess their ability to detect polymorphisms in this plant accesions/varieties. Both marker systems generated a total of 307 bands, of which 50.8 % were polymorphic with an average of 15.6 polymorphic bands per primer. Thus, we assume that Mexican Opuntia varieties present broad genetic variation. Based on percentage of polymorphic bands; resolving power; polymorphic information content; and Marker Index, the K-12 (RAPD) and IS-06 (ISSR) primers were the most informative ones. Clusters obtained from RAPD, ISSR and a combination of both data sets did not match the actual taxonomic classification. On the other hand, the putative varieties currently classified in the same species were not located in the same cluster. Besides, the varieties included in O. ficus-indica, O. albicarpa and O. megacantha showed broad variation but were not well defined into separate clades; these cultivars possibly have common ancestry. The results presented here support our hypothesis about the existence of a smaller number of Opuntia species in accordance with those currently described, but with high intraspecific genetic variation.

30 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In Cactaceae, the 18S-26S loci seem to be highly conserved, and NOR-bearing pair no.1 may be homeologous in all species examined.
Abstract: Karyotype analyses in members of the four Cactaceae subfamilies were performed. Numbers and karyotype formula obtained were: Pereskioideae = Pereskiaaculeata(2n = 22; 10 m + 1 sm), Maihuenioideae = Maihuenia patagonica (2n = 22, 9 m + 2 sm; 2n = 44, 18 m + 4 sm), Opuntioideae = Cumulopuntia recurvata(2n = 44; 20 m + 2 sm), Cactoideae = Acanthocalycium spiniflorum (2n = 22; 10 m + 1 sm),Echinopsis tubiflora (2n = 22; 10 m + 1 sm), Trichocereus candicans (2n = 22, 22 m). Chromosomes were small, the average chromosome length was 2.3 mum. Diploid species and the tetraploid C. recurvata had one terminal satellite, whereas the remaining tetraploid species showed four satellited chromosomes. Karyotypes were symmetrical. No CMA(-)/DAPI(+) bands were detected, but CMA(+)/DAPI(-) bands associated with NOR were always found. Pericentromeric heterochromatin was found in C. recurvata, A. spiniflorum, and the tetraploid cytotype of M. patagonica. The locations of the 18S-26S rDNA sites in all species coincided with CMA(+)/DAPI(-) bands; the same occurred with the sizes and numbers of signals for each species. This technique was applied for the first time in metaphase chromosomes in cacti. NOR-bearing pair no.1 may be homeologous in all species examined. In Cactaceae, the 18S-26S loci seem to be highly conserved.

27 citations


Cites background or result from "The use of multivariate analysis of..."

  • ...The majority of cytological studies in cacti only provide chromosome counts, making clear that their basic chromosome number is x = 11 (e.g., Ross, 1981; Pinkava et al., 1985; Parfitt, 1987; Cota and Philbrick, 1994; Cota and Wallace, 1995; Bandyopadhyay and Sharma, 2000; Arakaki et al., 2007)....

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  • ...…was found, the taxa here studied and previous data show that Cactaceae has symmetrical karyotypes mostly composed of m and sm chromosomes (e.g., Pinkava et al., 1985, 1992; Parfitt, 1987; Cota and Wallace, 1995; Bandyopadhyay and Sharma, 2000; Das and Mohanty, 2006; Las Peñas et al., 2008)....

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  • ...The basic chromosome number for the family is x = 11 (e.g., Pinkava et al., 1977, 1985, 1992; Parfitt, 1987; Cota and Wallace, 1995; Bandyopadhyay and Sharma, 2000; Das and Mohanty, 2006)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This research attacked the mode of action of determinants of disease by studying the response of the immune system toAgentes Exactas Fisicas y Naturales, a substance which damages the immune systems of animals.

23 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 1973
TL;DR: In this paper, a six-step framework for organizing and discussing multivariate data analysis techniques with flowcharts for each is presented, focusing on the use of each technique, rather than its mathematical derivation.
Abstract: Offers an applications-oriented approach to multivariate data analysis, focusing on the use of each technique, rather than its mathematical derivation. The text introduces a six-step framework for organizing and discussing techniques with flowcharts for each. Well-suited for the non-statistician, this applications-oriented introduction to multivariate analysis focuses on the fundamental concepts that affect the use of specific techniques rather than the mathematical derivation of the technique. Provides an overview of several techniques and approaches that are available to analysts today - e.g., data warehousing and data mining, neural networks and resampling/bootstrapping. Chapters are organized to provide a practical, logical progression of the phases of analysis and to group similar types of techniques applicable to most situations. Table of Contents 1. Introduction. I. PREPARING FOR A MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS. 2. Examining Your Data. 3. Factor Analysis. II. DEPENDENCE TECHNIQUES. 4. Multiple Regression. 5. Multiple Discriminant Analysis and Logistic Regression. 6. Multivariate Analysis of Variance. 7. Conjoint Analysis. 8. Canonical Correlation Analysis. III. INTERDEPENDENCE TECHNIQUES. 9. Cluster Analysis. 10. Multidimensional Scaling. IV. ADVANCED AND EMERGING TECHNIQUES. 11. Structural Equation Modeling. 12. Emerging Techniques in Multivariate Analysis. Appendix A: Applications of Multivariate Data Analysis. Index.

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a survey of eudicots: sapindales, cucurbitales, myrtaceae, and myrithaceae. And they propose a new genus named myrtium.
Abstract: Perp. punya vol. X. Flowering plant, eudicots : sapindales, cucurbitales, myrtaceae. Perp.punya: 1eks.

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"The use of multivariate analysis of..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...For A2, the formula A2 = S/x is used where A2 is the interchromosomal index, S is the standard deviation of chromosome length for each sample and x is the mean chromosome length for each sample (STEBBINS 1971; ROMERO ZARCO 1984)....

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  • ...the mean chromosome length for each sample (STEBBINS 1971; ROMERO ZARCO 1984)....

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01 Jan 1975
TL;DR: An introduction to numerical classification is presented to help students and teachers better understand the concept of classification.
Abstract: An introduction to numerical classification , An introduction to numerical classification , مرکز فناوری اطلاعات و اطلاع رسانی کشاورزی

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"The use of multivariate analysis of..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...Statistical analysis It was performed by unweighted pair group method using arithmetic average, UPGMA (CLIFFORD and STEPHENSON 1975; SEBER 1984; DAVIES 1985; SNEATH and SOKAL 1986; HAIR et al 1990)....

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  • ...The phenogram of UPGMA clustering of Opuntia studied is given in Figure 3....

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  • ...UPGMA cluster analysis was performed on karyotypic features in order to identify species interrelationships....

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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Aug 1986-Taxon
TL;DR: Two numerical parameters are used to estimate the karyotype asymmetry in twenty-two taxa of the tribe Aveneae (Gramineae) from the Iberian Peninsula and Baleares and when karyograms or idiograms are available.
Abstract: Summary Two numerical parameters are used to estimate the karyotype asymmetry in twenty-two taxa of the tribe Aveneae (Gramineae) from the Iberian Peninsula and Baleares. The new method is useful when there are only slight differences in karyotype asymmetry and when karyograms or idiograms are available.

675 citations