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Journal ArticleDOI

Theoretical analysis of tapered pistons in high speed hydraulic actuators

01 May 1990-Wear (Elsevier)-Vol. 137, Iss: 2, pp 299-321
TL;DR: In this article, an attempt is made to analyse systematically the three types of profiles commonly considered for high speed actuators, using Reynolds' differential equation, and analyses are made using an analytical method for one-dimensional flow and using the finite element method for twodimensional flow.
Abstract: In a high speed hydraulic actuator the usage of seals on the piston surface causes excessive wear on the seals and positional inaccuracies owing to coulomb friction. Hence sealless pistons with sloping surfaces have been tried by some manufacturers of such actuators. Here an attempt is made to analyse systematically the three types of profiles commonly considered for high speed actuators, using Reynolds' differential equation. Analyses are made using an analytical method for one-dimensional flow and using the finite element method for two-dimensional flow. The analyses reveal that single tapered pistons have certain limitations and that double tapered pistons can function successfully under different conditions in hydraulic actuators. It is also shown that friction in these types of pistons is much less than in conventional pistons with seals.
Citations
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TL;DR: In this article, the Stribeck region of the friction-velocity curve is avoided and the axial friction opposing the piston movement is approximately linearized by rotating the piston and rod.
Abstract: The stick-slip friction phenomenon is observed near zero relative velocity, during the transition from static to dynamic friction, when static friction is greater than dynamic friction. This nonlinear change in friction force over a small change in velocity results in difficulties in achieving accurate and repeatable position control. In some cases, the actuator position controller reaches a limit cycle (hunting effect). Friction compensation at low speeds has traditionally been approached through various control techniques. This paper proposes an alternative solution, namely, friction avoidance. By rotating the piston and rod, the Stribeck region of the friction-velocity curve is avoided and the axial friction opposing the piston movement is approximately linearized. Simulation and experimental results are presented to validate this approach.

82 citations


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TL;DR: In this paper, an integrated torque model for a swash-plate-type seawater hydraulic axial piston motor with symmetrical precompression angles has been developed, which consists of a torque submodel and a dynamic pressure sub-model.
Abstract: Seawater hydraulic axial piston motor is an important and elemental component in underwater tool system. The torque characteristics for a swash-plate-type seawater hydraulic axial piston motor is investigated, and an integrated torque model for the motor with symmetrical pre-compression angles has been developed, which consists of a torque sub-model and a dynamic pressure sub-model. Numerical simulations have been carried out to examine the effects of (a) pre-compression angle, (b) relief-groove obliquity, (c) motor speed, (d) piston chamber dead volume, (e) friction on the dynamic pressure and the output torque characteristics. The results indicate that the pre-compression angle, the friction coefficient, and the clearance between cylinder bore/piston have significant impact on the torque characteristics. The test verification has been undertaken with a five piston water hydraulic motor. This research contributes to the mechanism of output-torque fluctuation in a swash-plate-type seawater hydraulic axial piston motor, as well as the investigation of the torque transition phenomenon owing to the pre-compression angle. The research has laid the foundation for the development and improvement of the seawater hydraulic axial piston motor in underwater tool system.

20 citations

Journal ArticleDOI

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TL;DR: In this article, the effect of machining imperfections like out-of-roundness and taper in the piston on the mechanical and volumetric efficiency of the motor, in the speed range where the viscous friction is dominant, is studied.
Abstract: Axial piston motors rely on a close fit of piston to bore to minimise leakage past the piston due to axial pressure drop. Machining imperfections in the cylinder bore and the piston change the clearance between them, affecting the performance of the motor. The effect of machining imperfections like out-of-roundness and taper in the piston on the mechanical and volumetric efficiency of the motor, in the speed range where the viscous friction is dominant, are studied. Experiments to measure torque and leakage flow are conducted on a fixed displacement swash plate type axial piston hydraulic motor and results are presented.

16 citations

Journal ArticleDOI

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TL;DR: In this paper, a 3D surface modelling approach is presented using random process modelling as the basis to model the grinding and honing processes which are commonly employed for the manufacture of the hydraulic assemblies.
Abstract: Friction in servo hydraulic assemblies reduces the response characteristics of the system. The friction is influenced by various factors including the geometry (form and surface errors) of the sliding surfaces. In this work, functionally significant 3D surface parameters from the Birmingham parameters are investigated for reduced friction. A 3D surface modelling approach is presented using random process modelling as the basis. An exponential decay areal autocorrelation function is used to model the grinding and honing processes which are commonly employed for the manufacture of the hydraulic assemblies. Honed surface is modelled with the crosshatches of appropriate angle. Method of surface modelling is validated using the data obtained through measurements on a practical surface. Different surface maps with varying surface parameters of the ground and honed surfaces are generated. The fluid continuum gap geometries of the hydraulic assemblies are modelled using these surface maps as envelopes. Pressure distribution, velocity and viscous friction force are used as measurands of the frictional characteristics. Using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach, these measurands are evaluated for different functionally significant Birmingham parameters. Based on further analysis, negative skewness, lower kurtosis values, higher valley fluid retention index were found to have lower frictional characteristics.

13 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a test rig is designed and fabricated to measure the piston eccentricity and friction in a dynamic condition, and cylinders of defined geometric profiles such as elliptic and three-lobe are fabricated using a machining center.
Abstract: Geometrical imperfections on pistons cause an asymmetric pressure distribution in the clearance between the piston and cylinder bore. Due to this, the piston attains different eccentricity positions during a stroke. The eccentricity of the piston affects the performance of the cylinder by influencing the frictional and leakage aspects. A compact mechatronic test rig is designed and fabricated to measure the piston eccentricity and friction in a dynamic condition. Pistons of defined geometric profiles such as elliptic and three-lobe are fabricated using a machining center. These pistons have been introduced into the test rig. The eccentricity and dynamic friction tests are conducted at various operating conditions and the results are presented and analysed.

13 citations

References
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Book

[...]

01 Jan 1975
TL;DR: The Finite Element Method as discussed by the authors is a method to meet the Finite Elements Method of Linear Elasticity Theory (LETI) and is used in many of the problems of mesh generation.
Abstract: PART I. Meet the Finite Element Method. The Direct Approach: A Physical Interpretation. The Mathematical Approach: A Variational Interpretation. The Mathematical Approach: A Generalized Interpretation. Elements and Interpolation Functions. PART II. Elasticity Problems. General Field Problems. Heat Transfer Problems. Fluid Mechanics Problems. Boundary Conditions, Mesh Generation, and Other Practical Considerations. Appendix A: Matrices. Appendix B: Variational Calculus. Appendix C: Basic Equations from Linear Elasticity Theory. Appendix D: Basic Equations from Fluid Mechanics. Appendix E: Basic Equations from Heat Transfer. References. Index.

1,478 citations

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19 citations