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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/LIFE11030197

Therapeutic Potential of EGCG, a Green Tea Polyphenol, for Treatment of Coronavirus Diseases.

04 Mar 2021-Life (MDPI AG)-Vol. 11, Iss: 3, pp 197
Abstract: Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a major catechin found in green tea, and there is mounting evidence that EGCG is potentially useful for the treatment of coronavirus diseases, including coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Coronaviruses encode polyproteins that are cleaved by 3CL protease (the main protease) for maturation. Therefore, 3CL protease is regarded as the main target of antivirals against coronaviruses. EGCG is a major constituent of brewed green tea, and several studies have reported that EGCG inhibits the enzymatic activity of the coronavirus 3CL protease. Moreover, EGCG has been reported to regulate other potential targets, such as RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and the viral spike protein. Finally, recent studies have demonstrated that EGCG treatment interferes with the replication of coronavirus. In addition, the bioavailability of EGCG and future research prospects are discussed.

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Topics: Coronavirus (58%), Epigallocatechin gallate (54%)
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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.BIOCHI.2021.08.003
10 Aug 2021-Biochimie
Abstract: In the search for anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs, much attention is given to safe and widely available native compounds. The green tea component epigallocatechin 3 gallate (EGCG) is particularly promising because it reportedly inhibits viral replication and viral entry in vitro. However, conclusive evidence for its predominant activity is needed. We tested EGCG effects on the native virus isolated from COVID-19 patients in two independent series of experiments using VERO cells and two different treatment schemes in each series. The results confirmed modest cytotoxicity of EGCG and its substantial antiviral activity. The preincubation scheme aimed at infection prevention has proven particularly beneficial. We complemented that finding with a detailed investigation of EGCG interactions with viral S-protein subunits, including S2, RBD, and the RBD mutant harboring the N501Y mutation. Molecular modeling experiments revealed N501Y-specific stacking interactions in the RBD-ACE2 complex and provided insight into EGCG interference with the complex formation. Together, these findings provide a molecular basis for the observed EGCG effects and reinforce its prospects in COVID-19 prevention therapy.

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Topics: Viral entry (51%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/NU13093024
Daisuke Furushima1, Yu Otake1, Natsumi Koike2, Shintaro Onishi2  +3 moreInstitutions (2)
29 Aug 2021-Nutrients
Abstract: Green tea catechin ingestion or gargling exhibit anti-viral activity against upper respiratory infection. We hypothesized that retention in the oral cavity could improve the anti-viral effects of catechins. The present study investigated the oral retention of catechins in humans and the effect of catechin beverage viscosity on oral retention. Two intervention studies with different test beverages, beverage-C (40 mL, containing 73.4 mg of catechins) and beverage-XT (40 mL, beverage-C containing 100 mg xanthan gum) were conducted in 20 healthy volunteers (mean age 38.7 years). Catechin concentrations were measured in buccal mucosa samples collected at 10 min, 40 min, and 60 min after ingesting test beverages, and the catechin variability of the tissue after intake was compared between test beverages. As a result, the mean (SEM) concentrations of EGCG were 99.9 (27.2), 58.2 (16.6), and 22.3 (5.7) ng/mg-mucosa at 10, 40, and 60 min, respectively, after ingestion of beverage-XT. Similarly, the catechin concentrations were 86.1 (20.3), 32.2 (5.3), and 27.8 (5.9) ng/mg-mucosa after ingestion of beverage-C. The total retention volume over 60 min tended to be slightly higher after ingestion of beverage-XT, though the difference was not statistically significant. Additional studies are needed to confirm the effect of xanthan gum on improving oral retention of catechins.

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Topics: Respiratory infection (52%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S314666
Abstract: Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic is currently ongoing worldwide and causes a lot of deaths in many countries. Although different vaccines for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection have been developed and are now available, there are no effective antiviral drugs to treat the disease, except for Remdesivir authorized by the US FDA to counteract the emergency. Thus, it can be useful to find alternative therapies based on the employment of natural compounds, with antiviral features, to circumvent SARS-CoV-2 infection. Pre-clinical studies highlighted the antiviral activities of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a catechin primarily found in green tea, against various viruses, including SARS-CoV-2. In this review, we summarize this experimental evidence and highlight the potential use of EGCG as an alternative therapeutic choice for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

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Topics: Coronavirus (58%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/ACS.JCIM.1C00951
Abstract: SARS-CoV-2 is a type of coronavirus responsible for the international outbreak of respiratory illness termed COVID-19 that forced the World Health Organization to declare a pandemic infectious disease situation of international concern at the beginning of 2020. The need for a swift response against COVID-19 prompted to consider different sources to identify bioactive compounds that can be used as therapeutic agents, including available drugs and natural products. Accordingly, this work reports the results of a virtual screening process aimed at identifying antiviral natural product inhibitors of the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro viral protease. For this purpose, ca. 2000 compounds of the Selleck database of Natural Compounds were the subject of an ensemble docking process targeting the Mpro protease. Molecules that showed binding to most of the protein conformations were retained for a further step that involved the computation of the binding free energy of the ligand-Mpro complex along a molecular dynamics trajectory. The compounds that showed a smooth binding free energy behavior were selected for in vitro testing. From the resulting set of compounds, five compounds exhibited an antiviral profile, and they are disclosed in the present work.

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Topics: Virtual screening (52%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/IJMS222212385
Abstract: The worldwide outbreak of COVID-19 was caused by a pathogenic virus called Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Therapies against SARS-CoV-2 target the virus or human cells or the immune system. However, therapies based on specific antibodies, such as vaccines and monoclonal antibodies, may become inefficient enough when the virus changes its antigenicity due to mutations. Polyphenols are the major class of bioactive compounds in nature, exerting diverse health effects based on their direct antioxidant activity and their effects in the modulation of intracellular signaling. There are currently numerous clinical trials investigating the effects of polyphenols in prophylaxis and the treatment of COVID-19, from symptomatic, via moderate and severe COVID-19 treatment, to anti-fibrotic treatment in discharged COVID-19 patients. Antiviral activities of polyphenols and their impact on immune system modulation could serve as a solid basis for developing polyphenol-based natural approaches for preventing and treating COVID-19.

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69 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA2001282
Bin Cao1, Yeming Wang1, Danning Wen2, Wen Liu2  +61 moreInstitutions (7)
Abstract: Background No therapeutics have yet been proven effective for the treatment of severe illness caused by SARS-CoV-2. Methods We conducted a randomized, controlled, open-label trial involvin...

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Topics: Lopinavir/ritonavir (63%), Lopinavir (60%), Randomized controlled trial (53%) ... show more

3,577 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA2007764
John H. Beigel1, Kay M. Tomashek1, Lori E. Dodd1, Aneesh K. Mehta1  +36 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Background Although several therapeutic agents have been evaluated for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), none have yet been shown to be efficacious. Methods We conducte...

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3,423 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41591-020-0820-9
01 Apr 2020-Nature Medicine
Abstract: SARS-CoV-2 is the seventh coronavirus known to infect humans; SARSCoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 can cause severe disease, whereas HKU1, NL63, OC43 and 229E are associated with mild symptoms6. Here we review what can be deduced about the origin of SARS-CoV-2 from comparative analysis of genomic data. We offer a perspective on the notable features of the SARS-CoV-2 genome and discuss scenarios by which they could have arisen. Our analyses clearly show that SARS-CoV-2 is not a laboratory construct or a purposefully manipulated virus.

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2,880 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1053/J.GASTRO.2020.02.055
Fei Xiao1, Meiwen Tang1, Xiaobin Zheng1, Ye Liu1  +2 moreInstitutions (1)
03 Mar 2020-Gastroenterology
Abstract: No abstract available Keywords: ACE2; Gastrointestinal Infection; Oral-Fecal Transmission; SARS-CoV-2.

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1,659 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.ABB3405
Linlin Zhang1, Daizong Lin1, Xinyuanyuan Sun1, Ute Curth2  +5 moreInstitutions (4)
20 Mar 2020-Science
Abstract: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a global health emergency. An attractive drug target among coronaviruses is the main protease (Mpro, also called 3CLpro) because of its essential role in processing the polyproteins that are translated from the viral RNA. We report the x-ray structures of the unliganded SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and its complex with an α-ketoamide inhibitor. This was derived from a previously designed inhibitor but with the P3-P2 amide bond incorporated into a pyridone ring to enhance the half-life of the compound in plasma. On the basis of the unliganded structure, we developed the lead compound into a potent inhibitor of the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro The pharmacokinetic characterization of the optimized inhibitor reveals a pronounced lung tropism and suitability for administration by the inhalative route.

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Topics: Antagonists & inhibitors (51%)

1,509 Citations