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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/MOLECULES26051417

Therapeutic Targeting of the NRF2 Signaling Pathway in Cancer.

05 Mar 2021-Molecules (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute)-Vol. 26, Iss: 5, pp 1417
Abstract: Cancer is one of the most fatal diseases with an increasing incidence and mortality all over the world. Thus, there is an urgent need for novel therapies targeting major cancer-related pathways. Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) and its major negative modulator Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (KEAP1) are main players of the cellular defense mechanisms against internal and external cell stressors. However, NRF2/KEAP1 signaling pathway is dysregulated in various cancers, thus promoting tumor cell survival and metastasis. In the present review, we discuss the mechanisms of normal and deregulated NRF2 signaling pathway focusing on its cancer-related functions. We further explore activators and inhibitors of this pathway as cancer targeting drug candidates in order to provide an extensive background on the subject.

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Topics: Cancer (51%)
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7 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FNCEL.2021.785057
Bianca Seminotti1, Mateus Grings1, Paolo Tucci2, Guilhian Leipnitz1  +1 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: Inherited metabolic disorders (IMDs) are rare genetic conditions that affect multiple organs, predominantly the central nervous system. Since treatment for a large number of IMDs is limited, there is an urgent need to find novel therapeutical targets. Nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that has a key role in controlling the intracellular redox environment by regulating the expression of antioxidant enzymes and several important genes related to redox homeostasis. Considering that oxidative stress along with antioxidant system alterations is a mechanism involved in the neuropathophysiology of many IMDs, this review focuses on the current knowledge about Nrf2 signaling dysregulation observed in this group of disorders characterized by neurological dysfunction. We review here Nrf2 signaling alterations observed in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, glutaric acidemia type I, hyperhomocysteinemia and Friedreich’s ataxia. Additionally, beneficial effects of different Nrf2 activators are shown, identifying a promising target for treatment of patients with these disorders. We expect that this article stimulates research into the investigation of Nrf2 pathway involvement in IMDs and the use of potential pharmacological modulators of this transcription factor to counteract oxidative stress and exert neuroprotection.

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Topics: Neuroprotection (52%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41416-021-01642-0
Nuria Camiña1, Trevor M. Penning1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Electrophilic and oxidative stress is caused when homeostatic mechanisms are disrupted. A major defense mechanism involves the activation of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) transcription factor encoded by the NFE2L2 gene, which can accelerate the detoxification of electrophilic carcinogens and prevent cancer and on the other hand in certain exposure contexts may exacerbate the carcinogenic process. NRF2-target genes activated under these conditions can be used as biomarkers of stress signalling, while activation of NRF2 can also reveal the epigenetic mechanisms that modulate NFE2L2 expression. Epigenetic mechanisms that regulate NFE2L2 and the gene for its adaptor protein KEAP1 include DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNA. Understanding the activation of the NRF2-KEAP1 signalling pathway in human lung cancer, its epigenetic regulation and its role in oncogenesis is the subject of this review.

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Topics: Epigenetics (56%), Carcinogenesis (55%), DNA methylation (53%) ... read more

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.LFS.2021.119791
Liangkai Cheng, Huihui Wang1, Shehan Li1, Zhongqiu Liu1  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
03 Jul 2021-Life Sciences
Abstract: Aims Keap1-Nrf2 signaling pathway is one of the most important antioxidant signaling pathways, and its abnormal activation is related to cancer metastasis and drug resistance. Many studies have shown Keap1 and Nrf2 mutations are closely associated with cancer occurrence. However, few studies focus on Keap1-Nrf2 binding characteristics of cancer-associated mutations. The study investigated the molecular mechanism between Keap1/Nrf2 mutations and cancer. Main methods We have determined the crystal structure of the Keap1-Kelch domain with Nrf2 25-mer peptide. What's more, we clarified the molecular effects of Nrf2Thr80 and Nrf2Pro85 on the binding of Keap1 by the method isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF) and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Especially, we confirmed the effect of Thr80 and Pro85 mutations on Keap1/Nrf2 signaling pathway in HEK293T cells by RT-PCR and western blot (WB). Finally, we verified the effect of six cancer-related high-frequency somatic mutations Keap1G364C, Keap1D422N, Keap1R470C, Keap1G480W, Keap1E493Q and Keap1R601L on binding with Nrf2 through ITC experiments. Key findings Nrf2Thr80 and Nrf2Pro85 play a vital role in the Keap1-Nrf2 interaction. Mutant or modification at position Thr80 will disrupt the interaction. Especially, Nrf2Thr80 and Nrf2Pro85 mutations activate the expression of cytoprotective genes in HEK293T cells. As for Keap1, except G364C, the binding affinity of other cancer-related mutants to Nrf2 hardly changed, which means that Keap1 mutants can activate Nrf2 without disrupting the binding to Nrf2. Significance The study provides new insight into Keap1/Nrf2 signaling pathway and cancer.

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Topics: Mutation (56%), Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (54%), Mutant (51%) ... read more

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/S12859-021-04147-Y
06 May 2021-BMC Bioinformatics
Abstract: Genes implicated in tumorigenesis often exhibit diverse sets of genomic variants in the tumor cohorts within which they are frequently mutated. For many genes, neither the transcriptomic effects of these variants nor their relationship to one another in cancer processes have been well-characterized. We sought to identify the downstream expression effects of these mutations and to determine whether this heterogeneity at the genomic level is reflected in a corresponding heterogeneity at the transcriptomic level. By applying a novel hierarchical framework for organizing the mutations present in a cohort along with machine learning pipelines trained on samples’ expression profiles we systematically interrogated the signatures associated with combinations of mutations recurrent in cancer. This allowed us to catalogue the mutations with discernible downstream expression effects across a number of tumor cohorts as well as to uncover and characterize over a hundred cases where subsets of a gene’s mutations are clearly divergent in their function from the remaining mutations of the gene. These findings successfully replicated across a number of disease contexts and were found to have clear implications for the delineation of cancer processes and for clinical decisions. The results of cataloguing the downstream effects of mutation subgroupings across cancer cohorts underline the importance of incorporating the diversity present within oncogenes in models designed to capture the downstream effects of their mutations.

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Topics: Carcinogenesis (53%), Mutation (51%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/PH14111069
22 Oct 2021-Pharmaceuticals
Abstract: Cancer is a complex ailment orchestrated by numerous intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. Recent research has displayed a deep interest in developing plant-based cancer therapeutics for better management of the disease and limited side effects. A wide range of plant-derived compounds have been reported for their anticancer potential in the quest of finding an effective therapeutic approach. Rutin (vitamin P) is a low-molecular weight flavonoid glycoside (polyphenolic compound), abundantly present in various vegetables, fruits (especially berries and citrus fruits), and medicinal herbs. Numerous studies have delineated several pharmacological properties of rutin such as its antiprotozoal, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antiviral, antiallergic, vasoactive, cytoprotective, antispasmodic, hypolipidemic, antihypertensive, and antiplatelet properties. Specifically, rutin-mediated anticancerous activities have been reported in several cancerous cell lines, but the most common scientific evidence, encompassing several molecular processes and interactions, including apoptosis pathway regulation, aberrant cell signaling pathways, and oncogenic genes, has not been thoroughly studied. In this direction, we attempted to project rutin-mediated oncogenic pathway regulation in various carcinomas. Additionally, we also incorporated advanced research that has uncovered the notable potential of rutin in the modulation of several key cellular functions via interaction with mRNAs, with major emphasis on elucidating direct miRNA targets of rutin as well as the process needed to transform these approaches for developing novel therapeutic interventions for the treatment of several cancers.

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Topics: Bioflavonoid (50%)

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125 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CELL.2011.02.013
Douglas Hanahan1, Robert A. Weinberg2Institutions (2)
04 Mar 2011-Cell
Abstract: The hallmarks of cancer comprise six biological capabilities acquired during the multistep development of human tumors. The hallmarks constitute an organizing principle for rationalizing the complexities of neoplastic disease. They include sustaining proliferative signaling, evading growth suppressors, resisting cell death, enabling replicative immortality, inducing angiogenesis, and activating invasion and metastasis. Underlying these hallmarks are genome instability, which generates the genetic diversity that expedites their acquisition, and inflammation, which fosters multiple hallmark functions. Conceptual progress in the last decade has added two emerging hallmarks of potential generality to this list-reprogramming of energy metabolism and evading immune destruction. In addition to cancer cells, tumors exhibit another dimension of complexity: they contain a repertoire of recruited, ostensibly normal cells that contribute to the acquisition of hallmark traits by creating the "tumor microenvironment." Recognition of the widespread applicability of these concepts will increasingly affect the development of new means to treat human cancer.

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42,275 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3322/CAAC.21492
Abstract: This article provides a status report on the global burden of cancer worldwide using the GLOBOCAN 2018 estimates of cancer incidence and mortality produced by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, with a focus on geographic variability across 20 world regions There will be an estimated 181 million new cancer cases (170 million excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) and 96 million cancer deaths (95 million excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) in 2018 In both sexes combined, lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer (116% of the total cases) and the leading cause of cancer death (184% of the total cancer deaths), closely followed by female breast cancer (116%), prostate cancer (71%), and colorectal cancer (61%) for incidence and colorectal cancer (92%), stomach cancer (82%), and liver cancer (82%) for mortality Lung cancer is the most frequent cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among males, followed by prostate and colorectal cancer (for incidence) and liver and stomach cancer (for mortality) Among females, breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death, followed by colorectal and lung cancer (for incidence), and vice versa (for mortality); cervical cancer ranks fourth for both incidence and mortality The most frequently diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death, however, substantially vary across countries and within each country depending on the degree of economic development and associated social and life style factors It is noteworthy that high-quality cancer registry data, the basis for planning and implementing evidence-based cancer control programs, are not available in most low- and middle-income countries The Global Initiative for Cancer Registry Development is an international partnership that supports better estimation, as well as the collection and use of local data, to prioritize and evaluate national cancer control efforts CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 2018;0:1-31 © 2018 American Cancer Society

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Topics: Cancer registry (78%), Cancer (72%), Breast cancer (63%) ... read more

39,828 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NRC1840
Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an abundant class of small non-protein-coding RNAs that function as negative gene regulators They regulate diverse biological processes, and bioinformatic data indicates that each miRNA can control hundreds of gene targets, underscoring the potential influence of miRNAs on almost every genetic pathway Recent evidence has shown that miRNA mutations or mis-expression correlate with various human cancers and indicates that miRNAs can function as tumour suppressors and oncogenes miRNAs have been shown to repress the expression of important cancer-related genes and might prove useful in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer

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Topics: Oncomir (61%), Gene silencing (60%), microRNA (50%)

5,347 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1006/BBRC.1997.6943
Ken Itoh1, Tomoki Chiba, Satoru Takahashi1, Tetsuro Ishii1  +8 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: The induction of phase II detoxifying enzymes is an important defense mechanism against intake of xenobiotics. While this group of enzymes is believed to be under the transcriptional control of antioxidant response elements (AREs), this contention is experimentally unconfirmed. Since the ARE resembles the binding sequence of erythroid transcription factor NF-E2, we investigated the possibility that the phase II enzyme genes might be regulated by transcription factors that also bind to the NF-E2 sequence. The expression profiles of a number of transcription factors suggest that an Nrf2/small Maf heterodimer is the most likely candidate to fulfill this rolein vivo.To directly test these questions, we disrupted the murinenrf2 genein vivo.While the expression of phase II enzymes (e.g., glutathione S-transferase and NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase) was markedly induced by a phenolic antioxidantin vivoin both wild type and heterozygous mutant mice, the induction was largely eliminated in the liver and intestine of homozygousnrf2-mutant mice. Nrf2 was found to bind to the ARE with high affinity only as a heterodimer with a small Maf protein, suggesting that Nrf2/small Maf activates gene expression directly through the ARE. These results demonstrate that Nrf2 is essential for the transcriptional induction of phase II enzymes and the presence of a coordinate transcriptional regulatory mechanism for phase II enzyme genes. Thenrf2-deficient mice may prove to be a very useful model for thein vivoanalysis of chemical carcinogenesis and resistance to anti-cancer drugs.

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Topics: Antioxidant Response Elements (63%), Maf Transcription Factors (63%), NFE2L2 (57%) ... read more

3,246 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CUB.2014.03.034
Michael Schieber1, Navdeep S. Chandel1Institutions (1)
19 May 2014-Current Biology
Abstract: Oxidative stress refers to elevated intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that cause damage to lipids, proteins and DNA. Oxidative stress has been linked to a myriad of pathologies. However, elevated ROS also act as signaling molecules in the maintenance of physiological functions — a process termed redox biology. In this review we discuss the two faces of ROS — redox biology and oxidative stress — and their contribution to both physiological and pathological conditions. Redox biology involves a small increase in ROS levels that activates signaling pathways to initiate biological processes, while oxidative stress denotes high levels of ROS that result in damage to DNA, protein or lipids. Thus, the response to ROS displays hormesis, given that the opposite effect is observed at low levels compared with that seen at high levels. Here, we argue that redox biology, rather than oxidative stress, underlies physiological and pathological conditions.

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Topics: Oxidative stress (61%), DNA damage (51%), Hormesis (51%)

3,108 Citations


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