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Journal ArticleDOI

Thermal analysis of a silicon wafer processing combination bake-chill station used in microlithography

16 Mar 2005-Materials and Manufacturing Processes (Taylor & Francis Group)-Vol. 20, Iss: 2, pp 273-286
TL;DR: In this paper, thermal analysis of an actual combination bake-chill station design using two-and three-dimensional numerical simulations is presented, where the wafer is heated to the desired bake temperature and chilled back to room temperature before being moved by the robot.
Abstract: Microlithography, the fabrication process for microchips and Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) devices, involves a series of manufacturing processes performed on a silicon wafer, each in separate stations of a microlithography cluster. Bake (heating) and chill (cooling) of silicon wafers comprise an important manufacturing step in microlithography. Thermal analysis of an actual combination bake-chill station design using two-and three-dimensional numerical simulations are presented. In this bake-chill station, the wafer is heated to the desired bake temperature and chilled back to room temperature before being moved by the robot, resulting in tight temperature control of the wafer throughout the process. Two models, axi-symmetric and three-dimensional (geometrically similar to the new station), are generated for analyzing the thermal performance of the above station. The numerical simulations solving the transport equations in the computational domain are performed using the commercial CFD ...
Citations
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Book ChapterDOI
28 Jan 2005
TL;DR: The Q12-40 density: ρ ((kg/m) specific heat: Cp (J/kg ·K) dynamic viscosity: ν ≡ μ/ρ (m/s) thermal conductivity: k, (W/m ·K), thermal diffusivity: α, ≡ k/(ρ · Cp) (m /s) Prandtl number: Pr, ≡ ν/α (−−) volumetric compressibility: β, (1/K).
Abstract: Geometry: shape, size, aspect ratio and orientation Flow Type: forced, natural, laminar, turbulent, internal, external Boundary: isothermal (Tw = constant) or isoflux (q̇w = constant) Fluid Type: viscous oil, water, gases or liquid metals Properties: all properties determined at film temperature Tf = (Tw + T∞)/2 Note: ρ and ν ∝ 1/Patm ⇒ see Q12-40 density: ρ ((kg/m) specific heat: Cp (J/kg ·K) dynamic viscosity: μ, (N · s/m) kinematic viscosity: ν ≡ μ/ρ (m/s) thermal conductivity: k, (W/m ·K) thermal diffusivity: α, ≡ k/(ρ · Cp) (m/s) Prandtl number: Pr, ≡ ν/α (−−) volumetric compressibility: β, (1/K)

636 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors discuss the recent developments in grinding of advanced materials, including advances in grinding brittle materials, grinding of silicon, dressing/truing of grinding wheels, grinding fluids, and vibration-assisted grinding.
Abstract: This article discusses the recent developments in grinding of advanced materials. Eighty-four journal papers published recently are briefly introduced. The topics are advances in grinding of brittle materials, grinding of silicon, dressing/truing of grinding wheels, grinding fluids, grinding of mirrors and vibration-assisted grinding, measuring/monitoring of grinding, optimization of grinding, modelling and simulation of grinding, and size effect. Ductile mode grinding of brittle materials has been and will continue to be an intensive research area because of its increasing industrial applications and academic demands for fundamental understanding of the ductile mode grinding mechanism. Highly precision manufacturing of silicon substrates faces more and more new challenges. Grinding of silicon continues to be a popular research topic. Using lasers to true and dress grinding wheels has attracted great research interest, because it has significant advantages over mechanical processes. Environmentally friendly grinding fluids are increasingly highly demanded. Vibration-assisted grinding is promising. Monitoring, modelling and optimization of grinding processes help to understand grinding mechanisms and achieve better grinding performance. The size effect is more prominent in grinding than turning and can be used for obtaining a controlled work-hardening surface layer with higher wear resistance and hardness.

68 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a review of recent advances in wire bonding, flip chip and lead-free solder for advanced microelectronics packaging is presented, where new challenges, solutions and new developments are discussed.
Abstract: Purpose – This paper seeks to review recent advances in wire bonding, flip chip and lead‐free solder for advanced microelectronics packaging.Design/methodology/approach – Of the 91 journal papers, 59 were published in 2005‐2007 and topics related to wire bonding, flip chip and lead‐free solder for advanced microelectronics packaging are reviewed.Findings – Research on advanced wire bonding is continuously performed for advanced and complex applications such as stacked‐dies wire bonding, wire bonding of low‐k ultra‐fine‐pitch devices, and copper wire bonding. Owing to its many advantages, flip chip using adhesive has gained more popularity. Research on the reliability of lead‐free solder joints is being conducted world‐wide. The new challenges, solutions and new developments are discussed in this paper.Research limitations/implications – Because of page limitation of this review paper and the large number of the journal papers available, only a brief review is conducted. Further reading is needed for more ...

32 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the effect of the rolling direction on the quality of microchannels manufactured using photochemical machining (PCM) of Monel 400 has been investigated, where the input parameters were channel width and rolling direction, whereas the depth of etch was the response parameters.
Abstract: The present paper describes the effect of the rolling direction on the quality of microchannels manufactured using photochemical machining (PCM) of Monel 400. Experiments were carried out to fabricate microchannels along and across the rolling direction to investigate the effect of the grain orientation on microchannel etching. The input parameters considered were channel width and rolling direction, whereas the depth of etch was the response parameters. Different channels of widths of 60, 100, 150, 200, and 250 μm were etched. The effects of the etching time and temperature of the etchant solution on the undercut and depth of the microchannels were studied. For good quality microchannels, the effects of spinning time, spinning speed, exposure time, and photoresist film strength were also taken into consideration. Optimized values of the above were used for the experimentation. The results show that the depth of etch of the microchannel increases more along the rolling direction than across the rolling direction. The channel width and depth are significantly affected by the etching time and temperature. The proposed study reports an improvement in the quality of microchannels produced using PCM.

12 citations


Cites background or methods from "Thermal analysis of a silicon wafer..."

  • ...The process from the photoresist coating to washing out the developer is called the microlithography process [21]....

    [...]

  • ...Hard baking is performed after the development of the substrate to minimize outgassing [21] and improves the thermal and physical stability....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, microchannels with widths of 60, 100, 150, 200, and 250 µm were fabricated on the surface of Monel 400 alloy, and the effect of the rolling direction on surface finish and etchin was investigated.
Abstract: In this study, microchannels with widths of 60, 100, 150, 200, and 250 µm were fabricated on the surface of Monel 400 alloy, and the effect of the rolling direction on the surface finish and etchin...

11 citations


Cites methods from "Thermal analysis of a silicon wafer..."

  • ...Hard baking was performed at 120°C for 10 min after substrate development to minimize outgassing [19]....

    [...]

References
More filters
Book
01 Jan 1984
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors describe a transition from Laminar boundary layer flow to Turbulent Boundary Layer flow with change of phase Mass Transfer Convection in Porous Media.
Abstract: Fundamental Principles Laminar Boundary Layer Flow Laminar Duct Flow External Natural Convection Internal Natural Convection Transition to Turbulence Turbulent Boundary Layer Flow Turbulent Duct Flow Free Turbulent Flows Convection with Change of Phase Mass Transfer Convection in Porous Media.

4,067 citations

Book ChapterDOI
28 Jan 2005
TL;DR: The Q12-40 density: ρ ((kg/m) specific heat: Cp (J/kg ·K) dynamic viscosity: ν ≡ μ/ρ (m/s) thermal conductivity: k, (W/m ·K), thermal diffusivity: α, ≡ k/(ρ · Cp) (m /s) Prandtl number: Pr, ≡ ν/α (−−) volumetric compressibility: β, (1/K).
Abstract: Geometry: shape, size, aspect ratio and orientation Flow Type: forced, natural, laminar, turbulent, internal, external Boundary: isothermal (Tw = constant) or isoflux (q̇w = constant) Fluid Type: viscous oil, water, gases or liquid metals Properties: all properties determined at film temperature Tf = (Tw + T∞)/2 Note: ρ and ν ∝ 1/Patm ⇒ see Q12-40 density: ρ ((kg/m) specific heat: Cp (J/kg ·K) dynamic viscosity: μ, (N · s/m) kinematic viscosity: ν ≡ μ/ρ (m/s) thermal conductivity: k, (W/m ·K) thermal diffusivity: α, ≡ k/(ρ · Cp) (m/s) Prandtl number: Pr, ≡ ν/α (−−) volumetric compressibility: β, (1/K)

636 citations


"Thermal analysis of a silicon wafer..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...These numbers were computed by invoking convection correlations for horizontal and vertical walls, respectively [18] and using previous experimental results for stations’ estimated outer wall temperatures, with the assumption that the outside air remains stationary....

    [...]

Journal Article
TL;DR: An Introduction to Lithography The Lithographic Process: The Physics Organic Resist Materials Resist Processing Plasma Etching as mentioned in this paper The Lithography Process: the Lithographic process: the physics organic resist materials resist processing plasma etching
Abstract: An Introduction to Lithography The Lithographic Process: The Physics Organic Resist Materials Resist Processing Plasma Etching

563 citations


"Thermal analysis of a silicon wafer..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...It has been observed over the past two decades [1, 2, 5] that the uniformity of temperature of the photoresist during these various bake processes plays a key role in determining the uniformity of resist thickness or critical feature dimensions for subsequent unit processes such as etching, ionimplantation, or deposition....

    [...]

  • ...A flow chart of the sequential photolithography process steps followed almost unaltered in the microlithography industry for the past two decades [1, 2] is given in Table 1....

    [...]

  • ...The technique transfers the pattern of circuitry from a photo-mask (a quartz plate containing the “master copy” of microscopic integrated circuitry) to a thin wafer made of silicon or other semiconductor material with which chips are made [1, 2]....

    [...]

BookDOI
01 Jan 1997
TL;DR: The Handbook of Microlithography, Micromachining, and Microfabrication (HMM) as mentioned in this paper is an excellent reference book for the field of microscopy.
Abstract: PDF : Handbook Of Microlithography, Micromachining, And Microfabrication. Volume 2: Micromachining And Microfabrication (SPIE PRESS Monograph Vol. PM40) (Spie Press Monograph, Pm39-Pm40) Doc : Handbook Of Microlithography, Micromachining, And Microfabrication. Volume 2: Micromachining And Microfabrication (SPIE PRESS Monograph Vol. PM40) (Spie Press Monograph, Pm39-Pm40) ePub : Handbook Of Microlithography, Micromachining, And Microfabrication. Volume 2: Micromachining And Microfabrication (SPIE PRESS Monograph Vol. PM40) (Spie Press Monograph, Pm39-Pm40)

232 citations


"Thermal analysis of a silicon wafer..." refers background in this paper

  • ...One-half of the tolerance error is estimated to be caused by the photolithography scanners (optical process) and the other half is by the various manufacturing steps done in the microlithography cluster [5]....

    [...]

  • ...It has been observed over the past two decades [1, 2, 5] that the uniformity of temperature of the photoresist during these various bake processes plays a key role in determining the uniformity of resist thickness or critical feature dimensions for subsequent unit processes such as etching, ionimplantation, or deposition....

    [...]

Reference BookDOI
Bruce W. Smith, Kazuaki Suzuki1
01 May 2020
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present an overview of optical steppers and scanners for advanced micro-lithography systems and their applications in critical-dimensional metrology for integrated-circuit technology.
Abstract: EXPOSURE SYSTEM System Overview of Optical Steppers and Scanners Michael S. Hibbs Optical Lithography Modeling Chris A. Mack Optics for Photolithography Bruce W. Smith Excimer Laser for Advanced Microlithography Palash Das Alignment and Overlay Gregg M. Gallatin Electron Beam Lithography System Kazuaki Suzuki X-Ray Lithography Takumi Ueno EUV Lithography Stefan Wurm and Charles Gwyn Imprint Lithography Douglas J. Resnick RESISTS AND PROCESSING Chemistry of Photoresist Materials Takumi Ueno and Robert D. Allen Resist Processing Bruce W. Smith Multilayer Resist Technology Bruce W. Smith and Maureen Hanratty Dry Etching of Photoresists Roderick R. Kunz METROLOGY AND NANOLITHOGRAPHY Critical-Dimensional Metrology for Integrated-Circuit Technology Herschel M. Marchman, Gian Lorusso, Mike Adel, and Sanjay Yedur Electron Beam Nanolithography Elizabeth A. Dobisz, Zvonimir Z. Bandic, and Martin C. Peckerar Index

219 citations