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Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy

01 Jan 1992-Vol. 5

About: The article was published on 1992-01-01 and is currently open access. It has received 5495 citation(s) till now. The article focuses on the topic(s): Occupancy.
Topics: Occupancy (52%)
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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Nov 2015-Pharmacy Today
TL;DR: The SHSIP provides a well-detailed description of the proposed value-based models of care through the Patient-Centered Medical Home (PCMH) model, resulting in the statewide implementation of Accountable Health Communities (AHCs).
Abstract: Vision for Transformation Strengths: The SHSIP describes a holistic transformation plan and ensures connections between various plan components. The State’s Plan seeks to reward health care providers for better care, smarter spending, and healthier people through higher quality, instead of quantity of services by utilizing valuebased purchasing across public and private payers. The SHSIP provides a well-detailed description of the proposed value-based models of care through the Patient-Centered Medical Home (PCMH) model, resulting in the statewide implementation of Accountable Health Communities (AHCs). The SHSIP outlines a long-term vision of building and expanding the PCMH model into a Community Centered Health Homes (CCHHs) model, which will focus on prevention and collaboration with other communitybased organizations. Another strength identified is the amount of existing PCMHs operating within the State. The SHSIP provides a course of action to assist non-PCMH practices to become nationally certified, as well as, goals for a single, statewide PCMH model to be used by all providers and payers within the state. The implementation of the AHCs will be key in addressing social determinants of health within various communities and seems to align well with the PCMH goals. This focus on population and community health will enable the State to make a broader impact and support the long-term goal of moving towards a CCHH model. The focus on the improvement of clinical, behavioral, and oral health care within the urban, rural, and frontier communities is well aligned and consistent with the SIM goals and the overall Triple Aim initiative. Figure 18: Driver Diagram clearly shows how the State plans to achieve the Triple Aim by 2020.

1,488 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
J.F. Nicol1, Michael Humphreys1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: The origin and development of the adaptive approach to thermal comfort is explained, and recommendations made as to the best comfort temperature, the range of comfortable environments and the maximum rate of change of indoor temperature.
Abstract: The origin and development of the adaptive approach to thermal comfort is explained. A number of recent developments in the application of the theory are considered and the origin of the differences between adaptive thermal comfort and the ‘rational’ indices is explored. The application of the adaptive approach to thermal comfort standards is considered and recommendations made as to the best comfort temperature, the range of comfortable environments and the maximum rate of change of indoor temperature. The application of criteria of sustainability to thermal standards for buildings is also considered.

1,410 citations


Cites background or methods from "Thermal Environmental Conditions fo..."

  • ...ASHRAE (1992) Standard 55 – Thermal Environment Conditions for Human Occupancy, American Society of Heating Ventilating and Air-conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, USA Auliciems, A. and deDear, R. (1986), Air conditioning in Australia I; Human thermal factors....

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  • ...Note that, though it will save energy in an air conditioned building, a ‘seasonal’ temperature change such as is suggested by ASHRAE 55 (ASHRAE 1992) may be almost as hard to achieve in a free-running building as a single constant temperature throughout the year....

    [...]

  • ...A crude form of such an algorithm is already used in ASHRAE standard 55 (ASHRAE 1992) which describes different indoor set points for ‘summer’ and ‘winter’....

    [...]


30 Dec 2005-
TL;DR: The threat of MDR TB is decreasing, and the transmission of M. tuberculosis in health-care settings continues to decrease because of implementation of infection-control measures and reductions in community rates of TB.
Abstract: In 1994, CDC published the Guidelines for Preventing the Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in HealthCare Facilities, 1994. The guidelines were issued in response to 1) a resurgence of tuberculosis (TB) disease that occurred in the United States in the mid-1980s and early 1990s, 2) the documentation of several high-profile health-care--associated (previously termed "nosocomial") outbreaks related to an increase in the prevalence of TB disease and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection, 3) lapses in infection control practices, 4) delays in the diagnosis and treatment of persons with infectious TB disease, and 5) the appearance and transmission of multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB strains. The 1994 guidelines, which followed statements issued in 1982 and 1990, presented recommendations for TB infection control based on a risk assessment process that classified health-care facilities according to categories of TB risk, with a corresponding series of administrative, environmental, and respiratory protection control measures. The TB infection control measures recommended by CDC in 1994 were implemented widely in health-care facilities in the United States. The result has been a decrease in the number of TB outbreaks in health-care settings reported to CDC and a reduction in health-care-associated transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to patients and health-care workers (HCWs). Concurrent with this success, mobilization of the nation's TB control programs succeeded in reversing the upsurge in reported cases of TB disease, and case rates have declined in the subsequent 10 years. Findings indicate that although the 2004 TB rate was the lowest recorded in the United States since national reporting began in 1953, the declines in rates for 2003 (2.3%) and 2004 (3.2%) were the smallest since 1993. In addition, TB infection rates greater than the U.S. average continue to be reported in certain racial/ethnic populations. The threat of MDR TB is decreasing, and the transmission of M. tuberculosis in health-care settings continues to decrease because of implementation of infection-control measures and reductions in community rates of TB. Given the changes in epidemiology and a request by the Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET) for review and update of the 1994 TB infection control document, CDC has reassessed the TB infection control guidelines for health-care settings. This report updates TB control recommendations reflecting shifts in the epidemiology of TB, advances in scientific understanding, and changes in health-care practice that have occurred in the United States during the preceding decade. In the context of diminished risk for health-care-associated transmission of M. tuberculosis, this document places emphasis on actions to maintain momentum and expertise needed to avert another TB resurgence and to eliminate the lingering threat to HCWs, which is mainly from patients or others with unsuspected and undiagnosed infectious TB disease. CDC prepared the current guidelines in consultation with experts in TB, infection control, environmental control, respiratory protection, and occupational health. The new guidelines have been expanded to address a broader concept; health-care--associated settings go beyond the previously defined facilities. The term "health-care setting" includes many types, such as inpatient settings, outpatient settings, TB clinics, settings in correctional facilities in which health care is delivered, settings in which home-based health-care and emergency medical services are provided, and laboratories handling clinical specimens that might contain M. tuberculosis. The term "setting" has been chosen over the term "facility," used in the previous guidelines, to broaden the potential places for which these guidelines apply.

1,093 citations


01 Feb 2002-
Abstract: Recently accepted revisions to ASHRAE Standard 55—thermal environmental conditions for human occupancy, include a new adaptive comfort standard (ACS) that allows warmer indoor temperatures for naturally ventilated buildings during summer and in warmer climate zones. The ACS is based on the analysis of 21,000 sets of raw data compiled from field studies in 160 buildings located on four continents in varied climatic zones. This paper summarizes this earlier adaptive comfort research, presents some of its findings for naturally ventilated buildings, and discusses the process of getting the ACS incorporated into Standard 55. We suggest ways the ACS could be used for the design, operation, or evaluation of buildings, and for research applications. We also use GIS mapping techniques to examine the energy-savings potential of the ACS on a regional scale across the US. Finally, we discuss related new directions for researchers and practitioners involved in the design of buildings and their environmental control systems.

977 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Richard de Dear1, Gail Brager2Institutions (2)
Abstract: Recently accepted revisions to ASHRAE Standard 55—thermal environmental conditions for human occupancy, include a new adaptive comfort standard (ACS) that allows warmer indoor temperatures for naturally ventilated buildings during summer and in warmer climate zones. The ACS is based on the analysis of 21,000 sets of raw data compiled from field studies in 160 buildings located on four continents in varied climatic zones. This paper summarizes this earlier adaptive comfort research, presents some of its findings for naturally ventilated buildings, and discusses the process of getting the ACS incorporated into Standard 55. We suggest ways the ACS could be used for the design, operation, or evaluation of buildings, and for research applications. We also use GIS mapping techniques to examine the energy-savings potential of the ACS on a regional scale across the US. Finally, we discuss related new directions for researchers and practitioners involved in the design of buildings and their environmental control systems.

872 citations


Performance
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No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
YearCitations
202244
2021623
2020517
2019475
2018442
2017497