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Journal ArticleDOI

‘They Finally Found Out that We Really Are Men’: Violence, Non-Violence and Black Manhood in the Civil Rights Era

01 Nov 2007-Gender & History (Blackwell Publishing Ltd)-Vol. 19, Iss: 3, pp 543-564
TL;DR: This article explored how peaceful protest and armed resistance reflected and shaped certain gender identities in the southern US civil rights movement and the Black Power movement, and revealed much about the significance of violence for marginalised masculinities within the African American freedom struggle of the 1950s and 1960s.
Abstract: This article explores how peaceful protest and armed resistance reflected and shaped certain gender identities in the southern US civil rights movement and the Black Power movement, and reveals much about the significance of violence for ‘marginalised masculinities’ within the African American freedom struggle of the 1950s and 1960s. In the Deep South, civil rights organisers found that their non-violent strategy's connotations of effeminate submissiveness hampered attempts to win over black men to the movement's cause. Conversely, those African Americans who decided to use armed force to protect the movement against racist attacks were proud of their ability to defend themselves and their communities. A comparison of armed resistance efforts in southern civil rights campaigns with those of post-1965 Black Power groups such as the Black Panther Party shows both commonalities and differences with regard to the inter-relationship between self-defence and gender. In the southern movement, the affirmation of manhood remained a by-product of the physical imperative to protect black lives against racism. Among Black Power militants and their black nationalist precursors, self-defence, while initially intended to stop police brutality and other racist oppression, ultimately became mainly a symbol of militant black manhood. The Black Power movement's affirmative message countered stereotypes of black male powerlessness and instilled a positive black identity into many activists, but the gendered discourse it produced also tended to perpetuate black women's subordination.
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Book
19 Dec 2012
TL;DR: Good White Citizenship and the White Response to the Movement: Good Black Citizenship and Personal Ethics as mentioned in this paper The Transformation of SNCC and Local Activism, 1969-1992, New Orleans, USA.
Abstract: Introduction 1. Good Black Citizenship and Personal Ethics 2. Mobilizing the Black Community: Social Ethics, Social Capital and the Black Family 3. Civic Ethics and Embodied Performances 4. Black Authenticity and an Ethics of Autonomy 5. The Transformation of SNCC and Local Activism. Conclusion: Good White Citizenship and the White Response to the Movement.

33 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article reviewed Americanist gender scholarship on race and ethnicity that has been produced over the last twenty-five years, concluding that Americanist women's and gender historians could productively analyze multiple racial and ethnic groups together on a more sustained basis.
Abstract: The launch of Journal of Women’s History occurred as Americanist women’s and gender history was undergoing a profound transformation caused by increased analytical attention to “race” and ethnicity. Within a year of the Journal’s emergence, Vicki Ruiz and Ellen Carol DuBois published the first edition of their landmark anthology, Unequal Sisters , in which they encouraged Americanist women’s and gender historians to eschew “biracial approach[es]” and embrace a “kaleidoscopic” angle of vision that would permit “many pasts … [to] be explored simultaneously.” This article reviews Americanist gender scholarship on race and ethnicity that has been produced over the last twenty-five years. Work on race, ethnicity, and gender has revealed sundry social, political, cultural, and economic dynamics within U.S. history. It is arguably the case, however, that Americanist women’s and gender historians could productively analyze multiple racial and ethnic groups together on a more sustained basis.

28 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: For the last five years, Equity & Excellence in Education (EEE) has offered an annotated bibliographical review of the preceding year's publications in the field of social justice education as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: For the last five years, Equity & Excellence in Education (EEE) has offered an annual annotated bibliographical review of the preceding year’s publications in the field of social justice education (SJE). This service to our readers provides an overview of books, articles, and dissertations of interest to the growing field of social justice education. In this Year in Review for 2007 (YIR ‘07) we present the work of four advanced Social Justice Education graduate students and the editors of EEE, who together have examined articles and annotated books from a range of academic disciplines, such as sociology, psychology, religious studies, ethnic studies, gender studies, and women’s studies, as well as from education sources. YIR ‘07 presents a review of social justice education books, chapters, dissertations, and articles from a broad, comprehensive interdisciplinary search of the literature. As we noted in previous years, collecting a year’s review of writings that reflects a social justice orientation toward education presents an increasingly daunting interand cross-disciplinary challenge. Even though Social Justice Education is a relatively new field within Education, it has been named increasingly in databases or print resources, sometimes to signal a systemic, multiple-identity approach to issues of discrimination and inequality but also sometimes as an attractive synonym for “diversity.” In preparing YIR ‘07, we were struck by how much more difficult the job had become of winnowing articles we considered useful to teachers, teacher preparation faculty, school personnel, community educators, and people in higher education who are interested in this emergent field. The variety and interdisciplinarity of the field has always presented a challenge to this YIR effort. However, the sheer number and variability of articles using Social Justice or Social Justice Education in the title or among keywords made the YIR project more time-consuming and difficult this year than ever before. Although we started with broad criteria for inclusion—social justice and social justice education, liberation, anti-racism education, immigration and language oppression, and other SJE “isms” (ableism, adultism1, antisemitism, classism, heterosexism, religious oppression, racism, sexism, and transgender oppression)—we decided this year to stretch the boundaries of what could be included in our article: Our graduate students were inclined to be attuned to nuances in describing social justice education, so as to

23 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article found that while a slight majority (58%) believed that the civil rights movement successfully reduced racial discrimination, a sizable share (42%) saw failure and found that black people of higher economic standing had the most faith in the movement's achievements.
Abstract: Was the modern civil rights movement successful? I depart from traditional approaches that judge success in terms of political inclusion and policy response and instead ask “ordinary” blacks what they thought. Using 1968 survey data, I find that while a slight majority (58%) believed that the movement successfully reduced racial discrimination, a sizable share (42%) saw failure. It seems most accurate to conclude that both perspectives resonated with large segments of the black population. I next examine who thought the movement a success and uncover that blacks of higher economic standing had the most faith in the movement's achievements. This result supports critics who thought that the poor were left behind by the movement's gains. Finally, while there was overall stability from 1968 to 2000 in opinion, the mid-1980s represented the nadir in thinking the movement successful. This development appears to have been a reaction to the racially hostile Reagan administration and the worsening economic position of blacks in the 1980s. Views on the civil rights movement, thus, are a living memory that can be altered by contemporary deleterious developments. I conclude by arguing that conceptualizations of success should be grounded in how movements impact the everyday lives of their constituency.

17 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A sociology of masculinity, of a kind, had appeared before the "sex-role" paradigm as discussed by the authors, and the field of sex-role research remained a distinctly minor one within the overall concerns of sociology.
Abstract: The upheaval in sexual politics has mainly been discussed as a change in the social position of women. The political meaning of writing about masculinity turns mainly on its treatment of power. There are, however, some accounts of masculinity that have faced the issue of social power, and it is that we find the bases of an adequate theory of masculinity. Through the 1950s and 1960s the focus of sex-role research remained on women in the family. And the field of sex-role research remained a distinctly minor one within the overall concerns of sociology. A sociology of masculinity, of a kind, had appeared before the “sex-role” paradigm. The very idea of a “role” implies a recognizable and accepted standard, and sex-role theorists posit just such a norm to explain sexual differentiation. The sex-role literature mainly analyzes the acquisition of masculinity by means of a simple social-learning, conformity-to-norms model.

1,296 citations

Book
01 Jan 1941

728 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors suggest that the needs of inspirations will make you searching for some sources, even from the other people experience, internet, and many books, and suggest to have more inspirations, then.
Abstract: Inevitably, reading is one of the requirements to be undergone. To improve the performance and quality, someone needs to have something new every day. It will suggest you to have more inspirations, then. However, the needs of inspirations will make you searching for some sources. Even from the other people experience, internet, and many books. Books and internet are the recommended media to help you improving your quality and performance.

302 citations