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Journal ArticleDOI

Ti based biomaterials, the ultimate choice for orthopaedic implants – A review

01 May 2009-Progress in Materials Science (Elsevier BV)-Vol. 54, Iss: 3, pp 397-425

Abstract: The field of biomaterials has become a vital area, as these materials can enhance the quality and longevity of human life and the science and technology associated with this field has now led to multi-million dollar business. The paper focuses its attention mainly on titanium-based alloys, even though there exists biomaterials made up of ceramics, polymers and composite materials. The paper discusses the biomechanical compatibility of many metallic materials and it brings out the overall superiority of Ti based alloys, even though it is costlier. As it is well known that a good biomaterial should possess the fundamental properties such as better mechanical and biological compatibility and enhanced wear and corrosion resistance in biological environment, the paper discusses the influence of alloy chemistry, thermomechanical processing and surface condition on these properties. In addition, this paper also discusses in detail the various surface modification techniques to achieve superior biocompatibility, higher wear and corrosion resistance. Overall, an attempt has been made to bring out the current scenario of Ti based materials for biomedical applications.
Topics: Biomaterial (52%)
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Feb 2013-Acta Materialia
Abstract: The basic framework and - conceptual understanding of the metallurgy of Ti alloys is strong and this has enabled the use of titanium and its alloys in safety-critical structures such as those in aircraft and aircraft engines. Nevertheless, a focus on cost-effectiveness and the compression of product development time by effectively integrating design with manufacturing in these applications, as well as those emerging in bioengineering, has driven research in recent decades towards a greater predictive capability through the use of computational materials engineering tools. Therefore this paper focuses on the complexity and variety of fundamental phenomena in this material system with a focus on phase transformations and mechanical behaviour in order to delineate the challenges that lie ahead in achieving these goals.

1,268 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Qizhi Chen1, George Anthony Thouas1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Human tissue is structured mainly of self-assembled polymers (proteins) and ceramics (bone minerals), with metals present as trace elements with molecular scale functions. However, metals and their alloys have played a predominant role as structural biomaterials in reconstructive surgery, especially orthopedics, with more recent uses in non-osseous tissues, such as blood vessels. With the successful routine use of a large variety of metal implants clinically, issues associated with long-term maintenance of implant integrity have also emerged. This review focuses on metallic implant biomaterials, identifying and discussing critical issues in their clinical applications, including the systemic toxicity of released metal ions due to corrosion, fatigue failure of structural components due to repeated loading, and wearing of joint replacements due to movement. This is followed by detailed reviews on specific metallic biomaterials made from stainless steels, alloys of cobalt, titanium and magnesium, as well as shape memory alloys of nickel–titanium, silver, tantalum and zirconium. For each, the properties that affect biocompatibility and mechanical integrity (especially corrosion fatigue) are discussed in detail. Finally, the most critical challenges for metallic implant biomaterials are summarized, with emphasis on the most promising approaches and strategies.

1,141 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A universal biomineralization route, called polydopamine‐assisted hydroxyapatite formation (pHAF), that can be applied to virtually any type and morphology of scaffold materials is demonstrated and can be an innovative foundation for future tissue engineering.
Abstract: Bone tissue is a complex biocomposite material with a variety of organic (e.g., proteins, cells) and inorganic (e.g., hydroxyapatite crystals) components hierarchically organized with nano/microscale precision. Based on the understanding of such hierarchical organization of bone tissue and its unique mechanical properties, efforts are being made to mimic these organic–inorganic hybrid biocomposites. A key factor for the successful designing of complex, hybrid biomaterials is the facilitation and control of adhesion at the interfaces, as many current synthetic biomaterials are inert, lacking interfacial bioactivity. In this regard, researchers have focused on controlling the interface by surface modifications, but the development of a simple, unified way to biofunctionalize diverse organic and inorganic materials remains a critical challenge. Here, a universal biomineralization route, called polydopamine-assisted hydroxyapatite formation (pHAF), that can be applied to virtually any type and morphology of scaffold materials is demonstrated. Inspired by the adhesion mechanism of mussels, the pHAF method can readily integrate hydroxyapatites on ceramics, noble metals, semiconductors, and synthetic polymers, irrespective of their size and morphology (e.g., porosity and shape). Surface-anchored catecholamine moieties in polydopamine enriches the interface with calcium ions, facilitating the formation of hydroxyapatite crystals that are aligned to the c-axes, parallel to the polydopamine layer as observed in natural hydroxyapatites in mineralized tissues. This universal surface biomineralization can be an innovative foundation for future tissue engineering.

590 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: During recent decades vast and continuously increasing numbers of biomedical implants have been introduced for continuous use in the human body. Since the early cemented hip replacements in the 1960s there has been a constant spread of new materials, and ever more complex designs are being used in these implant devices. But still the rate of failure and loss of implants is undesirably high and leaves space for improvements. The challenge is to understand the interactions of implant surface with the surrounding tissue sufficiently, to actively tailor desired interactions. Bulk and surface properties of biomaterials used for implants have been shown to directly influence, and in some cases, control the dynamic interactions that take place at the tissue–implant interface. It is critical to recognize that synthetic materials have specific bulk and surface properties or characteristics that determine their in vitro and in vivo characteristics. This article reviews the interdisciplinary field of biocompatible implant surfaces from the viewpoint of materials science, biochemistry and cell biology. It compiles an overview on basic information about bulk and surface properties of implants based on metallic materials (particularly titanium and its alloys) and surface modification including functionalization with adhesion and growth promoting species. It describes how cells recognize surfaces and respond to different biomaterials, outlines common assays on cell behavior in culture, and reports on cell types and proteins involved in tissue response, acute and chronic responses to implanted biomaterials.

546 citations


Cites background from "Ti based biomaterials, the ultimate..."

  • ...A more detailed overview on the current state of the art on the mechanical behavior of titanium based alloys and how thermo mechanical processing can be used to influence the microstructure and on alloying can be found in other recent reviews [24,63]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Yuhua Li1, Chao Yang1, Haidong Zhao1, Shengguan Qu1  +2 moreInstitutions (1)
04 Mar 2014-Materials
TL;DR: Efforts have been made to reveal the latest scenario of bulk and porous Ti-based materials for biomedical applications, emphasizing their current status, future opportunities and obstacles for expanded applications.
Abstract: Ti-based alloys are finding ever-increasing applications in biomaterials due to their excellent mechanical, physical and biological performance. Nowdays, low modulus β-type Ti-based alloys are still being developed. Meanwhile, porous Ti-based alloys are being developed as an alternative orthopedic implant material, as they can provide good biological fixation through bone tissue ingrowth into the porous network. This paper focuses on recent developments of biomedical Ti-based alloys. It can be divided into four main sections. The first section focuses on the fundamental requirements titanium biomaterial should fulfill and its market and application prospects. This section is followed by discussing basic phases, alloying elements and mechanical properties of low modulus β-type Ti-based alloys. Thermal treatment, grain size, texture and properties in Ti-based alloys and their limitations are dicussed in the third section. Finally, the fourth section reviews the influence of microstructural configurations on mechanical properties of porous Ti-based alloys and all known methods for fabricating porous Ti-based alloys. This section also reviews prospects and challenges of porous Ti-based alloys, emphasizing their current status, future opportunities and obstacles for expanded applications. Overall, efforts have been made to reveal the latest scenario of bulk and porous Ti-based materials for biomedical applications.

522 citations


Cites background or methods from "Ti based biomaterials, the ultimate..."

  • ...[61] have shown that the cell viability of Ti-29Nb-13Ta-4....

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  • ...The elastic modulus and compressive strength of human cortical bone and cancellus bone are approximately 4–30 GPa [61] and 20–193 MPa [62], 0....

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  • ...07)O[61] β ST/WQ + aging 530 – β phase with average grain...

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  • ...The Ti-Nb-based alloys are attracting more researchers to study due to their low modulus, good biocompatibility and shape memory effect [61]....

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  • ...Surface modification techniques such as physical deposition methods like ion implantation and plasma spray coating, and thermo chemical surface treatments such as nitriding, carburization and boriding have been used to improve the surface hardness of Ti-based alloys [61]....

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
Steven M. Kurtz1, Kevin L. Ong1, Edmund Lau1, Fionna Mowat1  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
TL;DR: These large projected increases in demand for total hip and knee arthroplasties provide a quantitative basis for future policy decisions related to the numbers of orthopaedic surgeons needed to perform these procedures and the deployment of appropriate resources to serve this need.
Abstract: Background: Over the past decade, there has been an increase in the number of revision total hip and knee arthroplasties performed in the United States. The purpose of this study was to formulate projections for the number of primary and revision total hip and knee arthroplasties that will be performed in the United States through 2030. Methods: The Nationwide Inpatient Sample (1990 to 2003) was used in conjunction with United States Census Bureau data to quantify primary and revision arthroplasty rates as a function of age, gender, race and/or ethnicity, and census region. Projections were performed with use of Poisson regression on historical procedure rates in combination with population projections from 2005 to 2030. Results: By 2030, the demand for primary total hip arthroplasties is estimated to grow by 174% to 572,000. The demand for primary total knee arthroplasties is projected to grow by 673% to 3.48 million procedures. The demand for hip revision procedures is projected to double by the year 2026, while the demand for knee revisions is expected to double by 2015. Although hip revisions are currently more frequently performed than knee revisions, the demand for knee revisions is expected to surpass the demand for hip revisions after 2007. Overall, total hip and total knee revisions are projected to grow by 137% and 601%, respectively, between 2005 and 2030. Conclusions: These large projected increases in demand for total hip and knee arthroplasties provide a quantitative basis for future policy decisions related to the numbers of orthopaedic surgeons needed to perform these procedures and the deployment of appropriate resources to serve this need.

6,118 citations


Book
01 Aug 1991-
Abstract: 1. The Technology and Evaluation of Corrosion. 2. Electrochemical Thermodynamics and Electrode Potential. 3. Electrochemical Kinetics of Corrosion. 4. Passivity. 5. Polarization Methods to Measure Corrosion Rate. 6. Galvanic and Concentration Cell Corrosion. 7. Pitting and Crevice Corrosion. 8. Environmentally Induced Cracking. 9. Effects of Metallurgical Structure on Corrosion. 10. Corrosion-Related Damage by Hydrogen, Erosion, and Wear. 11. Corrosion in Selected Corrosive Environments. 12. Atmospheric Corrosion and Elevated Temperature Oxidation. 13. Cathodic Protection. 14. Coatings and Inhibitors. 15. Materials Selection and Design. Index.

2,869 citations


"Ti based biomaterials, the ultimate..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Crevice corrosion is encountered beneath the heads of fixing screws made of 316L stainless steel and mechanically assisted crevice corrosion of modular total hip arthroplasty components has been associated with elevations in serum cobalt and urine chromium [72]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Marc Long1, H.J Rack1Institutions (1)
01 Sep 1998-Biomaterials
TL;DR: This review examines current information on the physical and mechanical characteristics of titanium alloys used in artifical joint replacement prostheses, with a special focus on those issues associated with the long-term prosthetic requirements, e.g., fatigue and wear.
Abstract: Increased use of titanium alloys as biomaterials is occurring due to their lower modulus, superior biocompatibility and enhanced corrosion resistance when compared to more conventional stainless steels and cobalt-based alloys. These attractive properties were a driving force for the early introduction of α (cpTi) and α + β (Ti–6Al–4V) alloys as well as for the more recent development of new Ti-alloy compositions and orthopaedic metastable β titanium alloys. The later possess enhanced biocompatibility, reduced elastic modulus, and superior strain-controlled and notch fatigue resistance. However, the poor shear strength and wear resistance of titanium alloys have nevertheless limited their biomedical use. Although the wear resistance of β -Ti alloys has shown some improvement when compared to α + β alloys, the ultimate utility of orthopaedic titanium alloys as wear components will require a more complete fundamental understanding of the wear mechanisms involved. This review examines current information on the physical and mechanical characteristics of titanium alloys used in artifical joint replacement prostheses, with a special focus on those issues associated with the long-term prosthetic requirements, e.g., fatigue and wear.

2,768 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Xuanyong Liu1, Paul K. Chu2, Chuanxian Ding1Institutions (2)
Abstract: Titanium and titanium alloys are widely used in biomedical devices and components, especially as hard tissue replacements as well as in cardiac and cardiovascular applications, because of their desirable properties, such as relatively low modulus, good fatigue strength, formability, machinability, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. However, titanium and its alloys cannot meet all of the clinical requirements. Therefore, in order to improve the biological, chemical, and mechanical properties, surface modification is often performed. This article reviews the various surface modification technologies pertaining to titanium and titanium alloys including mechanical treatment, thermal spraying, sol–gel, chemical and electrochemical treatment, and ion implantation from the perspective of biomedical engineering. Recent work has shown that the wear resistance, corrosion resistance, and biological properties of titanium and titanium alloys can be improved selectively using the appropriate surface treatment techniques while the desirable bulk attributes of the materials are retained. The proper surface treatment expands the use of titanium and titanium alloys in the biomedical fields. Some of the recent applications are also discussed in this paper.

2,730 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jul 2008-Biomaterials
TL;DR: It is shown that, in the vast majority of circumstances, the sole requirement for biocompatibility in a medical device intended for long-term contact with the tissues of the human body is that the material shall do no harm to those tissues, achieved through chemical and biological inertness.
Abstract: The manner in which a mutually acceptable co-existence of biomaterials and tissues is developed and sustained has been the focus of attention in biomaterials science for many years, and forms the foundation of the subject of biocompatibility. There are many ways in which materials and tissues can be brought into contact such that this co-existence may be compromised, and the search for biomaterials that are able to provide for the best performance in devices has been based upon the understanding of all the interactions within biocompatibility phenomena. Our understanding of the mechanisms of biocompatibility has been restricted whilst the focus of attention has been long-term implantable devices. In this paper, over 50 years of experience with such devices is analysed and it is shown that, in the vast majority of circumstances, the sole requirement for biocompatibility in a medical device intended for long-term contact with the tissues of the human body is that the material shall do no harm to those tissues, achieved through chemical and biological inertness. Rarely has an attempt to introduce biological activity into a biomaterial been clinically successful in these applications. This essay then turns its attention to the use of biomaterials in tissue engineering, sophisticated cell, drug and gene delivery systems and applications in biotechnology, and shows that here the need for specific and direct interactions between biomaterials and tissue components has become necessary, and with this a new paradigm for biocompatibility has emerged. It is believed that once the need for this change is recognised, so our understanding of the mechanisms of biocompatibility will markedly improve.

1,968 citations


Performance
Metrics
No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
YearCitations
202214
2021405
2020447
2019394
2018347
2017347