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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FIMMU.2021.628054

Tick Immune System: What Is Known, the Interconnections, the Gaps, and the Challenges.

02 Mar 2021-Frontiers in Immunology (Frontiers Media SA)-Vol. 12, pp 628054-628054
Abstract: Ticks are ectoparasitic arthropods that necessarily feed on the blood of their vertebrate hosts. The success of blood acquisition depends on the pharmacological properties of tick saliva, which is injected into the host during tick feeding. Saliva is also used as a vehicle by several types of pathogens to be transmitted to the host, making ticks versatile vectors of several diseases for humans and other animals. When a tick feeds on an infected host, the pathogen reaches the gut of the tick and must migrate to its salivary glands via hemolymph to be successfully transmitted to a subsequent host during the next stage of feeding. In addition, some pathogens can colonize the ovaries of the tick and be transovarially transmitted to progeny. The tick immune system, as well as the immune system of other invertebrates, is more rudimentary than the immune system of vertebrates, presenting only innate immune responses. Although simpler, the large number of tick species evidences the efficiency of their immune system. The factors of their immune system act in each tick organ that interacts with pathogens; therefore, these factors are potential targets for the development of new strategies for the control of ticks and tick-borne diseases. The objective of this review is to present the prevailing knowledge on the tick immune system and to discuss the challenges of studying tick immunity, especially regarding the gaps and interconnections. To this end, we use a comparative approach of the tick immune system with the immune system of other invertebrates, focusing on various components of humoral and cellular immunity, such as signaling pathways, antimicrobial peptides, redox metabolism, complement-like molecules and regulated cell death. In addition, the role of tick microbiota in vector competence is also discussed.

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Topics: Tick (57%), Innate immune system (55%), Cellular immunity (53%) ... read more
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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.TTBDIS.2021.101738
José de la Fuente1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Ticks and tick-borne diseases (TBD) represent a challenge for human and animal health worldwide. Climate change, distribution of tick hosts, and ecological and anthropogenically-induced changes contribute to the geographic expansion of ticks and tick-borne pathogens. Traditional control methods are based on the use of acaricides to reduce tick infestations, but vaccines represent a more effective, sustainable and environmentally sound approach for the control of ticks and TBD. Recent application of omics technologies to the study of the mechanisms involved in tick-host-pathogen interactions have advanced the characterization of molecular mechanisms involved in TBD and the identification of candidate vaccine protective antigens. However, as discussed in this opinion paper, translational biotechnology may translate into novel interventions required to advance in addressing the challenge that ticks and TBD represent for world health and economy.

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Topics: Tick (51%)

2 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.PT.2021.05.008
Hanna J. Laukaitis1, Kevin R Macaluso1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Although Rickettsia species are molecularly detected among a wide range of arthropods, vector competence becomes an imperative aspect of understanding the ecoepidemiology of these vector-borne diseases. The synergy between vector homeostasis and rickettsial invasion, replication, and release initiated within hours (insects) and days (ticks) permits successful transmission of rickettsiae. Uncovering the molecular interplay between rickettsiae and their vectors necessitates examining the multifaceted nature of rickettsial virulence and vector infection tolerance. Here, we highlight the biological differences between tick- and insect-borne rickettsiae and the factors facilitating the incidence of rickettsioses. Untangling the complex relationship between rickettsial genetics, vector biology, and microbial interactions is crucial in understanding the intricate association between rickettsiae and their vectors.

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1 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.DCI.2021.104234
Abstract: Entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) have been widely explored for their potential in the biological control of insect pests and as an environmentally friendly alternative to acaricides for limiting tick infestation in the field. The arthropod cuticle is the main barrier against fungal infection, however, an understanding of internal defense mechanisms after EPF intrusion into the invertebrate hemocoel is still rather limited. Using an infection model of the European Lyme borreliosis vector Ixodes ricinus with the EPF Metarhizium robertsii, we demonstrated that ticks are capable of protecting themselves to a certain extent against mild fungal infections. However, tick mortality dramatically increases when the capability of tick hemocytes to phagocytose fungal conidia is impaired. Using RNAi-mediated silencing of tick thioester-containing proteins (TEPs), followed by in vitro and/or in vivo phagocytic assays, we found that C3-like complement components and α2-macroglobulin pan-protease inhibitors secreted to the hemolymph play pivotal roles in M. robertsii phagocytosis.

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1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/PATHOGENS10111511
19 Nov 2021-Pathogenetics
Abstract: Ticks are hematophagous ectoparasites that infest a diverse number of vertebrate hosts. The tick immunobiology plays a significant role in establishing and transmitting many pathogens to their hosts. To control tick infestations, the acaricide application is a commonly used method with severe environmental consequences and the selection of tick-resistant populations. With these drawbacks, new tick control methods need to be developed, and the immune system of ticks contains a plethora of potential candidates for vaccine design. Additionally, tick immunity is based on an orchestrated action of humoral and cellular immune responses. Therefore, the actors of these responses are the object of our study in this review since they are new targets in anti-tick vaccine design. We present their role in the immune response that positions them as feasible targets that can be blocked, inhibited, interfered with, and overexpressed, and then elucidate a new method to control tick infestations through the development of vaccines. We also propose Extracellular Traps Formation (ETosis) in ticks as a process to eliminate their natural enemies and those pathogens they transmit (vectorial capacity), which results attractive since they are a source of acting molecules with potential use as vaccines.

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Topics: Tick Control (71%), Tick (54%)


References
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232 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/01926230701320337
Susan A. Elmore1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The process of programmed cell death, or apoptosis, is generally characterized by distinct morphological characteristics and energy-dependent biochemical mechanisms. Apoptosis is considered a vital component of various processes including normal cell turnover, proper development and functioning of the immune system, hormone-dependent atrophy, embryonic development and chemical-induced cell death. Inappropriate apoptosis (either too little or too much) is a factor in many human conditions including neurodegenerative diseases, ischemic damage, autoimmune disorders and many types of cancer. The ability to modulate the life or death of a cell is recognized for its immense therapeutic potential. Therefore, research continues to focus on the elucidation and analysis of the cell cycle machinery and signaling pathways that control cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. To that end, the field of apoptosis research has been moving forward at an alarmingly rapid rate. Although many of the key apoptotic proteins have been identified, the molecular mechanisms of action or inaction of these proteins remain to be elucidated. The goal of this review is to provide a general overview of current knowledge on the process of apoptosis including morphology, biochemistry, the role of apoptosis in health and disease, detection methods, as well as a discussion of potential alternative forms of apoptosis.

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Topics: Programmed cell death (58%), Apoptosis (53%), Cell cycle (52%) ... read more

8,948 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80172-5
20 Sep 1996-Cell
Abstract: The cytokine-induced activation cascade of NF-kappaB in mammals and the activation of the morphogen dorsal in Drosophila embryos show striking structural and functional similarities (Toll/IL-1, Cactus/I-kappaB, and dorsal/NF-kappaB). Here we demonstrate that these parallels extend to the immune response of Drosophila. In particular, the intracellular components of the dorsoventral signaling pathway (except for dorsal) and the extracellular Toll ligand, spatzle, control expression of the antifungal peptide gene drosomycin in adults. We also show that mutations in the Toll signaling pathway dramatically reduce survival after fungal infection. Antibacterial genes are induced either by a distinct pathway involving the immune deficiency gene (imd) or by combined activation of both imd and dorsoventral pathways.

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Topics: Toll signaling pathway (60%), Drosophila Protein (54%), Morphogen (52%) ... read more

3,386 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NI.1923
01 Sep 2010-Nature Immunology
Abstract: Nearly a century after the significance of the human complement system was recognized, we have come to realize that its functions extend far beyond the elimination of microbes. Complement acts as a rapid and efficient immune surveillance system that has distinct effects on healthy and altered host cells and foreign intruders. By eliminating cellular debris and infectious microbes, orchestrating immune responses and sending 'danger' signals, complement contributes substantially to homeostasis, but it can also take action against healthy cells if not properly controlled. This review describes our updated view of the function, structure and dynamics of the complement network, highlights its interconnection with immunity at large and with other endogenous pathways, and illustrates its multiple roles in homeostasis and disease.

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2,593 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1146/ANNUREV.IMMUNOL.25.022106.141615
Bruno Lemaitre1, Jules A. HoffmannInstitutions (1)
Abstract: To combat infection, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster relies on multiple innate defense reactions, many of which are shared with higher organisms. These reactions include the use of physical barriers together with local and systemic immune responses. First, epithelia, such as those beneath the cuticle, in the alimentary tract, and in tracheae, act both as a physical barrier and local defense against pathogens by producing antimicrobial peptides and reactive oxygen species. Second, specialized hemocytes participate in phagocytosis and encapsulation of foreign intruders in the hemolymph. Finally, the fat body, a functional equivalent of the mammalian liver, produces humoral response molecules including antimicrobial peptides. Here we review our current knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying Drosophila defense reactions together with strategies evolved by pathogens to evade them.

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2,546 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.284.5418.1313
21 May 1999-Science
Abstract: The concept of innate immunity refers to the first-line host defense that serves to limit infection in the early hours after exposure to microorganisms. Recent data have highlighted similarities between pathogen recognition, signaling pathways, and effector mechanisms of innate immunity in Drosophila and mammals, pointing to a common ancestry of these defenses. In addition to its role in the early phase of defense, innate immunity in mammals appears to play a key role in stimulating the subsequent, clonal response of adaptive immunity.

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Topics: Intrinsic immunity (59%), Acquired immune system (59%), Innate immune system (55%) ... read more

2,410 Citations