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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/IJMS22052506

Tight Junctions as a Key for Pathogens Invasion in Intestinal Epithelial Cells.

02 Mar 2021-International Journal of Molecular Sciences (MDPI AG)-Vol. 22, Iss: 5, pp 2506
Abstract: Tight junctions play a major role in maintaining the integrity and impermeability of the intestinal barrier. As such, they act as an ideal target for pathogens to promote their translocation through the intestinal mucosa and invade their host. Different strategies are used by pathogens, aimed at directly destabilizing the junctional network or modulating the different signaling pathways involved in the modulation of these junctions. After a brief presentation of the organization and modulation of tight junctions, we provide the state of the art of the molecular mechanisms leading to permeability breakdown of the gut barrier as a consequence of tight junctions’ attack by pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites.

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Topics: Tight junction (65%), Intestinal mucosa (60%)

9 results found

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/1541-4337.12790
Fang Liu1, Pengfen Hou2, Hui Zhang1, Qingjuan Tang1  +2 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: Food additives, often used to guarantee the texture, shelf-life, taste, and appearance of processed foods, have gained widespread attention due to their increased link to the growing incidence of chronic diseases. As one of the most common additives, carrageenans have been used in human diets for hundreds of years. While classified as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) for human consumption, numerous studies since the 1980s have suggested that carrageenans, particularly those with random coil conformations, may have adverse effects on gastrointestinal health, including aggravating intestinal inflammation. While these studies have provided some evidence of adverse effects, the topic is still controversial. Some have suggested that the negative consequence of the consumption of carrageenans may be structure dependent. Furthermore, pre-existing conditions may predispose individuals to varied outcomes of carrageenan intake. In this review, structure-function relationships of various carrageenans in the context of food safety are discussed. We reviewed the molecular mechanisms by which carrageenans exert their biological effects. We summarized the findings associated with carrageenan intake in animal models and clinical trials. Moreover, we examined the interactions between carrageenans and the gut microbiome in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal disorders. This review argues for personalized guidance on carrageenan intake based on individuals' health status. Future research efforts that aim to close the knowledge gap on the effect of low-dose and chronic carrageenan intake as well as interactions among food additives should be conducive to the improved safety profile of carrageenans in processed food products.

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4 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/IJMS22157821
Sevda Şenel1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The oral mucosa, which is the lining tissue of the oral cavity, is a gateway to the body and it offers first-line protection against potential pathogens, exogenous chemicals, airborne allergens, etc. by means of its physical and microbiological-immune barrier functions. For this reason, oral mucosa is considered as a mirror to the health of the individual as well as a guard or early warning system. It is organized in two main components: a physical barrier, which consists of stratified epithelial cells and cell–cell junctions, and a microbiological-immune barrier that keeps the internal environment in a condition of homeostasis. Different factors, including microorganism, saliva, proteins and immune components, have been considered to play a critical role in disruption of oral epithelial barrier. Altered mucosal structure and barrier functions results in oral pathologies as well as systemic diseases. About 700 kinds of microorganisms exist in the human mouth, constituting the oral microbiota, which plays a significant role on the induction, training and function of the host immune system. The immune system maintains the symbiotic relationship of the host with this microbiota. Crosstalk between the oral microbiota and immune system includes various interactions in homeostasis and disease. In this review, after reviewing briefly the physical barriers of oral mucosa, the fundamentals of oral microbiome and oral mucosal immunity in regard to their barrier properties will be addressed. Furthermore, their importance in development of new diagnostic, prophylactic and therapeutic strategies for certain diseases as well as in the application for personalized medicine will be discussed.

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Topics: Oral Microbiome (61%), Oral mucosa (51%), Airborne allergen (51%)

2 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S00253-021-11620-4
Abstract: Feeding low-protein (LP) diets with essential amino acids could be an effective strategy for ruminants from economic, health and environmental perspectives. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of rumen-protected methionine and lysine (RML) in the LP diet on growth performance, innate immunity, and gut health of growing lambs. After 15 days of adaption, sixty-three male Hulunbuir lambs aged approximately 4 months were allotted to three dietary groups and each group had three pens with seven lambs for 60 days. The dietary treatments were as follows: a normal protein diet (14.5% CP, positive control; NP), LP diet (12.5% CP, negative control; LP), and LP diet with RML (12.5% CP, LP + RML). Lambs fed with LP + RML diet showed improved villus architecture and gut barrier function than those fed with the other two diets. The mRNA expressions of interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, toll-like receptor-4, and myeloid differentiation primary response 88 were downregulated in most regions of the intestinal segments by feeding the LP + RML diet. Compared with the NP diet, feeding lambs with the LP diet increased the abundance of Candidatus_Saccharimonas in all regions of the intestinal tract and reversed by feeding the LP + RML diet. Lambs in the LP + RML diet group had lower abundance of Erysipelotrichaceae_UCG-009 and Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1 than those in the LP diet group. The results showed that supplementing RML in the LP diet exhibited beneficial effects on host immune function, intestinal mucosal integrity, and microbiota composition. • Adding methionine and lysine in a low-protein diet improve the intestinal mucosal growth and integrity. • Feeding a low-protein diet with methionine and lysine enhance the innate immune status. • Adding methionine and lysine in a low-protein diet alter the intestinal microbiota composition.

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Topics: Low-protein diet (62%), Low protein (56%), Methionine (53%) ... read more

1 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1155/2021/2294942
Shanshan Chen1, Chi Zhang1, Beihui He1, Ruonan He1  +2 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: lncRNA is a transcript that is more than 200 bp in length. Currently, evidence has shown that lncRNA is of great significance in cell activity, involved in epigenetics, gene transcription, chromatin regulation, etc. The existence of an intestinal mucosal mechanical barrier hinders the invasion of pathogenic bacteria and toxins, maintaining the stability of the intestinal environment. Serious destruction or dysfunction of the mechanical barrier often leads to intestinal diseases. This review first summarizes the ability of lncRNAs to regulate the intestinal mucosal mechanical barrier. We then discussed how lncRNAs participate in various intestinal diseases by regulating the intestinal mucosal mechanical barrier. Finally, we envision its potential as a new marker for diagnosing and treating intestinal inflammatory diseases.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/MICROORGANISMS9091983
Shiyan Chen1, Yanan Li1, Bingxin Chu1, Lanxin Yuan1  +3 moreInstitutions (1)
17 Sep 2021-
Abstract: Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is an aggressive zoonotic pathogen that causes enteritis and diarrhea. Antibiotic therapy is still the primary method at present. However, the increasing emergence of multi-drug resistant bacteria weakens the therapeutic efficacy of antibiotics. Probiotics have been widely studied as an alternative antibiotic therapy. In this study, we established an IPEC-J2 cell model of S. Typhimurium infection, aiming to determine the protective effect of Lactobacillus johnsonii L531 (L. johnsonii L531) on S. Typhimurium infection. As our data showed, S. Typhimurium infection resulted in a robust inflammatory response demonstrated by promoted protein levels of the inflammatory-related pathway (TLR4, MyD88, p-IκBα, and p-p65), increased cytokine levels of IL-6, IL-1β, IL-18, and TNF-α, and activated the NLRP3 inflammasome via promoting its assembly. However, L. johnsonii L531 pre-incubation inhibited the activation of the above inflammatory signaling pathways and reduced the expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, L. johnsonii L531 alleviated the damage of S. Typhimurium to tight junctions ZO-1, Occludin, and Claudin-1. In summary, our findings suggested that L. johnsonii L531 alleviated S. Typhimurium-induced tight junction injury by inhibiting the TLR4/NF-κB/NLRP3 inflammasome signaling pathway.

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Topics: Lactobacillus johnsonii (67%), Inflammasome (56%)


165 results found

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1128/MMBR.00031-10
Marie Cargnello1, Philippe P. Roux1Institutions (1)
Abstract: SUMMARY The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) regulate diverse cellular programs by relaying extracellular signals to intracellular responses. In mammals, there are more than a dozen MAPK enzymes that coordinately regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, motility, and survival. The best known are the conventional MAPKs, which include the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun amino-terminal kinases 1 to 3 (JNK1 to -3), p38 (α, β, γ, and δ), and ERK5 families. There are additional, atypical MAPK enzymes, including ERK3/4, ERK7/8, and Nemo-like kinase (NLK), which have distinct regulation and functions. Together, the MAPKs regulate a large number of substrates, including members of a family of protein Ser/Thr kinases termed MAPK-activated protein kinases (MAPKAPKs). The MAPKAPKs are related enzymes that respond to extracellular stimulation through direct MAPK-dependent activation loop phosphorylation and kinase activation. There are five MAPKAPK subfamilies: the p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK), the mitogen- and stress-activated kinase (MSK), the MAPK-interacting kinase (MNK), the MAPK-activated protein kinase 2/3 (MK2/3), and MK5 (also known as p38-regulated/activated protein kinase [PRAK]). These enzymes have diverse biological functions, including regulation of nucleosome and gene expression, mRNA stability and translation, and cell proliferation and survival. Here we review the mechanisms of MAPKAPK activation by the different MAPKs and discuss their physiological roles based on established substrates and recent discoveries.

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Topics: Mitogen-activated protein kinase (66%), ASK1 (65%), Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (65%) ... read more

1,858 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3945/JN.109.104638
Luying Peng1, Zhong-Rong Li2, Robert S. Green1, Ian R. Holzman1  +1 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Butyrate, one of the SCFA, promotes the development of the intestinal barrier. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the butyrate regulation of the intestinal barrier are unknown. To test the hypothesis that the effect of butyrate on the intestinal barrier is mediated by the regulation of the assembly of tight junctions involving the activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), we determined the effect of butyrate on the intestinal barrier by measuring the transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and inulin permeability in a Caco-2 cell monolayer model. We further used a calcium switch assay to study the assembly of epithelial tight junctions and determined the effect of butyrate on the assembly of epithelial tight junctions and AMPK activity. We demonstrated that the butyrate treatment increased AMPK activity and accelerated the assembly of tight junctions as shown by the reorganization of tight junction proteins, as well as the development of TER. AMPK activity was also upregulated by butyrate during calcium switch-induced tight junction assembly. Compound C, a specific AMPK inhibitor, inhibited the butyrate-induced activation of AMPK. The facilitating effect of butyrate on the increases in TER in standard culture media, as well as after calcium switch, was abolished by compound C. We conclude that butyrate enhances the intestinal barrier by regulating the assembly of tight junctions. This dynamic process is mediated by the activation of AMPK. These results suggest an intriguing link between SCFA and the intracellular energy sensor for the development of the intestinal barrier.

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Topics: AMPK (62%), Butyrate (59%), Tight junction (58%) ... read more

938 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NRI3535
Charlie G. Buffie1, Eric G. Pamer1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Colonization resistance — protection from exogenous pathogens by commensal bacteria — can be mediated by direct antagonism and by indirect effects on the host immune response. This Review outlines our current knowledge of immune-mediated colonization resistance against clinically relevant, antibiotic-resistant intestinal pathogens and how insights into commensal bacterial species and their mechanisms might be therapeutically used to restore resistance.

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Topics: Colonisation resistance (67%)

900 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1073/PNAS.261452898
Abstract: The coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) mediates viral attachment and infection, but its physiologic functions have not been described. In nonpolarized cells, CAR localized to homotypic intercellular contacts, mediated homotypic cell aggregation, and recruited the tight junction protein ZO-1 to sites of cell–cell contact. In polarized epithelial cells, CAR and ZO-1 colocalized to tight junctions and could be coprecipitated from cell lysates. CAR expression led to reduced passage of macromolecules and ions across cell monolayers, and soluble CAR inhibited the formation of functional tight junctions. Virus entry into polarized epithelium required disruption of tight junctions. These results indicate that CAR is a component of the tight junction and of the functional barrier to paracellular solute movement. Sequestration of CAR in tight junctions may limit virus infection across epithelial surfaces.

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673 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0092-8674(01)00231-8
09 Feb 2001-Cell
Abstract: Virus attachment to cells plays an essential role in viral tropism and disease. Reovirus serotypes 1 and 3 differ in the capacity to target distinct cell types in the murine nervous system and in the efficiency to induce apoptosis. The binding of viral attachment protein σ1 to unidentified receptors controls these phenotypes. We used expression cloning to identify junction adhesion molecule (JAM), an integral tight junction protein, as a reovirus receptor. JAM binds directly to σ1 and permits reovirus infection of nonpermissive cells. Ligation of JAM is required for reovirus-induced activation of NF-κB and apoptosis. Thus, reovirus interaction with cell-surface receptors is a critical determinant of both cell-type specific tropism and virus-induced intracellular signaling events that culminate in cell death.

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Topics: Tropism (56%), Junctional Adhesion Molecule A (54%), Tissue tropism (54%) ... read more

591 Citations