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Journal ArticleDOI

Timeliness of Information for Computation-Intensive Status Updates in Task-Oriented Communications

01 Mar 2023-IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications (IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications)-Vol. 41, Iss: 3, pp 623-638
TL;DR: In this article , the authors derived the closed-form expressions of timeliness of information for computation offloading at both edge tier and fog tier, where two-stage tandem queues are exploited to abstract the transmission and computation process.
Abstract: Moving beyond just interconnected devices, the increasing interplay between communication and computation has fed the vision of real-time networked control systems. To obtain timely situational awareness, IoT devices continuously sample computation-intensive status updates, generate perception tasks and offload them to edge servers for processing. In this sense, the timeliness of information is considered as one major contextual attribute of status updates. In this paper, we derive the closed-form expressions of timeliness of information for computation offloading at both edge tier and fog tier, where two-stage tandem queues are exploited to abstract the transmission and computation process. Moreover, we exploit the statistical structure of Gauss-Markov process, which is widely adopted to model temporal dynamics of system states, and derive the closed-form expression for process-related timeliness of information. The obtained analytical formulas explicitly characterize the dependency among task generation, transmission and execution, which can serve as objective functions for system optimization. Based on the theoretical results, we formulate a computation offloading optimization problem at edge tier, where the timeliness of status updates is minimized among multiple devices by joint optimization of task generation, bandwidth allocation, and computation resource allocation. An iterative solution procedure is proposed to solve the formulated problem. Numerical results reveal the intertwined relationship among transmission and computation stages, and verify the necessity of factoring in the task generation process for computation offloading strategy design.

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References
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Proceedings ArticleDOI
25 Mar 2012
TL;DR: A time-average age metric is employed for the performance evaluation of status update systems and the existence of an optimal rate at which a source must generate its information to keep its status as timely as possible at all its monitors is shown.
Abstract: Increasingly ubiquitous communication networks and connectivity via portable devices have engendered a host of applications in which sources, for example people and environmental sensors, send updates of their status to interested recipients. These applications desire status updates at the recipients to be as timely as possible; however, this is typically constrained by limited network resources. In this paper, we employ a time-average age metric for the performance evaluation of status update systems. We derive general methods for calculating the age metric that can be applied to a broad class of service systems. We apply these methods to queue-theoretic system abstractions consisting of a source, a service facility and monitors, with the model of the service facility (physical constraints) a given. The queue discipline of first-come-first-served (FCFS) is explored. We show the existence of an optimal rate at which a source must generate its information to keep its status as timely as possible at all its monitors. This rate differs from those that maximize utilization (throughput) or minimize status packet delivery delay. While our abstractions are simpler than their real-world counterparts, the insights obtained, we believe, are a useful starting point in understanding and designing systems that support real time status updates.

1,879 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a low-complexity online algorithm is proposed, namely, the Lyapunov optimization-based dynamic computation offloading algorithm, which jointly decides the offloading decision, the CPU-cycle frequencies for mobile execution, and the transmit power for computing offloading.
Abstract: Mobile-edge computing (MEC) is an emerging paradigm to meet the ever-increasing computation demands from mobile applications. By offloading the computationally intensive workloads to the MEC server, the quality of computation experience, e.g., the execution latency, could be greatly improved. Nevertheless, as the on-device battery capacities are limited, computation would be interrupted when the battery energy runs out. To provide satisfactory computation performance as well as achieving green computing, it is of significant importance to seek renewable energy sources to power mobile devices via energy harvesting (EH) technologies. In this paper, we will investigate a green MEC system with EH devices and develop an effective computation offloading strategy. The execution cost , which addresses both the execution latency and task failure, is adopted as the performance metric. A low-complexity online algorithm is proposed, namely, the Lyapunov optimization-based dynamic computation offloading algorithm, which jointly decides the offloading decision, the CPU-cycle frequencies for mobile execution, and the transmit power for computation offloading. A unique advantage of this algorithm is that the decisions depend only on the current system state without requiring distribution information of the computation task request, wireless channel, and EH processes. The implementation of the algorithm only requires to solve a deterministic problem in each time slot, for which the optimal solution can be obtained either in closed form or by bisection search. Moreover, the proposed algorithm is shown to be asymptotically optimal via rigorous analysis. Sample simulation results shall be presented to corroborate the theoretical analysis as well as validate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

1,385 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper considers regularized block multiconvex optimization, where the feasible set and objective function are generally nonconvex but convex in each block of variables and proposes a generalized block coordinate descent method.
Abstract: This paper considers regularized block multiconvex optimization, where the feasible set and objective function are generally nonconvex but convex in each block of variables. It also accepts nonconvex blocks and requires these blocks to be updated by proximal minimization. We review some interesting applications and propose a generalized block coordinate descent method. Under certain conditions, we show that any limit point satisfies the Nash equilibrium conditions. Furthermore, we establish global convergence and estimate the asymptotic convergence rate of the method by assuming a property based on the Kurdyka--Łojasiewicz inequality. The proposed algorithms are tested on nonnegative matrix and tensor factorization, as well as matrix and tensor recovery from incomplete observations. The tests include synthetic data and hyperspectral data, as well as image sets from the CBCL and ORL databases. Compared to the existing state-of-the-art algorithms, the proposed algorithms demonstrate superior performance in ...

1,153 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors study how to optimally manage the freshness of information updates sent from a source node to a destination via a channel and develop efficient algorithms to find the optimal update policy among all causal policies and establish sufficient and necessary conditions for the optimality of the zero-wait policy.
Abstract: In this paper, we study how to optimally manage the freshness of information updates sent from a source node to a destination via a channel. A proper metric for data freshness at the destination is the age-of-information , or simply age , which is defined as how old the freshest received update is, since the moment that this update was generated at the source node (e.g., a sensor). A reasonable update policy is the zero-wait policy, i.e., the source node submits a fresh update once the previous update is delivered, which achieves the maximum throughput and the minimum delay. Surprisingly, this zero-wait policy does not always minimize the age. This counter-intuitive phenomenon motivates us to study how to optimally control information updates to keep the data fresh and to understand when the zero-wait policy is optimal. We introduce a general age penalty function to characterize the level of dissatisfaction on data staleness and formulate the average age penalty minimization problem as a constrained semi-Markov decision problem with an uncountable state space. We develop efficient algorithms to find the optimal update policy among all causal policies and establish sufficient and necessary conditions for the optimality of the zero-wait policy. Our investigation shows that the zero-wait policy is far from the optimum if: 1) the age penalty function grows quickly with respect to the age; 2) the packet transmission times over the channel are positively correlated over time; or 3) the packet transmission times are highly random (e.g., following a heavy-tail distribution).

857 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper proposes an optimization framework of offloading from a single mobile device (MD) to multiple edge devices and proposes a linear relaxation-based approach and a semidefinite relaxation (SDR)-based approach for the fixed CPU frequency case, and an exhaustive search- based approach and an SDR-based approaches for the elasticCPU frequency case.
Abstract: In this paper, we propose an optimization framework of offloading from a single mobile device (MD) to multiple edge devices. We aim to minimize both total tasks’ execution latency and the MD’s energy consumption by jointly optimizing the task allocation decision and the MD’s central process unit (CPU) frequency. This paper considers two cases for the MD, i.e., fixed CPU frequency and elastic CPU frequency. Since these problems are NP-hard, we propose a linear relaxation-based approach and a semidefinite relaxation (SDR)-based approach for the fixed CPU frequency case, and an exhaustive search-based approach and an SDR-based approach for the elastic CPU frequency case. Our simulation results show that the SDR-based algorithms achieve near optimal performance. Performance improvement can be obtained with the proposed scheme in terms of energy consumption and tasks’ execution latency when multiple edge devices and elastic CPU frequency are considered. Finally, we show that the MD’s flexible CPU range can have an impact on the task allocation.

735 citations