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Journal ArticleDOI

Tisagenlecleucel in Children and Young Adults with B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia

31 Jan 2018-The New England Journal of Medicine (Massachussetts Medical Society)-Vol. 378, Iss: 5, pp 439-448

TL;DR: In this global study of CAR T‐cell therapy, a single infusion of tisagenlecleucel provided durable remission with long‐term persistence in pediatric and young adult patients with relapsed or refractory B‐cell ALL, with transient high‐grade toxic effects.
Abstract: Background In a single-center phase 1–2a study, the anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy tisagenlecleucel produced high rates of complete remission and was associated with serious but mainly reversible toxic effects in children and young adults with relapsed or refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) Methods We conducted a phase 2, single-cohort, 25-center, global study of tisagenlecleucel in pediatric and young adult patients with CD19+ relapsed or refractory B-cell ALL The primary end point was the overall remission rate (the rate of complete remission or complete remission with incomplete hematologic recovery) within 3 months Results For this planned analysis, 75 patients received an infusion of tisagenlecleucel and could be evaluated for efficacy The overall remission rate within 3 months was 81%, with all patients who had a response to treatment found to be negative for minimal residual disease, as assessed by means of flow cytometry The rates of event-f
Topics: Minimal residual disease (61%), Blinatumomab (53%)
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy tisagenlecleucel targets and eliminates CD19-expressing B cells and showed efficacy against B-cell lymphomas in a single-center, phase 2a study.
Abstract: Background Patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma that is refractory to primary and second-line therapies or that has relapsed after stem-cell transplantation have a poor prognosis. The chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy tisagenlecleucel targets and eliminates CD19-expressing B cells and showed efficacy against B-cell lymphomas in a single-center, phase 2a study. Methods We conducted an international, phase 2, pivotal study of centrally manufactured tisagenlecleucel involving adult patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma who were ineligible for or had disease progression after autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. The primary end point was the best overall response rate (i.e., the percentage of patients who had a complete or partial response), as judged by an independent review committee. Results A total of 93 patients received an infusion and were included in the evaluation of efficacy. The median time from infusion to data cutoff was 14 ...

1,155 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
23 Mar 2018-Science
TL;DR: Opportunities and challenges for entering mainstream oncology that presently face the CAR T field are described, with a focus on the challenges that have emerged over the past several years.
Abstract: Adoptive T cell transfer (ACT) is a new area of transfusion medicine involving the infusion of lymphocytes to mediate antitumor, antiviral, or anti-inflammatory effects. The field has rapidly advanced from a promising form of immuno-oncology in preclinical models to the recent commercial approvals of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells to treat leukemia and lymphoma. This Review describes opportunities and challenges for entering mainstream oncology that presently face the CAR T field, with a focus on the challenges that have emerged over the past several years.

1,046 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Carl H. June1, Michel Sadelain2Institutions (2)
TL;DR: This review addresses T-cell engineering and synthetic immunity, with a focus on producing durable remissions in patients with treatment-refractory tumors, aboutimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells.
Abstract: Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells This review addresses T-cell engineering and synthetic immunity, with a focus on producing durable remissions in patients with treatment-refractory tumors. Toxic e...

818 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The goal is to provide a uniform consensus grading system for CRS and neurotoxicity associated with immune effector cell therapies, for use across clinical trials and in the postapproval clinical setting.
Abstract: Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy is rapidly emerging as one of the most promising therapies for hematologic malignancies. Two CAR T products were recently approved in the United States and Europe for the treatment ofpatients up to age 25years with relapsed or refractory B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and/or adults with large B cell lymphoma. Many more CAR T products, as well as other immunotherapies, including various immune cell- and bi-specific antibody-based approaches that function by activation of immune effector cells, are in clinical development for both hematologic and solid tumor malignancies. These therapies are associated with unique toxicities of cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and neurologic toxicity. The assessment and grading of these toxicities vary considerably across clinical trials and across institutions, making it difficult to compare the safety of different products and hindering the ability to develop optimal strategies for management of these toxicities. Moreover, some aspects of these grading systems can be challenging to implement across centers. Therefore, in an effort to harmonize the definitions and grading systems for CRS and neurotoxicity, experts from all aspects of the field met on June 20 and 21, 2018, at a meeting supported by the American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy (ASTCT; formerly American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation, ASBMT) in Arlington, VA. Here we report the consensus recommendations of that group and propose new definitions and grading for CRS and neurotoxicity that are objective, easy to apply, and ultimately more accurately categorize the severity of these toxicities. The goal is to provide a uniform consensus grading system for CRS and neurotoxicity associated with immune effector cell therapies, for use across clinical trials and in the postapproval clinical setting.

719 citations


Cites background from "Tisagenlecleucel in Children and Yo..."

  • ...Two CD19 CAR T cell products were recently approved in the United States and Europe [1-4], andmore indications are expected in the coming years....

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  • ...In this new field of medicine, companies may have to face the possibility of a gap between what the FDA or European Medicines Agency (EMA) wants them to collect and what centers are actually able to provide....

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  • ...Two CAR T products were recently approved in the United States and Europe for the treatment of patients up to age 25 years with relapsed or refractory B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and/or adults with large B cell lymphoma....

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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 2019-Lancet Oncology
TL;DR: Long-term activity and safety outcomes of the ZUMA-1 study suggest that axicabtagene ciloleucel can induce durable responses and a median overall survival of greater than 2 years, and has a manageable relapsed or refractory disease or relapsed after autologous stem-cell transplantation.
Abstract: Summary Background Axicabtagene ciloleucel is an autologous anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy. In the previous analysis of the ZUMA-1 registrational study, with a median follow-up of 15·4 months (IQR 13·7–17·3), 89 (82%) of 108 assessable patients with refractory large B-cell lymphoma treated with axicabtagene ciloleucel achieved an objective response, and complete responses were noted in 63 (58%) patients. Here we report long-term activity and safety outcomes of the ZUMA-1 study. Methods ZUMA-1 is a single-arm, multicentre, registrational trial at 22 sites in the USA and Israel. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older, and had histologically confirmed large B-cell lymphoma—including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma, and transformed follicular lymphoma—according to the 2008 WHO Classification of Tumors of Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissue; refractory disease or relapsed after autologous stem-cell transplantation; an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1; and had previously received an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody containing-regimen and an anthracycline-containing chemotherapy. Participants received one dose of axicabtagene ciloleucel on day 0 at a target dose of 2 × 106 CAR T cells per kg of bodyweight after conditioning chemotherapy with intravenous fludarabine (30 mg/m2 body-surface area) and cyclophosphamide (500 mg/m2 body-surface area) on days −5, −4, and −3. The primary endpoints were safety for phase 1 and the proportion of patients achieving an objective response for phase 2, and key secondary endpoints were overall survival, progression-free survival, and duration of response. Pre-planned activity and safety analyses were done per protocol. ZUMA-1 is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov , number NCT02348216 . Although the registrational cohorts are closed, the trial remains open, and recruitment to extension cohorts with alternative endpoints is underway. Findings Between May 19, 2015, and Sept 15, 2016, 119 patients were enrolled and 108 received axicabtagene ciloleucel across phases 1 and 2. As of the cutoff date of Aug 11, 2018, 101 patients assessable for activity in phase 2 were followed up for a median of 27·1 months (IQR 25·7–28·8), 84 (83%) had an objective response, and 59 (58%) had a complete response. The median duration of response was 11·1 months (4·2–not estimable). The median overall survival was not reached (12·8–not estimable), and the median progression-free survival was 5·9 months (95% CI 3·3–15·0). 52 (48%) of 108 patients assessable for safety in phases 1 and 2 had grade 3 or worse serious adverse events. Grade 3 or worse cytokine release syndrome occurred in 12 (11%) patients, and grade 3 or worse neurological events in 35 (32%). Since the previous analysis at 1 year, additional serious adverse events were reported in four patients (grade 3 mental status changes, grade 4 myelodysplastic syndrome, grade 3 lung infection, and two episodes of grade 3 bacteraemia), none of which were judged to be treatment related. Two treatment-related deaths (due to haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and cardiac arrest) were previously reported, but no new treatment-related deaths occurred during the additional follow-up. Interpretation These 2-year follow-up data from ZUMA-1 suggest that axicabtagene ciloleucel can induce durable responses and a median overall survival of greater than 2 years, and has a manageable long-term safety profile in patients with relapsed or refractory large B-cell lymphoma. Funding Kite and the Leukemia & Lymphoma Society Therapy Acceleration Program.

689 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The emergence of tumor cells that no longer express the target indicates a need to target other molecules in addition to CD19 in some patients with ALL.
Abstract: Chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells with specificity for CD19 have shown promise in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). It remains to be established whether chimeric antigen receptor T cells have clinical activity in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Two children with relapsed and refractory pre-B-cell ALL received infusions of T cells transduced with anti-CD19 antibody and a T-cell signaling molecule (CTL019 chimeric antigen receptor T cells), at a dose of 1.4×10(6) to 1.2×10(7) CTL019 cells per kilogram of body weight. In both patients, CTL019 T cells expanded to a level that was more than 1000 times as high as the initial engraftment level, and the cells were identified in bone marrow. In addition, the chimeric antigen receptor T cells were observed in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), where they persisted at high levels for at least 6 months. Eight grade 3 or 4 adverse events were noted. The cytokine-release syndrome and B-cell aplasia developed in both patients. In one child, the cytokine-release syndrome was severe; cytokine blockade with etanercept and tocilizumab was effective in reversing the syndrome and did not prevent expansion of chimeric antigen receptor T cells or reduce antileukemic efficacy. Complete remission was observed in both patients and is ongoing in one patient at 11 months after treatment. The other patient had a relapse, with blast cells that no longer expressed CD19, approximately 2 months after treatment. Chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells are capable of killing even aggressive, treatment-refractory acute leukemia cells in vivo. The emergence of tumor cells that no longer express the target indicates a need to target other molecules in addition to CD19 in some patients with ALL.

2,635 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...Any grade 3 or 4 adverse event 19 (25) 33 (44) 8 (11) 4 (6)...

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Journal ArticleDOI
07 Feb 2015-The Lancet
TL;DR: CD19-CAR T cell therapy is feasible, safe, and mediates potent anti-leukaemic activity in children and young adults with chemotherapy-resistant B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
Abstract: Summary Background Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) modified T cells targeting CD19 have shown activity in case series of patients with acute and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and B-cell lymphomas, but feasibility, toxicity, and response rates of consecutively enrolled patients treated with a consistent regimen and assessed on an intention-to-treat basis have not been reported. We aimed to define feasibility, toxicity, maximum tolerated dose, response rate, and biological correlates of response in children and young adults with refractory B-cell malignancies treated with CD19-CAR T cells. Methods This phase 1, dose-escalation trial consecutively enrolled children and young adults (aged 1–30 years) with relapsed or refractory acute lymphoblastic leukaemia or non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Autologous T cells were engineered via an 11-day manufacturing process to express a CD19-CAR incorporating an anti-CD19 single-chain variable fragment plus TCR zeta and CD28 signalling domains. All patients received fludarabine and cyclophosphamide before a single infusion of CD19-CAR T cells. Using a standard 3 + 3 design to establish the maximum tolerated dose, patients received either 1 × 10 6 CAR-transduced T cells per kg (dose 1), 3 × 10 6 CAR-transduced T cells per kg (dose 2), or the entire CAR T-cell product if sufficient numbers of cells to meet the assigned dose were not generated. After the dose-escalation phase, an expansion cohort was treated at the maximum tolerated dose. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01593696. Findings Between July 2, 2012, and June 20, 2014, 21 patients (including eight who had previously undergone allogeneic haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation) were enrolled and infused with CD19-CAR T cells. 19 received the prescribed dose of CD19-CAR T cells, whereas the assigned dose concentration could not be generated for two patients (90% feasible). All patients enrolled were assessed for response. The maximum tolerated dose was defined as 1 × 10 6 CD19-CAR T cells per kg. All toxicities were fully reversible, with the most severe being grade 4 cytokine release syndrome that occurred in three (14%) of 21 patients (95% CI 3·0–36·3). The most common non-haematological grade 3 adverse events were fever (nine [43%] of 21 patients), hypokalaemia (nine [43%] of 21 patients), fever and neutropenia (eight [38%] of 21 patients), and cytokine release syndrome (three [14%) of 21 patients). Interpretation CD19-CAR T cell therapy is feasible, safe, and mediates potent anti-leukaemic activity in children and young adults with chemotherapy-resistant B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. All toxicities were reversible and prolonged B-cell aplasia did not occur. Funding National Institutes of Health Intramural funds and St Baldrick's Foundation.

1,964 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results demonstrate the marked antitumor efficacy of 19-28z CAR-modified T cells in patients with relapsed/refractory B-ALL and the reliability of this therapy to induce profound molecular remissions, forming a highly effective bridge to potentially curative therapy with subsequent allo-HSCT.
Abstract: Adults with relapsed B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) have a dismal prognosis. Only those patients able to achieve a second remission with no minimal residual disease (MRD) have a hope for long-term survival in the context of a subsequent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). We have treated five relapsed B-ALL subjects with autologous T cells expressing a CD19-specific CD28/CD3ζ second-generation dual-signaling chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) termed 19-28z. All patients with persistent morphological disease or MRD(+) disease upon T cell infusion demonstrated rapid tumor eradication and achieved MRD(-) complete remissions as assessed by deep sequencing polymerase chain reaction. Therapy was well tolerated, although significant cytokine elevations, specifically observed in those patients with morphologic evidence of disease at the time of treatment, required lymphotoxic steroid therapy to ameliorate cytokine-mediated toxicities. Indeed, cytokine elevations directly correlated to tumor burden at the time of CAR-modified T cell infusions. Tumor cells from one patient with relapsed disease after CAR-modified T cell therapy, who was ineligible for additional allo-HSCT or T cell therapy, exhibited persistent expression of CD19 and sensitivity to autologous 19-28z T cell-mediated cytotoxicity, which suggests potential clinical benefit of additional CAR-modified T cell infusions. These results demonstrate the marked antitumor efficacy of 19-28z CAR-modified T cells in patients with relapsed/refractory B-ALL and the reliability of this therapy to induce profound molecular remissions, forming a highly effective bridge to potentially curative therapy with subsequent allo-HSCT.

1,677 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is established that high CAR-T cell doses and tumor burden increase the risks of severe cytokine release syndrome and neurotoxicity, and serum biomarkers that allow testing of early intervention strategies in patients at the highest risk of toxicity are identified.
Abstract: BACKGROUND. T cells that have been modified to express a CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) have antitumor activity in B cell malignancies; however, identification of the factors that determine toxicity and efficacy of these T cells has been challenging in prior studies in which phenotypically heterogeneous CAR–T cell products were prepared from unselected T cells. METHODS. We conducted a clinical trial to evaluate CD19 CAR–T cells that were manufactured from defined CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets and administered in a defined CD4+:CD8+ composition to adults with B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia after lymphodepletion chemotherapy. RESULTS. The defined composition product was remarkably potent, as 27 of 29 patients (93%) achieved BM remission, as determined by flow cytometry. We established that high CAR–T cell doses and tumor burden increase the risks of severe cytokine release syndrome and neurotoxicity. Moreover, we identified serum biomarkers that allow testing of early intervention strategies in patients at the highest risk of toxicity. Risk-stratified CAR–T cell dosing based on BM disease burden decreased toxicity. CD8+ T cell–mediated anti-CAR transgene product immune responses developed after CAR–T cell infusion in some patients, limited CAR–T cell persistence, and increased relapse risk. Addition of fludarabine to the lymphodepletion regimen improved CAR–T cell persistence and disease-free survival. CONCLUSION. Immunotherapy with a CAR–T cell product of defined composition enabled identification of factors that correlated with CAR–T cell expansion, persistence, and toxicity and facilitated design of lymphodepletion and CAR–T cell dosing strategies that mitigated toxicity and improved disease-free survival. TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov {"type":"clinical-trial","attrs":{"text":"NCT01865617","term_id":"NCT01865617"}}NCT01865617. FUNDING. R01-CA136551; Life Science Development Fund; Juno Therapeutics; Bezos Family Foundation.

1,167 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
David L. Porter1, Wei-Ting Hwang1, Noelle V. Frey1, Simon F. Lacey1  +14 moreInstitutions (3)
TL;DR: The in vivo expansion of theCAR T cells correlated with clinical responses, and the CAR T cells persisted and remained functional beyond 4 years in the first two patients achieving CR, suggesting that disease eradication may be possible in some patients with advanced CLL.
Abstract: Patients with multiply relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have a poor prognosis. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells targeting CD19 have the potential to improve on the low complete response rates with conventional therapies by inducing sustained remissions in patients with refractory B cell malignancies. We previously reported preliminary results on three patients with refractory CLL. We report the mature results from our initial trial using CAR-modified T cells to treat 14 patients with relapsed and refractory CLL. Autologous T cells transduced with a CD19-directed CAR (CTL019) lentiviral vector were infused into patients with relapsed/refractory CLL at doses of 0.14 × 10(8) to 11 × 10(8) CTL019 cells (median, 1.6 × 10(8) cells). Patients were monitored for toxicity, response, expansion, and persistence of circulating CTL019 T cells. The overall response rate in these heavily pretreated CLL patients was 8 of 14 (57%), with 4 complete remissions (CR) and 4 partial remissions (PR). The in vivo expansion of the CAR T cells correlated with clinical responses, and the CAR T cells persisted and remained functional beyond 4 years in the first two patients achieving CR. No patient in CR has relapsed. All responding patients developed B cell aplasia and experienced cytokine release syndrome, coincident with T cell proliferation. Minimal residual disease was not detectable in patients who achieved CR, suggesting that disease eradication may be possible in some patients with advanced CLL.

1,104 citations


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No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
YearCitations
20228
2021735
2020661
2019458
2018182