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To Regulate or not to Regulate? : Evaluating the Relationship between Prostitution Laws and Trafficking Flows

01 Jan 2019-
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors discuss the fact that hundreds of thousands of people are trafficked across borders, most often against their will or without their knowledge, often without their consent.
Abstract: Yearly, hundreds of thousands of people are trafficked across borders, most often against their will or without their knowledge. Albeit having been a part of our history, our present and, sadly, pr ...
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Book
01 Oct 2006
TL;DR: This new edition of the "Practitioner's Guide to Trusts" is a step-by-step guide to all the practical aspects of trust law, providing all the information a practitioner needs to answer clients' queries and concerns.
Abstract: This new edition of the "Practitioner's Guide to Trusts" is a step-by-step guide to all the practical aspects of trust law. A time-saving, concise guide, providing all the information a practitioner needs to answer clients' queries and concerns. Part I deals with matters common to all trusts, from setting up a trust and how to administer it, to breach of trust and removal of trustees. Part II covers specific trusts in detail. For example, there are separate chapters on pensions, charities and life assurance. Taxation issues are dealt with throughout the book. Written by an expert and highly respected author, this handbook provides comprehensive and practical information that is as useful to accountants and trust practitioners as it is to lawyers. It has been fully updated and revised to include the latest charities legislation and Finance Act 2006.

13 citations

References
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Posted Content
TL;DR: This article showed that the gravity model usually estimated does not correspond to the theory behind it and showed that national borders reduce trade between the US and Canada by about 44% while reducing trade among other industrialized countries by about 30%.
Abstract: The gravity model has been widely used to infer substantial trade flow effects of institutions such as customs unions and exchange rate mechanisms. McCallum [1995] found that the US-Canada border led to trade between provinces that is a factor 22 (2,200%) times trade between states and provinces, a spectacular puzzle in light of the low formal barriers on this border. We show that the gravity model usually estimated does not correspond to the theory behind it. We solve the 'border puzzle' by applying the theory seriously. We find that national borders reduce trade between the US and Canada by about 44%, while reducing trade among other industrialized countries by about 30%. McCallum's spectacular headline number is the result of a combination of omitted variables bias and the small size of the Canadian economy. Within-Canada trade rises by a factor 6 due to the border. In contrast, within-US trade rises 25%.

6,043 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article examined the effect of independence on post-colonization trade and found that the severing of formal colonial relations can lead to an immediate reduction in trade as preferential access is eliminated as well as a gradual reduction corresponding to the deterioration of trading networks.

872 citations

01 Jan 2013
TL;DR: A definition of the term "trafficking in persons" is provided in the Protocol, as well as a number of mandatory requirements relating to protection of and assistance to trafficked persons that State Parties are obliged to fulfil.
Abstract: The basic purpose of the Protocol is to prevent and combat trafficking, to protect and assist victims and to promote international cooperation. The protection of, and assistance to, victims is specified as a core purpose of the Protocol. The Protocol requires that particular attention be paid to combat and prevent trafficking in women and children, while maintaining the basic principle that all forms of trafficking should be covered by the Protocol. A definition of the term "trafficking in persons" is provided in the Protocol, as well as a number of mandatory requirements relating to protection of and assistance to trafficked persons that State Parties are obliged to fulfil. The savings clause in Article 14 ensures that the Protocol does not affect the rights, obligations and responsibilities of States and individuals under international law, including international humanitarian, human rights and refugee law.

519 citations


"To Regulate or not to Regulate? : E..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The definition, stated in the third article of the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress, and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children, can be summarised as “the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation” (OHCHR, 2000)(2)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigate the impact of legalized prostitution on human trafficking inflows and show that the scale effect dominates the substitution effect, leading to an expansion of the prostitution market, increasing human trafficking and reducing demand for trafficked women.
Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of legalized prostitution on human trafficking inflows. According to economic theory, there are two opposing effects of unknown magnitude. The scale effect of legalized prostitution leads to an expansion of the prostitution market, increasing human trafficking, while the substitution effect reduces demand for trafficked women as legal prostitutes are favored over trafficked ones. Our empirical analysis for a cross-section of up to 150 countries shows that the scale effect dominates the substitution effect. On average, countries where prostitution is legal experience larger reported human trafficking inflows.

183 citations


"To Regulate or not to Regulate? : E..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...Earlier studies show that differences in prostitution laws affect the number of victims of trafficking for sexual exploitation in a country (Cho et al., 2013; Jakobsson & Kotsadam, 2013)....

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  • ...7 Cho et al. (2013) uses the same scale described above to examine how the prevalence of trafficking correlates with prostitution laws in 161 countries....

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  • ...The rational choice framework leads us into a second part of the theoretical foundations of this study, developed by Cho et al. (2013)....

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  • ...This section explains the term trafficking, followed by a presentation of a theory of human trafficking developed by Wheaton et al. (2010) and a theory on how prostitution laws specifically might affect trafficking by Cho et al. (2013)....

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  • ...However, they argue, the analysis does not take into account the fact that sex workers in those countries might experience other positive effects of legalised prostitution, such as safer and better working conditions (Cho et al., 2013)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors conducted a regression analysis of 76 variables and found that corruption, poverty, conflict, and the "pull" factor of opportunity are all significant predictors of human trafficking, such as poverty and vulnerability.
Abstract: If the international community has achieved agreement on the definition of human trafficking, we still have only a partial understanding of what drives it. We know that poverty and vulnerability represent ‘push‐factors’ and that employment opportunity presents an important ‘pull‐factor.’ But which of these factors is the most important? The regression analysis of 76 variables undertaken here confirms that corruption, poverty, conflict, and the ‘pull’ factor of opportunity are all significant predictors of trafficking. Some of the most obvious strategies for slowing trafficking, on the basis of this analysis, would include those activities known to reduce ‘push’ factors, such as measures to reduce governmental corruption in both origin and destination countries, population control measures, especially poverty reduction, and tackling international inequalities in wealth. International financial institutions should give incentives to programmes for land reform, education and training, and health care, rather...

153 citations


"To Regulate or not to Regulate? : E..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Prior to the standardised definition, over 300 laws and agreements were meant to tackle the issue of trafficking worldwide, with many countries using their own words to describe the problem (Bales, 2007)....

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Trending Questions (1)
Is there a relationship between prostitution and human trafficking?

The paper discusses the relationship between prostitution laws and trafficking flows, but it does not explicitly state whether there is a relationship between prostitution and human trafficking.