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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/2159676X.2019.1704846

To saturate or not to saturate? Questioning data saturation as a useful concept for thematic analysis and sample-size rationales

04 Mar 2021-Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health (Routledge)-Vol. 13, Iss: 2, pp 201-216
Abstract: The concept of data saturation, defined as ‘information redundancy’ or the point at which no new themes or codes ‘emerge’ from data, is widely referenced in thematic analysis (TA) research in sport...

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Topics: Thematic analysis (54%)
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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/14780887.2020.1769238
Virginia Braun1, Victoria Clarke2Institutions (2)
Abstract: Developing a universal quality standard for thematic analysis (TA) is complicated by the existence of numerous iterations of TA that differ paradigmatically, philosophically and procedurally. This ...

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Topics: Thematic analysis (53%), Theme (narrative) (51%)

302 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/CAPR.12360
Virginia Braun1, Victoria Clarke2Institutions (2)
Abstract: Thematic analysis methods, including the reflexive approach we have developed, are widely used in counselling and psychotherapy research, as are other approaches that seek to develop ‘patterns’ (themes, categories) across cases. Without a thorough grounding in the conceptual foundations of a wide variety of across‐case analytic approaches, and qualitative research more broadly—something rarely offered in counselling training—it can be difficult to understand how these differ, where they overlap, and which might be appropriate for a particular research project. Our aim in this paper is to support researchers in counselling and psychotherapy to select an appropriate across‐case approach for their research, and to justify their choice, by discussing conceptual and procedural differences and similarities between reflexive thematic analysis (TA) and four other across‐case approaches. Three of these are also widely used in counselling and psychotherapy research—qualitative content analysis, interpretative phenomenological analysis and grounded theory. The fourth—discourse analysis—is less widely used but importantly exemplifies the critical qualitative research tradition. We contextualise our comparative approach by highlighting the diversity within TA. TA is best thought of as a spectrum of methods—from types that prioritise coding accuracy and reliability to reflexive approaches like ours that emphasise the inescapable subjectivity of data interpretation. Although reflexive TA provides the point of comparison for our discussion of other across‐case approaches, our aim is not to promote reflexive TA as ‘best’. Rather, we encourage the knowing selection and use of analytic methods and methodologies in counselling and psychotherapy research.

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Topics: Thematic analysis (55%), Grounded theory (52%), Interpretative phenomenological analysis (52%) ... show more

52 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.APPET.2020.104977
01 Jan 2021-Appetite
Abstract: COVID-19 may have substantial impact on the mental health at a population level, but also has the potential to significantly affect those with pre-existing mental health difficulties such as eating disorders. This qualitative study explores the impact of COVID-19 and associated public health measures on adults with eating disorders within the UK. We conducted 10 in depth interviews with adults (24-38 years) with a self-reported eating disorder during lockdown. Data were analysed using an inductive thematic analysis approach. We identified core themes related to social restrictions (social isolation, changes in accountability to others, and increased responsibility for self and others), functional restrictions (lack of routine and structure, a need to intentionally plan activity, a desire for secrecy particularly around food shopping) and restrictions in access to mental health services. Overall, the impact of the lockdown was experienced as a catalyst for either increased disordered eating behaviours or for a drive for recovery, depending on individual circumstances going into these restrictions. This study is the first in depth interview approach with adults with mixed eating disorder presentations in the UK during COVID-19. Findings have important implications for post lockdown intervention care and practice.

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Topics: Disordered eating (69%), Eating disorders (62%), Mental health (55%) ... show more

28 Citations


Open accessDissertationDOI: 10.15123/UEL.8882Q
01 Jan 2020-
Abstract: Background: UK professionals’ understandings of their roles with regards to service users’ sexualities is an under-explored area in clinical research and training, particularly within forensic mental health pathways where they may be exclusively conceptualised in terms of their potential negative underpinnings and outcomes. Secure services typically have no policies governing or promoting sexual expression, and tend to prohibit sexual intimacy. However, recent developments in national guidance and findings emerging from UK-based and international research raise questions as to this approach’s utility in providing rehabilitative care. To date, no research has investigated forensic hospital policy-makers’ sense-making practices around detainees’ sexualities. Aims: This study aims to examine hospital policy-makers’ understandings of forensic detainees’ sexualities, and how these relate to their experiences of practice and their vision of a policy governing sexual expression in hospital. The research is one part of a broader project that has previously explored detainees’ and professionals’ understandings of how sexualities operate within forensic institutions, and aims to support the development of policy and training materials. Methods: The present research draws upon a social constructionist epistemology, using a qualitative, thematic decomposition approach to examine the socially-sedimented discourses at play within the forensic hospital. Ten policymakers were recruited the largest provider of forensic inpatient services in the UK, and participated in semi-structured interviews. Findings: Three themes were identified: 1) Risk and Uncertainty, 2) Artificial Realities, 3) Detained Bodies. The implications of each of these are discussed in terms of their sub-themes. Conclusion: Despite being broadly consistent with policy-makers’ understandings of holistic, rehabilitative practice, the prospect of lessening restrictions on detainees’ sexual expression presents a number of challenges and concerns. ‘Traditional’ institutional and populist discourses concerning forensic professionals’ responsibility to prevent harm tended to supersede those supporting positive risk-taking and human rights-based approaches. The propensity for UK tabloid media to depict forensic detainees and professionals in an unfavourable light, and the accompanying potential for increased government scrutiny, was understood as a primary barrier to enacting less restrictive practices. The hospital itself was positioned as vulnerable to the predations of wider society.

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16 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/MCN.13011
Abstract: Maternal obesity is associated with increased risk of gestational diabetes and other complications. Although antenatal interventions to help prevent these complications are ongoing, an understanding of overweight and obese pregnant women's opinions and attitudes is lacking. Therefore, this study aims to explore these women's experiences and perceptions of dietary behaviours and weight management during pregnancy. Secondary analysis of qualitative data originally collected to examine lifestyle behaviours in pregnant women was conducted. The data were from a purposive sample of overweight and obese pregnant women attending a public antenatal clinic in Cork, Ireland. The data were explored using thematic analysis. Interviews with 30 overweight and obese pregnant women were analysed. Three themes were developed relating to overweight and obese women's dietary behaviours and weight management perceptions including 'pregnancy's influence on dietary behaviours', 'external influences on dietary behaviours' and 'perception of and preferences for weight related advice and resources'. Together these themes reveal women's experiences of diet and how pregnancy factors (physiological changes) and external factors (family and friends) can influence dietary behaviours. Furthermore, perceptions of weight management advice and lack thereof were highlighted with women drawing attention to potential resources for future use during pregnancy. This study provides important insights into overweight and obese pregnant women's dietary behaviours and perceptions of weight management. According to these findings, there is a need for clear and unambiguous information about weight management, acceptable weight gain, food safety and how to achieve a balanced diet.

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Topics: Overweight (55%), Weight management (54%), Thematic analysis (50%)

14 Citations


References
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53 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1191/1478088706QP063OA
Virginia Braun1, Victoria Clarke2Institutions (2)
Abstract: Thematic analysis is a poorly demarcated, rarely acknowledged, yet widely used qualitative analytic method within psychology. In this paper, we argue that it offers an accessible and theoretically flexible approach to analysing qualitative data. We outline what thematic analysis is, locating it in relation to other qualitative analytic methods that search for themes or patterns, and in relation to different epistemological and ontological positions. We then provide clear guidelines to those wanting to start thematic analysis, or conduct it in a more deliberate and rigorous way, and consider potential pitfalls in conducting thematic analysis. Finally, we outline the disadvantages and advantages of thematic analysis. We conclude by advocating thematic analysis as a useful and flexible method for qualitative research in and beyond psychology.

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77,018 Citations


Open accessBook
12 Oct 2017-
Abstract: Most writing on sociological method has been concerned with how accurate facts can be obtained and how theory can thereby be more rigorously tested. In The Discovery of Grounded Theory, Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss address the equally Important enterprise of how the discovery of theory from data--systematically obtained and analyzed in social research--can be furthered. The discovery of theory from data--grounded theory--is a major task confronting sociology, for such a theory fits empirical situations, and is understandable to sociologists and laymen alike. Most important, it provides relevant predictions, explanations, interpretations, and applications. In Part I of the book, "Generation Theory by Comparative Analysis," the authors present a strategy whereby sociologists can facilitate the discovery of grounded theory, both substantive and formal. This strategy involves the systematic choice and study of several comparison groups. In Part II, The Flexible Use of Data," the generation of theory from qualitative, especially documentary, and quantitative data Is considered. In Part III, "Implications of Grounded Theory," Glaser and Strauss examine the credibility of grounded theory. The Discovery of Grounded Theory is directed toward improving social scientists' capacity for generating theory that will be relevant to their research. While aimed primarily at sociologists, it will be useful to anyone Interested In studying social phenomena--political, educational, economic, industrial-- especially If their studies are based on qualitative data.

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Topics: Grounded theory (73%), Qualitative research (55%)

52,575 Citations




Open accessBook
01 Jan 2006-
Abstract: An Invitation to Grounded Theory Gathering Rich Data Coding in Grounded Theory Practice Memo-Writing Theoretical Sampling, Saturation and Sorting Reconstructing Theory in Grounded Theory Studies Writing the Draft Reflecting on the Research Process

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Topics: Grounded theory (69%), Theoretical sampling (54%)

16,528 Citations


Performance
Metrics
No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
YearCitations
20222
2021216
202058
20171