# Topological Phases in a PT-Symmetric Dissipative Kitaev Chain

22 May 2023-

TL;DR: In this article , a topological phase in the dissipative Kitaev chain described by the Markovian quantum master equation was studied and the authors classified Lindbladians in terms of non-Hermitian topological phases.

Abstract: We study a topological phase in the dissipative Kitaev chain described by the Markovian quantum master equation. Based on the correspondence between Lindbladians, which generate the dissipative time-evolution, and non-Hermitian matrices, Lindbladians are classified in terms of non-Hermitian topological phases. We find out that the Lindbladian retains PT symmetry which is the prominent symmetry of open systems and then all the bulk modes can have a common lifetime. Moreover, when open boundary conditions are imposed on the system, the edge modes which break PT symmetry emerge, and one of the edge modes has a zero eigenvalue.

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TL;DR: The condition of self-adjointness as discussed by the authors ensures that the eigenvalues of a Hamiltonian are real and bounded below, replacing this condition by the weaker condition of $\mathrm{PT}$ symmetry, one obtains new infinite classes of complex Hamiltonians whose spectra are also real and positive.

Abstract: The condition of self-adjointness ensures that the eigenvalues of a Hamiltonian are real and bounded below. Replacing this condition by the weaker condition of $\mathrm{PT}$ symmetry, one obtains new infinite classes of complex Hamiltonians whose spectra are also real and positive. These $\mathrm{PT}$ symmetric theories may be viewed as analytic continuations of conventional theories from real to complex phase space. This paper describes the unusual classical and quantum properties of these theories.

5,626 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors report the first observation of the behaviour of a PT optical coupled system that judiciously involves a complex index potential, and observe both spontaneous PT symmetry breaking and power oscillations violating left-right symmetry.

Abstract: One of the fundamental axioms of quantum mechanics is associated with the Hermiticity of physical observables 1 . In the case of the Hamiltonian operator, this requirement not only implies real eigenenergies but also guarantees probability conservation. Interestingly, a wide class of non-Hermitian Hamiltonians can still show entirely real spectra. Among these are Hamiltonians respecting parity‐time (PT) symmetry 2‐7 . Even though the Hermiticity of quantum observables was never in doubt, such concepts have motivated discussions on several fronts in physics, including quantum field theories 8 , nonHermitian Anderson models 9 and open quantum systems 10,11 , to mention a few. Although the impact of PT symmetry in these fields is still debated, it has been recently realized that optics can provide a fertile ground where PT-related notions can be implemented and experimentally investigated 12‐15 . In this letter we report the first observation of the behaviour of a PT optical coupled system that judiciously involves a complex index potential. We observe both spontaneous PT symmetry breaking and power oscillations violating left‐right symmetry. Our results may pave the way towards a new class of PT-synthetic materials with intriguing and unexpected properties that rely on non-reciprocal light propagation and tailored transverse energy flow. Before we introduce the concept of spacetime reflection in optics, we first briefly outline some of the basic aspects of this symmetry within the context of quantum mechanics. In general, a Hamiltonian HD p 2 =2mCV(x

3,097 citations

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TL;DR: By harnessing notions from parity-time (PT) symmetry, stable single–longitudinal mode operation can be readily achieved in a system of coupled microring lasers and the selective breaking of PT symmetry can be used to systematically enhance the maximum attainable output power in the desired mode.

Abstract: The ability to control the modes oscillating within a laser resonator is of fundamental importance. In general, the presence of competing modes can be detrimental to beam quality and spectral purity, thus leading to spatial as well as temporal fluctuations in the emitted radiation. We show that by harnessing notions from parity-time (PT) symmetry, stable single–longitudinal mode operation can be readily achieved in a system of coupled microring lasers. The selective breaking of PT symmetry can be used to systematically enhance the maximum attainable output power in the desired mode. This versatile concept is inherently self-adapting and facilitates mode selectivity over a broad bandwidth without the need for other additional intricate components. Our experimental findings provide the possibility to develop synthetic optical devices and structures with enhanced functionality.

1,334 citations

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TL;DR: This work shows theoretically and experimentally the existence of states that are localized at the interface between two topologically distinct PT-symmetric photonic lattices, and finds analytical closed form solutions of topological PT-Symmetric interface states.

Abstract: Parity-time (PT)-symmetric crystals are a class of non-Hermitian systems that allow, for example, the existence of modes with real propagation constants, for self-orthogonality of propagating modes, and for uni-directional invisibility at defects. Photonic PT-symmetric systems that also support topological states could be useful for shaping and routing light waves. However, it is currently debated whether topological interface states can exist at all in PT-symmetric systems. Here, we show theoretically and demonstrate experimentally the existence of such states: states that are localized at the interface between two topologically distinct PT-symmetric photonic lattices. We find analytical closed form solutions of topological PT-symmetric interface states, and observe them through fluorescence microscopy in a passive PT-symmetric dimerized photonic lattice. Our results are relevant towards approaches to localize light on the interface between non-Hermitian crystals.

743 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, spontaneous parity and topological edge states are observed in a photonic non-Hermitian system with a quantum walk interferometer, where topological parity is achieved by time symmetry breaking.

Abstract: Spontaneous parity–time-symmetry breaking and topological edge states are observed in a photonic non-Hermitian system — a quantum walk interferometer.

511 citations

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