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Journal ArticleDOI

Toward 6G Networks: Use Cases and Technologies

18 Mar 2020-IEEE Communications Magazine (IEEE)-Vol. 58, Iss: 3, pp 55-61

Abstract: Reliable data connectivity is vital for the ever increasingly intelligent, automated, and ubiquitous digital world. Mobile networks are the data highways and, in a fully connected, intelligent digital world, will need to connect everything, including people to vehicles, sensors, data, cloud resources, and even robotic agents. Fifth generation (5G) wireless networks, which are currently being deployed, offer significant advances beyond LTE, but may be unable to meet the full connectivity demands of the future digital society. Therefore, this article discusses technologies that will evolve wireless networks toward a sixth generation (6G) and which we consider as enablers for several potential 6G use cases. We provide a fullstack, system-level perspective on 6G scenarios and requirements, and select 6G technologies that can satisfy them either by improving the 5G design or by introducing completely new communication paradigms.
Topics: Wireless network (52%), Intelligent sensor (51%)
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
24 Jan 2020-
TL;DR: It is suggested that human-centric mobile communications will still be the most important application of 6G and the 6G network should be human centric and high security, secrecy and privacy are its key features.
Abstract: The standardization of fifth generation (5G) communications has been completed, and the 5G network should be commercially launched in 2020. As a result, the visioning and planning of 6G communications has begun, with an aim to provide communication services for the future demands of the 2030s. Here, we provide a vision for 6G that could serve as a research guide in the post-5G era. We suggest that human-centric mobile communications will still be the most important application of 6G and the 6G network should be human centric. Thus, high security, secrecy and privacy should be key features of 6G and should be given particular attention by the wireless research community. To support this vision, we provide a systematic framework in which potential application scenarios of 6G are anticipated and subdivided. We subsequently define key potential features of 6G and discuss the required communication technologies. We also explore the issues beyond communication technologies that could hamper research and deployment of 6G. This Perspective provides a vision for sixth generation (6G) communications in which human-centric mobile communications are considered the most important application, and high security, secrecy and privacy are its key features.

369 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
20 Jul 2020-
Abstract: The demand for wireless connectivity has grown exponentially over the last few decades. Fifth-generation (5G) communications, with far more features than fourth-generation communications, will soon be deployed worldwide. A new paradigm of wireless communication, the sixth-generation (6G) system, with the full support of artificial intelligence, is expected to be implemented between 2027 and 2030. Beyond 5G, some fundamental issues that need to be addressed are higher system capacity, higher data rate, lower latency, higher security, and improved quality of service (QoS) compared to the 5G system. This paper presents the vision of future 6G wireless communication and its network architecture. This article describes emerging technologies such as artificial intelligence, terahertz communications, wireless optical technology, free-space optical network, blockchain, three-dimensional networking, quantum communications, unmanned aerial vehicles, cell-free communications, integration of wireless information and energy transfer, integrated sensing and communication, integrated access-backhaul networks, dynamic network slicing, holographic beamforming, backscatter communication, intelligent reflecting surface, proactive caching, and big data analytics that can assist the 6G architecture development in guaranteeing the QoS. Besides, expected applications with 6G communication requirements and possible technologies are presented. We also describe potential challenges and research directions for achieving this goal.

194 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Xiaohu You1, Cheng-Xiang Wang1, Jie Huang1, Xiqi Gao1  +46 moreInstitutions (17)
TL;DR: 6G with additional technical requirements beyond those of 5G will enable faster and further communications to the extent that the boundary between physical and cyber worlds disappears.
Abstract: The fifth generation (5G) wireless communication networks are being deployed worldwide from 2020 and more capabilities are in the process of being standardized, such as mass connectivity, ultra-reliability, and guaranteed low latency. However, 5G will not meet all requirements of the future in 2030 and beyond, and sixth generation (6G) wireless communication networks are expected to provide global coverage, enhanced spectral/energy/cost efficiency, better intelligence level and security, etc. To meet these requirements, 6G networks will rely on new enabling technologies, i.e., air interface and transmission technologies and novel network architecture, such as waveform design, multiple access, channel coding schemes, multi-antenna technologies, network slicing, cell-free architecture, and cloud/fog/edge computing. Our vision on 6G is that it will have four new paradigm shifts. First, to satisfy the requirement of global coverage, 6G will not be limited to terrestrial communication networks, which will need to be complemented with non-terrestrial networks such as satellite and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) communication networks, thus achieving a space-air-ground-sea integrated communication network. Second, all spectra will be fully explored to further increase data rates and connection density, including the sub-6 GHz, millimeter wave (mmWave), terahertz (THz), and optical frequency bands. Third, facing the big datasets generated by the use of extremely heterogeneous networks, diverse communication scenarios, large numbers of antennas, wide bandwidths, and new service requirements, 6G networks will enable a new range of smart applications with the aid of artificial intelligence (AI) and big data technologies. Fourth, network security will have to be strengthened when developing 6G networks. This article provides a comprehensive survey of recent advances and future trends in these four aspects. Clearly, 6G with additional technical requirements beyond those of 5G will enable faster and further communications to the extent that the boundary between physical and cyber worlds disappears.

189 citations


Posted Content
Abstract: While 5G is being tested worldwide and anticipated to be rolled out gradually in 2019, researchers around the world are beginning to turn their attention to what 6G might be in 10+ years time, and there are already initiatives in various countries focusing on the research of possible 6G technologies. This article aims to extend the vision of 5G to more ambitious scenarios in a more distant future and speculates on the visionary technologies that could provide the step changes needed for enabling 6G.

172 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Ian F. Akyildiz1, Ahan Kak1, Shuai Nie1Institutions (1)
21 Jul 2020-IEEE Access
TL;DR: Significant technological breakthroughs to achieve connectivity goals within 6G include: a network operating at the THz band with much wider spectrum resources, intelligent communication environments that enable a wireless propagation environment with active signal transmission and reception, and pervasive artificial intelligence.
Abstract: 6G and beyond will fulfill the requirements of a fully connected world and provide ubiquitous wireless connectivity for all. Transformative solutions are expected to drive the surge for accommodating a rapidly growing number of intelligent devices and services. Major technological breakthroughs to achieve connectivity goals within 6G include: (i) a network operating at the THz band with much wider spectrum resources, (ii) intelligent communication environments that enable a wireless propagation environment with active signal transmission and reception, (iii) pervasive artificial intelligence, (iv) large-scale network automation, (v) an all-spectrum reconfigurable front-end for dynamic spectrum access, (vi) ambient backscatter communications for energy savings, (vii) the Internet of Space Things enabled by CubeSats and UAVs, and (viii) cell-free massive MIMO communication networks. In this roadmap paper, use cases for these enabling techniques as well as recent advancements on related topics are highlighted, and open problems with possible solutions are discussed, followed by a development timeline outlining the worldwide efforts in the realization of 6G. Going beyond 6G, promising early-stage technologies such as the Internet of NanoThings, the Internet of BioNanoThings, and quantum communications, which are expected to have a far-reaching impact on wireless communications, have also been discussed at length in this paper.

168 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
Andrea Zanella1, Nicola Bui2, Aldo Castellani, Lorenzo Vangelista1  +1 moreInstitutions (2)
TL;DR: This paper will present and discuss the technical solutions and best-practice guidelines adopted in the Padova Smart City project, a proof-of-concept deployment of an IoT island in the city of Padova, Italy, performed in collaboration with the city municipality.
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3,707 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Jay Lee1, Behrad Bagheri1, Hung-An Kao1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: A unified 5-level architecture is proposed as a guideline for implementation of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS), within which information from all related perspectives is closely monitored and synchronized between the physical factory floor and the cyber computational space.
Abstract: Recent advances in manufacturing industry has paved way for a systematical deployment of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS), within which information from all related perspectives is closely monitored and synchronized between the physical factory floor and the cyber computational space. Moreover, by utilizing advanced information analytics, networked machines will be able to perform more efficiently, collaboratively and resiliently. Such trend is transforming manufacturing industry to the next generation, namely Industry 4.0. At this early development phase, there is an urgent need for a clear definition of CPS. In this paper, a unified 5-level architecture is proposed as a guideline for implementation of CPS.

2,716 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
T. Komine1, Masao Nakagawa1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: Based on numerical analyses, it is shown that the proposed indoor visible-light communication system utilizing white LED lights is expected to be the indoor communication of the next generation.
Abstract: White LED offers advantageous properties such as high brightness, reliability, lower power consumption and long lifetime. White LEDs are expected to serve in the next generation of lamps. An indoor visible-light communication system utilizing white LED lights has been proposed from our laboratory. In the proposed system, these devices are used not only for illuminating rooms but also for an optical wireless communication system. Generally, plural lights are installed in our room. So, their optical path difference must be considered. In this paper, we discuss about the influence of interference and reflection. Based on numerical analyses, we show that the system is expected to be the indoor communication of the next generation.

2,594 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Walid Saad1, Mehdi Bennis2, Mingzhe Chen3Institutions (3)
01 May 2020-IEEE Network
TL;DR: This article identifies the primary drivers of 6G systems, in terms of applications and accompanying technological trends, and identifies the enabling technologies for the introduced 6G services and outlines a comprehensive research agenda that leverages those technologies.
Abstract: The ongoing deployment of 5G cellular systems is continuously exposing the inherent limitations of this system, compared to its original premise as an enabler for Internet of Everything applications. These 5G drawbacks are spurring worldwide activities focused on defining the next-generation 6G wireless system that can truly integrate far-reaching applications ranging from autonomous systems to extended reality. Despite recent 6G initiatives (one example is the 6Genesis project in Finland), the fundamental architectural and performance components of 6G remain largely undefined. In this article, we present a holistic, forward-looking vision that defines the tenets of a 6G system. We opine that 6G will not be a mere exploration of more spectrum at high-frequency bands, but it will rather be a convergence of upcoming technological trends driven by exciting, underlying services. In this regard, we first identify the primary drivers of 6G systems, in terms of applications and accompanying technological trends. Then, we propose a new set of service classes and expose their target 6G performance requirements. We then identify the enabling technologies for the introduced 6G services and outline a comprehensive research agenda that leverages those technologies. We conclude by providing concrete recommendations for the roadmap toward 6G. Ultimately, the intent of this article is to serve as a basis for stimulating more out-of-the-box research around 6G.

952 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This survey provides a technology overview and review of existing literature of visible light communication and sensing and outlines important challenges that need to be addressed in order to design high-speed mobile networks using visible light Communication-VLC.
Abstract: The solid-state lighting is revolutionizing the indoor illumination. Current incandescent and fluorescent lamps are being replaced by the LEDs at a rapid pace. Apart from extremely high energy efficiency, the LEDs have other advantages such as longer lifespan, lower heat generation, and improved color rendering without using harmful chemicals. One additional benefit of LEDs is that they are capable of switching to different light intensity at a very fast rate. This functionality has given rise to a novel communication technology (known as visible light communication—VLC) where LED luminaires can be used for high speed data transfer. This survey provides a technology overview and review of existing literature of visible light communication and sensing. This paper provides a detailed survey of 1) visible light communication system and characteristics of its various components such as transmitter and receiver; 2) physical layer properties of visible light communication channel, modulation methods, and MIMO techniques; 3) medium access techniques; 4) system design and programmable platforms; and 5) visible light sensing and application such as indoor localization, gesture recognition, screen-camera communication, and vehicular networking. We also outline important challenges that need to be addressed in order to design high-speed mobile networks using visible light communication.

929 citations


Performance
Metrics
No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
YearCitations
20223
2021311
2020114
201915