scispace - formally typeset

Journal ArticleDOI

Toward Safe Lithium Metal Anode in Rechargeable Batteries: A Review.

28 Jul 2017-Chemical Reviews (American Chemical Society)-Vol. 117, Iss: 15, pp 10403-10473

TL;DR: This review presents a comprehensive overview of the lithium metal anode and its dendritic lithium growth, summarizing the theoretical and experimental achievements and endeavors to realize the practical applications of lithium metal batteries.
Abstract: The lithium metal battery is strongly considered to be one of the most promising candidates for high-energy-density energy storage devices in our modern and technology-based society. However, uncontrollable lithium dendrite growth induces poor cycling efficiency and severe safety concerns, dragging lithium metal batteries out of practical applications. This review presents a comprehensive overview of the lithium metal anode and its dendritic lithium growth. First, the working principles and technical challenges of a lithium metal anode are underscored. Specific attention is paid to the mechanistic understandings and quantitative models for solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation, lithium dendrite nucleation, and growth. On the basis of previous theoretical understanding and analysis, recently proposed strategies to suppress dendrite growth of lithium metal anode and some other metal anodes are reviewed. A section dedicated to the potential of full-cell lithium metal batteries for practical applicatio...
Topics: Lithium (64%), Battery (electricity) (53%), Anode (51%)
Citations
More filters

Journal ArticleDOI
Richard Schmuch1, Ralf Wagner1, Gerhard Hörpel, Tobias Placke1  +2 moreInstitutions (2)
01 Apr 2018-Nature Energy
Abstract: It is widely accepted that for electric vehicles to be accepted by consumers and to achieve wide market penetration, ranges of at least 500 km at an affordable cost are required. Therefore, significant improvements to lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) in terms of energy density and cost along the battery value chain are required, while other key performance indicators, such as lifetime, safety, fast-charging ability and low-temperature performance, need to be enhanced or at least sustained. Here, we review advances and challenges in LIB materials for automotive applications, in particular with respect to cost and performance parameters. The production processes of anode and cathode materials are discussed, focusing on material abundance and cost. Advantages and challenges of different types of electrolyte for automotive batteries are examined. Finally, energy densities and costs of promising battery chemistries are critically evaluated along with an assessment of the potential to fulfil the ambitious targets of electric vehicle propulsion. Electrification is seen as the future of automotive industry, and deployment of electric vehicles largely depends on the development of rechargeable batteries. Here, the authors survey the state-of-the-art advances in active materials, electrolytes and cell chemistries for automotive batteries.

1,097 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Jinbo Pang1, Rafael G. Mendes1, Rafael G. Mendes2, Alicja Bachmatiuk1  +12 moreInstitutions (6)
TL;DR: The potential of MXenes for the photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants in water, such as dye waste, is addressed, along with their promise as catalysts for ammonium synthesis from nitrogen.
Abstract: Transition metal carbides and nitrides (MXenes), a family of two-dimensional (2D) inorganic compounds, are materials composed of a few atomic layers of transition metal carbides, nitrides, or carbonitrides. Ti3C2, the first 2D layered MXene, was isolated in 2011. This material, which is a layered bulk material analogous to graphite, was derived from its 3D phase, Ti3AlC2 MAX. Since then, material scientists have either determined or predicted the stable phases of >200 different MXenes based on combinations of various transition metals such as Ti, Mo, V, Cr, and their alloys with C and N. Extensive experimental and theoretical studies have shown their exciting potential for energy conversion and electrochemical storage. To this end, we comprehensively summarize the current advances in MXene research. We begin by reviewing the structure types and morphologies and their fabrication routes. The review then discusses the mechanical, electrical, optical, and electrochemical properties of MXenes. The focus then turns to their exciting potential in energy storage and conversion. Energy storage applications include electrodes in rechargeable lithium- and sodium-ion batteries, lithium-sulfur batteries, and supercapacitors. In terms of energy conversion, photocatalytic fuel production, such as hydrogen evolution from water splitting, and carbon dioxide reduction are presented. The potential of MXenes for the photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants in water, such as dye waste, is also addressed, along with their promise as catalysts for ammonium synthesis from nitrogen. Finally, their application potential is summarized.

715 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Lei Fan1, Shuya Wei2, Siyuan Li1, Qi Li1  +1 moreInstitutions (2)

504 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Bin Liu1, Ji-Guang Zhang1, Wu Xu1Institutions (1)
16 May 2018-Joule
Abstract: Summary Considering the limited energy density of traditional graphite-anode-based lithium (Li)-ion batteries, alternative high-capacity anodes are greatly needed for the next-generation high-energy-density battery systems. In this regard, Li metal is well known to be one of the most promising anodes due to its ultrahigh capacity (3,860 mAh g −1 ) and the very low standard negative electrochemical potential (−3.040 V). However, dendrite growth and high reactivity of Li metal anodes result in low cycling efficiency and severe safety concerns. The recent revival of research and development on Li metal anodes has brought new, in-depth understanding and key experimental progress toward Li metal protection and enhanced performance of Li metal batteries. In this Perspective, we concisely review recent discoveries in this field and suggest possible new research directions for further development of Li metal batteries.

483 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Chen-Zi Zhao1, Xue-Qiang Zhang1, Xin-Bing Cheng1, Rui Zhang1  +5 moreInstitutions (2)
TL;DR: This work realizes a dendrite-free Li metal anode by introducing an anion-immobilized composite solid electrolyte, where anions are tethered to polymer chains and ceramic particles to inhibit lithium dendrites and construct safe batteries.
Abstract: Lithium metal is strongly regarded as a promising electrode material in next-generation rechargeable batteries due to its extremely high theoretical specific capacity and lowest reduction potential. However, the safety issue and short lifespan induced by uncontrolled dendrite growth have hindered the practical applications of lithium metal anodes. Hence, we propose a flexible anion-immobilized ceramic–polymer composite electrolyte to inhibit lithium dendrites and construct safe batteries. Anions in the composite electrolyte are tethered by a polymer matrix and ceramic fillers, inducing a uniform distribution of space charges and lithium ions that contributes to a dendrite-free lithium deposition. The dissociation of anions and lithium ions also helps to reduce the polymer crystallinity, rendering stable and fast transportation of lithium ions. Ceramic fillers in the electrolyte extend the electrochemically stable window to as wide as 5.5 V and provide a barrier to short circuiting for realizing safe batteries at elevated temperature. The anion-immobilized electrolyte can be applied in all–solid-state batteries and exhibits a small polarization of 15 mV. Cooperated with LiFePO 4 and LiNi 0.5 Co 0.2 Mn 0.3 O 2 cathodes, the all–solid-state lithium metal batteries render excellent specific capacities of above 150 mAh⋅g −1 and well withstand mechanical bending. These results reveal a promising opportunity for safe and flexible next-generation lithium metal batteries.

457 citations


References
More filters

Journal ArticleDOI
Jean-Marie Tarascon1, Michel Armand2Institutions (2)
15 Nov 2001-Nature
TL;DR: A brief historical review of the development of lithium-based rechargeable batteries is presented, ongoing research strategies are highlighted, and the challenges that remain regarding the synthesis, characterization, electrochemical performance and safety of these systems are discussed.
Abstract: Technological improvements in rechargeable solid-state batteries are being driven by an ever-increasing demand for portable electronic devices. Lithium-ion batteries are the systems of choice, offering high energy density, flexible and lightweight design, and longer lifespan than comparable battery technologies. We present a brief historical review of the development of lithium-based rechargeable batteries, highlight ongoing research strategies, and discuss the challenges that remain regarding the synthesis, characterization, electrochemical performance and safety of these systems.

15,475 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
18 Nov 2011-Science
TL;DR: The battery systems reviewed here include sodium-sulfur batteries that are commercially available for grid applications, redox-flow batteries that offer low cost, and lithium-ion batteries whose development for commercial electronics and electric vehicles is being applied to grid storage.
Abstract: The increasing interest in energy storage for the grid can be attributed to multiple factors, including the capital costs of managing peak demands, the investments needed for grid reliability, and the integration of renewable energy sources. Although existing energy storage is dominated by pumped hydroelectric, there is the recognition that battery systems can offer a number of high-value opportunities, provided that lower costs can be obtained. The battery systems reviewed here include sodium-sulfur batteries that are commercially available for grid applications, redox-flow batteries that offer low cost, and lithium-ion batteries whose development for commercial electronics and electric vehicles is being applied to grid storage.

8,906 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
John B. Goodenough1, Youngsik Kim1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The challenges for further development of Li rechargeable batteries for electric vehicles are reviewed. Most important is safety, which requires development of a nonflammable electrolyte with either a larger window between its lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) or a constituent (or additive) that can develop rapidly a solid/ electrolyte-interface (SEI) layer to prevent plating of Li on a carbon anode during a fast charge of the battery. A high Li-ion conductivity (σ Li > 10 ―4 S/cm) in the electrolyte and across the electrode/ electrolyte interface is needed for a power battery. Important also is an increase in the density of the stored energy, which is the product of the voltage and capacity of reversible Li insertion/extraction into/from the electrodes. It will be difficult to design a better anode than carbon, but carbon requires formation of an SEI layer, which involves an irreversible capacity loss. The design of a cathode composed of environmentally benign, low-cost materials that has its electrochemical potential μ C well-matched to the HOMO of the electrolyte and allows access to two Li atoms per transition-metal cation would increase the energy density, but it is a daunting challenge. Two redox couples can be accessed where the cation redox couples are "pinned" at the top of the O 2p bands, but to take advantage of this possibility, it must be realized in a framework structure that can accept more than one Li atom per transition-metal cation. Moreover, such a situation represents an intrinsic voltage limit of the cathode, and matching this limit to the HOMO of the electrolyte requires the ability to tune the intrinsic voltage limit. Finally, the chemical compatibility in the battery must allow a long service life.

7,138 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Kang Xu1Institutions (1)
16 Sep 2004-Chemical Reviews
TL;DR: The phytochemical properties of Lithium Hexafluoroarsenate and its Derivatives are as follows: 2.2.1.
Abstract: 2.1. Solvents 4307 2.1.1. Propylene Carbonate (PC) 4308 2.1.2. Ethers 4308 2.1.3. Ethylene Carbonate (EC) 4309 2.1.4. Linear Dialkyl Carbonates 4310 2.2. Lithium Salts 4310 2.2.1. Lithium Perchlorate (LiClO4) 4311 2.2.2. Lithium Hexafluoroarsenate (LiAsF6) 4312 2.2.3. Lithium Tetrafluoroborate (LiBF4) 4312 2.2.4. Lithium Trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiTf) 4312 2.2.5. Lithium Bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiIm) and Its Derivatives 4313

4,694 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The status of ambient temperature sodium ion batteries is reviewed in light of recent developments in anode, electrolyte and cathode materials. These devices, although early in their stage of development, are promising for large-scale grid storage applications due to the abundance and very low cost of sodium-containing precursors used to make the components. The engineering knowledge developed recently for highly successful Li ion batteries can be leveraged to ensure rapid progress in this area, although different electrode materials and electrolytes will be required for dual intercalation systems based on sodium. In particular, new anode materials need to be identified, since the graphite anode, commonly used in lithium systems, does not intercalate sodium to any appreciable extent. A wider array of choices is available for cathodes, including high performance layered transition metal oxides and polyanionic compounds. Recent developments in electrodes are encouraging, but a great deal of research is necessary, particularly in new electrolytes, and the understanding of the SEI films. The engineering modeling calculations of Na-ion battery energy density indicate that 210 Wh kg−1 in gravimetric energy is possible for Na-ion batteries compared to existing Li-ion technology if a cathode capacity of 200 mAh g−1 and a 500 mAh g−1 anode can be discovered with an average cell potential of 3.3 V.

3,279 citations


Performance
Metrics
No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
YearCitations
202238
2021806
2020712
2019541
2018308
201714