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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S13132-021-00767-0

Towards High Impact Smart Cities: a Universal Architecture Based on Connected Intelligence Spaces

04 Mar 2021-Journal of The Knowledge Economy (Springer US)-pp 1-29
Abstract: Smart cities constitute a new urban paradigm and a hegemonic phenomenon in contemporary city development. The concept envisages a data-enhanced future and efficiency gains made possible by automation and innovation in city activities and utilities. However, the way smart cities are created brings about two weaknesses. First, there is strong compartmentation of solutions and systems, which are developing in vertical markets for energy, transport, governance, safety, etc., silos with little interoperability and sharing of resources. Second, there is a low impact, some increase in efficiency, some reduction in costs, time gained, some decrease in CO2 emissions. There is an important knowledge gap about developing cross-sector, high-impact smart city systems. This paper deals with these challenges and investigates a different direction in smart city design and efficiency. We focus on ‘Connected Intelligence Spaces’ created in smart city ecosystems, which (a) have physical, social, and digital dimensions; (b) work as systems of innovation enabling synergies between human, machine, and collective intelligence; and (c) improve efficiency and performance by innovating rather than optimizing city routines. The research hypothesis we assess is about a universal architecture of high impact smart city projects, due to underlying connected intelligence spaces and cyber-physical-social systems of innovation. We assess this hypothesis with empirical evidence from case studies related to smart city projects dealing with safety (Vision-Zero), transportation (MaaS), and energy (positive energy districts). We highlight the main elements of operation and how high efficiency is achieved across these verticals. We identify commonalities, common innovation functions, and associations between functions, allowing us to define a common architecture enabling innovation and high performance across smart city ecosystems.

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Topics: Smart city (69%), Collective intelligence (52%)

6 results found

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.SCS.2021.103013
Abstract: Urban areas are critical in accomplishing the clean energy transition and meeting the climate goals in the Paris Agreement. The first part of this paper presents a systematic review of scientific publications on zero emission neighbourhoods, positive energy districts and similar concepts of climate friendly neighbourhoods (CFN). The second lists a selection of CFN definitions of public initiatives and research projects. The aim is to identify focus areas, research gaps and future research possibilities. In the systematic review, 144 papers were categorised and analysed according to their concept terminology, topic, location, used methodology, publication type, year, citations and keywords. The results document the growing but thematically and geographically unbalanced attention given to CFNs. Most research (31.9 %) was connected to the energy system, whereas social aspects (4.2 %) and the microclimate (3.5 %) were least researched. Within the analysed literature, 35 different terminologies for CFNs were used which highlights the lack of clear definitions and arbitrary use of terminologies. This issue is also reflected in the significant differences of CFN definitions from public initiatives and research projects. This article stresses the need for clear, comprehensible and structured definitions, including KPIs, system boundaries, as well as definitions of the spatial scales.

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10 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/SU13063158
23 Feb 2021-Sustainability
Abstract: Fundamental principles of modern cities and urban planning are challenged during the COVID-19 pandemic, such as the advantages of large city size, high density, mass transport, free use of public space, unrestricted individual mobility in cities. These principles shaped the development of cities and metropolitan areas for more than a century, but currently, there are signs that they have turned from advantage to liability. Cities Public authorities and private organisations responded to the COVID-19 crisis with a variety of policies and business practices. These countermeasures codify a valuable experience and can offer lessons about how cities can tackle another grand challenge, this of climate change. Do the measures taken during the COVID-19 crisis represent a temporal adjustment to the current health crisis? Or do they open new ways towards a new type of urban development more effective in times of environmental and health crises? We address these questions through literature review and three case studies that review policies and practices for the transformation of city ecosystems mostly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic: (a) the central business district, (b) the transport ecosystem, and (c) the tourism–hospitality ecosystem. We assess whether the measures implemented in these ecosystems shape new policy and planning models for higher readiness of cities towards grand challenges, and how, based on this experience, cities should be organized to tackle the grand challenge of environmental sustainability and climate change.

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Topics: Public space (56%), Sustainability (55%), Urban planning (55%) ... read more

5 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/SU13116486
07 Jun 2021-Sustainability
Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has put lifestyles in question, changed daily routines, and limited citizen freedoms that seemed inalienable before. A human activity that has been greatly affected since the beginning of the health crisis is mobility. Focusing on mobility, we aim to discuss the transformational impact that the pandemic brought to this specific urban domain, especially with regards to the promotion of sustainability, the smart growth agenda, and the acceleration towards the smart city paradigm. We collect 60 initial policy responses related to urban mobility from cities around the world and analyze them based on the challenge they aim to address, the exact principles of smart growth and sustainable mobility that they encapsulate, as well as the level of ICT penetration. Our findings suggest that emerging strategies, although mainly temporary, are transformational, in line with the principles of smart growth and sustainable development. Most policy responses adopted during the first months of the pandemic, however, fail to leverage advancements made in the field of smart cities, and to adopt off-the-shelf solutions such as monitoring, alerting, and operations management.

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Topics: Smart city (59%), Smart growth (58%), Sustainability (53%) ... read more

2 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/SMARTCITIES4030062
05 Sep 2021-
Abstract: Against the widespread assumption that data are the oil of the 21st century, this article offers an alternative conceptual framework, interpretation, and pathway around data and smart city nexus to subvert surveillance capitalism in light of emerging and further promising practical cases. This article illustrates an open debate in data governance and the data justice field related to current trends and challenges in smart cities, resulting in a new approach advocated for and recently coined by the UN-Habitat programme ‘People-Centred Smart Cities’. Particularly, this feature article sheds light on two intertwined notions that articulate the technopolitical dimension of the ‘People-Centred Smart Cities’ approach: data co-operatives and data sovereignty. Data co-operatives are emerging as a way to share and own data through peer-to-peer (p2p) repositories and data sovereignty is being claimed as a digital right for communities/citizens. Consequently, this feature article aims to open up new research avenues around ‘People-Centred Smart Cities’ approach: First, it elucidates how data co-operatives through data sovereignty could be articulated as long as co-developed with communities connected to the long history and analysis of the various forms of co-operatives (technopolitical dimension). Second, it prospectively anticipates the city–regional dimension encompassing data colonialism and data devolution.

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Topics: Data governance (59%), Sovereignty (54%), Smart city (53%)

2 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)UP.1943-5444.0000804
Abstract: A strong interest in fare evasion is currently emerging in all proof-of-payment transit systems owing to its severe implications. Recent research has investigated from the passenger perspe...

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Topics: Fare evasion (65%), Empirical research (52%)


82 results found

Open accessPosted Content
Sidney G. Winter1, Richard R. Nelson2Institutions (2)
Abstract: This study develops an evolutionary theory of the capabilities and behavior of business firms operating in a market environment. It includes both general discussion and the manipulation of specific simulation models consistent with that theory. The analysis outlines the differences between an evolutionary theory of organizational and industrial change and a neoclassical microeconomic theory. The antecedents to the former are studies by economists like Schumpeter (1934) and Alchian (1950). It is contrasted with the orthodox theory in the following aspects: while the evolutionary theory views firms as motivated by profit, their actions are not assumed to be profit maximizing, as in orthodox theory; the evolutionary theory stresses the tendency of most profitable firms to drive other firms out of business, but, in contrast to orthodox theory, does not concentrate on the state of industry equilibrium; and evolutionary theory is related to behavioral theory: it views firms, at any given time, as having certain capabilities and decision rules, as well as engaging in various ‘search' operations, which determines their behavior; while orthodox theory views firm behavior as relying on the use of the usual calculus maximization techniques. The theory is then made operational by the use of simulation methods. These models use Markov processes and analyze selection equilibrium, responses to changing factor prices, economic growth with endogenous technical change, Schumpeterian competition, and Schumpeterian tradeoff between static Pareto-efficiency and innovation. The study's discussion of search behavior complicates the evolutionary theory. With search, the decision making process in a firm relies as much on past experience as on innovative alternatives to past behavior. This view combines Darwinian and Lamarkian views on evolution; firms are seen as both passive with regard to their environment, and actively seeking alternatives that affect their environment. The simulation techniques used to model Schumpeterian competition reveal that there are usually winners and losers in industries, and that the high productivity and profitability of winners confer advantages that make further success more likely, while decline breeds further decline. This process creates a tendency for concentration to develop even in an industry initially composed of many equal-sized firms. However, the experiments conducted reveal that the growth of concentration is not inevitable; for example, it tends to be smaller when firms focus their searches on imitating rather than innovating. At the same time, industries with rapid technological change tend to grow more concentrated than those with slower progress. The abstract model of Schumpeterian competition presented in the study also allows to see more clearly the public policy issues concerning the relationship between technical progress and market structure. The analysis addresses the pervasive question of whether industry concentration, with its associated monopoly profits and reduced social welfare, is a necessary cost if societies are to obtain the benefits of technological innovation. (AT)

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Topics: Evolutionary economics (60%), Profit motive (56%), Knowledge-based theory of the firm (55%) ... read more

22,526 Citations

Open accessBook
Richard R. Nelson1Institutions (1)
01 Jan 1993-
Abstract: This anthology examines national systems of technical innovation An introductory chapter provides an overview of the principal topics in current discussion of industrial and technology policy Innovation is defined as the processes by which firms master and put into practice product designs and manufacturing processes that are new to them A wide range of factors, organizations, and policies influence the capabilities of a nation's firms to innovate Technology and pure science are distinguished, and the social institutions that play a role in innovation are examined These include industrial and government research laboratories, research universities, and industrial policy agencies These institutions provide the core for the analyses of national innovation systems Individual chapters are devoted to six large high-income countries (France, Italy, Japan, the US, the UK, and West Germany), four smaller high-income countries (Australia, Canada, Denmark, and Sweden), and five lower income countries (Argentina, Brazil, Israel, Korea, and Taiwan) Each chapter is a detailed description of each country's structure and behavior in the development of product and process technologies, and catalogues the innovation strategies of each country, covering topics including historical analysis of technological development, breakdown of industries, and investigation of these institutions in terms of R&D expenditures and their influence Differences in the innovative patterns include size and resource endowments, national security considerations, and historical and social beliefs Factors leading to effective innovative performance include strong core competencies, high-quality education and training, and stable and facilitative economic and trade policies A final retrospective chapter compares and contrasts the various innovation systems It assesses whether identifying an innovation system is useful, considers whether national institutions matter when commerce and technology are becoming transnational, and reflects on the future of national systems in such a world (TNM)

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Topics: Innovation system (72%), National innovation system (72%), Regional innovation system (66%) ... read more

4,297 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.2307/3003321
Abstract: The article outlines the production function approach to the estimation of the returns to R&D and then proceeds to discuss in turn two very difficult problems: the measurement of output in R&D intensive industries and the definition and measurement of the stock of R&D 'capital'. Multicollinearity and simultaneity are taken up in the next section and another section is devoted to estimation and inference problems arising more specifically in the R&D context. Several recent studies of returns to R&D are then surveyed, and the paper concludes with suggestions for ways of expanding the current data base in this field.

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3,776 Citations

Open accessPosted Content
Adam B. Jaffe1, Adam B. Jaffe2, Adam B. Jaffe3Institutions (3)
Abstract: This paper presents evidence that firms' patents, profits and market value are systematically related to the"technological position" of firms' research programs. Further, firms are seen to "move" in technology space in response to the pattern of contemporaneous profits at different positions. These movements tend to erode excess returns."Spillovers" of R&D are modelled by examining whether the R&D of neighboring firms in technology space has an observable impact on the firm's R&D success. Firms whose neighbors do much R&D produce more patents per dollar of their own R&D,with a positive interaction that gives high R&D firms the largest benefit from spillovers. In terms of profit and market value, however, their are both positive and negative effects of nearby firms' R&D. The net effect is positive for high R&D firms, but firms with R&D about one standard deviation below the mean are made worse off overall by the R&D of others.

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Topics: Market value (51%)

3,164 Citations

Open accessPosted Content
Abstract: The existence of geographically mediated "spillovers" from university research to commercial innovation is explored using state-level time-series data on corporate patents, corporate R&D, and university research. A significant effect of university research on corporate patents is found, particularly in the areas of drugs and medical technology, and electronics, optics, and nuclear technology. In addition, university research appears to have an indirect effect on local innovation by inducing industrial R&D spending. Copyright 1989 by American Economic Association.

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3,159 Citations

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