Abstract: Fish biology has been developed for more than 100 years, but some important breakthroughs have been made in the last decade. Early studies commonly concentrated on morphology, phylogenetics, development, growth, reproduction manipulation, and disease control. Recent studies have mostly focused on genetics, molecular biology, genomics, and genome biotechnologies, which have provided a solid foundation for enhancing aquaculture to ensure food security and improving aquatic environments to sustain ecosystem health. Here, we review research advances in five major areas: (1) biological innovations and genomic evolution of four significant fish lineages including non-teleost ray-finned fishes, northern hemisphere sticklebacks, East African cichlid fishes, and East Asian cyprinid fishes; (2) evolutionary fates and consequences of natural polyploid fishes; (3) biological consequences of fish domestication and selection; (4) development and innovation of fish breeding biotechnologies; and (5) applicable approaches and potential of fish genetic breeding biotechnologies. Moreover, five precision breeding biotechniques are examined and discussed in detail including gene editing for the introgression or removal of beneficial or detrimental alleles, use of sex-specific markers for the production of mono-sex populations, controllable primordial germ cell on-off strategy for producing sterile offspring, surrogate broodstock-based strategies to accelerate breeding, and genome incorporation and sexual reproduction regain-based approach to create synthetic polyploids. Based on these scientific and technological advances, we propose a blueprint for genetic improvement and new breed creation for aquaculture species and analyze the potential of these new breeding strategies for improving aquaculture seed industry and strengthening food security.
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