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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/1612197X.2019.1661268

Training programme for novice physical activity instructors using Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility (TPSR) model: A programme development and protocol

04 Mar 2021-International journal of sport and exercise psychology (Routledge)-Vol. 19, Iss: 2, pp 159-178
Abstract: Previous research indicates that programmes employing Hellison’s Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility (TPSR) model in physical activity have had a positive impact on youth development by inc...

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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/1612197X.2014.982362
Michael Spittle1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The Routledge companion to sport and exercise psychology: Global perspectives and fundamental concepts is a comprehensive book that covers an extensive array of views in the scientific discipline o...

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113 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FPSYG.2021.648235
Abstract: Most coaches and instructors would like to teach more than just sport skills to their athletes and children. However, to promote athletes' or children's holistic development and teach them to take responsibility and lead, requires the coaches and instructors to first master the skills themselves. Therefore, feasible, high quality leadership training programs where coaches and physical activity instructors are taught to teach and share leadership are needed. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the feasibility of a leadership training program to optimize it and to determine whether to proceed with its evaluation. In the leadership training program, eight Finnish novice physical activity instructors, aged 18 to 22, were taught to promote positive youth development, personal and social responsibility, and shared leadership in a physical activity context. The participants had minimal to no leadership training or experience. The training program consisted of seven meetings totaling 20 h. Helllison's teaching personal and social responsibility (TPSR) model was the theoretical and practical framework of the training program. Feasibility of the leadership training program was evaluated across four domains of an evidence-based framework: demand, practicality, acceptability, and implementation fidelity. Data of the current complex intervention were collected with application videos, questionnaires, researcher's log, lesson plans, video recordings, and a semi-structured focus group interview. The quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and the qualitative data using deductive and inductive content analysis. There was a demand for the leadership training program. The training program was perceived as practical and highly acceptable by the novice instructors and the trainers, and implemented with fidelity, indicating high overall feasibility. No implementation issues were found. Consequently, the current leadership training program has a high probability of efficacy and can be accepted for further evaluation.

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Topics: Shared leadership (63%)

4 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/S12939-020-01177-5
Abstract: Groups at risk of exclusion from society appear to have a lower health status and more health-related problems. Prevention efforts in these groups are not always successful, and new ways have to be sought by which health messages can be delivered. Many agree on low-threshold sport activities, also called ‘community sports’, to be a powerful tool to target socially vulnerable groups. Until now, it has not been investigated how and when such sport initiatives may be able to impact health outcomes in socially vulnerable populations. This study aims at developing a program theory that clarifies the mechanisms and necessary conditions for sport programs to be effective in health promotion. Such a program theory may constitute a backbone for developing health promotion initiatives within a sport for development setting. We developed a program theory using a realist research design. We build on an extensive data set consisting of the insights of key stakeholders and participants of various community sport organizations at the one hand, and on relevant theoretical frameworks at the other hand. Data were collected through participatory observations of soccer trainings and related group activities, interviews with key stakeholders and participants, document analysis and two focus groups with stakeholders from associated social partnership organizations. The health promoting effect of community sport on socially vulnerable groups seems not to result from an improved physical condition or sport-technical skills as such, but from processes of experiential learning among peers, incremental responsibility-taking and reflexivity. On the condition that participants feel safe, are stimulated to reflect and enabled to become actor of themselves and their situation, these processes are likely to lead to increased self-esteem, self-efficacy and motivation to set and pursue personal (health) goals. The key-influencing factor in these processes is the coach, who therefore needs to be adequately skilled in, for example, social vulnerability, motivational coaching and group dynamics. The program theory developed in this study offers insights in the mechanisms proper to, and necessary conditions for community sport to be a lever for health promotion in socially vulnerable groups. Motivational processes at individual level and group connectivity are at the basis of personal health goal-setting. One of the necessary conditions is that these processes are guided by community sport coaches skilled in the meaning and impact of social exclusion, and capable of connecting with the target group.

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Topics: Health promotion (57%), Social determinants of health (57%), Health policy (56%) ... read more

3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/SMS.13826
Abstract: The current study aimed to predict secondary school students' motivation toward sport injury prevention in "in-school" and "out-of-school" contexts, and their sport injury prevention behavior at 3-month follow-up using the trans-contextual model (TCM). Hong Kong secondary school students (N = 1566; mean age = 13.34 years, range = 11 to 19; female = 49.42%) were recruited. Participants were asked to complete a survey comprising previously validated scales measuring TCM constructs at baseline and a measure of sport injury prevention behavior at follow-up three months later. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to examine the hypothesized paths among TCM constructs. A SEM specifying hypothesized paths among TCM variables showed acceptable fit with the data (χ2 (29) = 418.55, CFI = .93, TLI = .90, and RMSEA = .09, 90% CI [.09, .10], and SRMR = .05). Findings supported tenets of the TCM: the effects of perceived autonomy support from PE teachers on in-school autonomous motivation toward injury prevention, the trans-contextual relationship between students' "in-school" and "out-of-school" autonomous motivation toward injury prevention, and the effects of autonomous motivation toward injury prevention on social cognitive variables and subsequent sport injury prevention behaviors. Results supported the tenets proposed within the TCM in predicting students' "in-school" and "out-of-school" autonomous motivation toward sport injury prevention. Findings underscore the potential importance of autonomy support from PE teachers in facilitating students' sport injury prevention behaviors. Further longitudinal and intervention research is warranted to establish temporal and causal effects of TCM variables in sport injury prevention.

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2 Citations


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75 results found


Open accessBook
Albert Bandura1Institutions (1)
01 Jan 1997-
Abstract: Albert Bandura and the Exercise of Self-Efficacy Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control Albert Bandura. New York: W. H. Freeman (www.whfreeman.com). 1997, 604 pp., $46.00 (hardcover). Enter the term "self-efficacy" in the on-line PSYCLIT database and you will find over 2500 articles, all of which stem from the seminal contributions of Albert Bandura. It is difficult to do justice to the immense importance of this research for our theories, our practice, and indeed for human welfare. Self-efficacy (SE) has proven to be a fruitful construct in spheres ranging from phobias (Bandura, Jeffery, & Gajdos, 1975) and depression (Holahan & Holahan, 1987) to career choice behavior (Betz & Hackett, 1986) and managerial functioning (Jenkins, 1994). Bandura's Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control is the best attempt so far at organizing, summarizing, and distilling meaning from this vast and diverse literature. Self-Efficacy may prove to be Bandura's magnum opus. Dr. Bandura has done an impressive job of summarizing over 1800 studies and papers, integrating these results into a coherent framework, and detailing implications for theory and practice. While incorporating prior works such as Social Learning Theory (Bandura, 1977) and "Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency" (Bandura, 1982), Self-Efficacy extends these works by describing results of diverse new research, clarifying and extending social cognitive theory, and fleshing out implications of the theory for groups, organizations, political bodies, and societies. Along the way, Dr. Bandura masterfully contrasts social cognitive theory with many other theories of human behavior and helps chart a course for future research. Throughout, B andura' s clear, firm, and self-confident writing serves as the perfect vehicle for the theory he espouses. Self-Efficacy begins with the most detailed and clear explication of social cognitive theory that I have yet seen, and proceeds to delineate the nature and sources of SE, the well-known processes via which SE mediates human behavior, and the development of SE over the life span. After laying this theoretical groundwork, subsequent chapters delineate the relevance of SE to human endeavor in a variety of specific content areas including cognitive and intellectual functioning; health; clinical problems including anxiety, phobias, depression, eating disorders, alcohol problems, and drug abuse; athletics and exercise activity; organizations; politics; and societal change. In Bandura's words, "Perceived self-efficacy refers to beliefs in one's capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to produce given attainments" (p. 3). People's SE beliefs have a greater effect on their motivation, emotions, and actions than what is objectively true (e.g., actual skill level). Therefore, SE beliefs are immensely important in choice of behaviors (including occupations, social relationships, and a host of day-to-day behaviors), effort expenditure, perseverance in pursuit of goals, resilience to setbacks and problems, stress level and affect, and indeed in our ways of thinking about ourselves and others. Bandura affirms many times that humans are proactive and free as well as determined: They are "at least partial architects of their own destinies" (p. 8). Because SE beliefs powerfully affect human behaviors, they are a key factor in human purposive activity or agency; that is, in human freedom. Because humans shape their environment even as they are shaped by it, SE beliefs are also pivotal in the construction of our social and physical environments. Bandura details over two decades of research confirming that SE is modifiable via mastery experiences, vicarious learning, verbal persuasion, and interpretation of physiological states, and that modified SE strongly and consistently predicts outcomes. SE beliefs, then, are central to human self-determination. STRENGTHS One major strength of Self-Efficacy is Bandura's ability to deftly dance from forest to trees and back again to forest, using specific, human examples and concrete situations to highlight his major theoretical premises, to which he then returns. …

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Topics: Reciprocal determinism (71%), Social learning theory (61%), Social cognitive theory (59%) ... read more

44,457 Citations


Open accessBook
01 Jan 1980-
Topics: Qualitative research (55%)

26,843 Citations


Open accessBook
18 Aug 2006-
Abstract: List of Tables List of Figures Preface Purpose of This Book Audience for the Book Book Features Acknowledgments Chapter 1: Understanding Mixed Methods Research Purpose and Organization Clarifying Terms What Is Mixed Methods Research? The Importance of Mixed Methods Research Summary Activities Additional Resources to Examine Chapter 2: Examining Preliminary Considerations Consider Worldview Stances The Basics of Quantitative and Qualitative Research Research Problems Addressed by Mixed Methods Summary Activities Additional Resources to Examine Chapter 3: Locating and Reviewing Mixed Methods Studies Searching for and Reviewing Mixed Methods Studies A Mixed Methods Notation System and Visual Diagrams Four Examples of Mixed Methods Studies Summary Activities Additional Resources to Examine Chapter 4: Choosing a Mixed Methods Design Classifications of Mixed Methods Designs The Four Major Types of Mixed Methods Designs Selecting a Type of Mixed Methods Design Implementing the Design Decisions Writing a Paragraph to Identify a Study's Design Summary Activities Additional Resources to Examine Chapter 5: Introducing a Mixed Methods Study Writing a Mixed Methods Title Stating the Problem in the Introduction The Purpose Statement Research Questions and Hypotheses Summary Activities Additional Resources to Examine Chapter 6: Collecting Data in Mixed Methods Research Procedures in Qualitative and Quantitative Data Collection Data Collection in Mixed Methods Design Summary Activities Additional Resources to Examine Chapter 7: Analyzing Data in Mixed Methods Research Procedures in Quantitative and Qualitative Data Analysis Data Analysis With Mixed Methods Designs Summary Activities Additional Resources to Examine Chapter 8: Writing and Evaluating Mixed Methods Research General Guidelines for Writing Organize the Structure of the Writing So That It Relates to the Designs Evaluating a Mixed Methods Study Within Designs Summary Activities Additional Resources to Examine Chapter 9: Questions Often Raised About Mixed Methods Research Anticipate Mixed Methods Questions What Is Mixed Methods Research? Is Mixed Methods Research Accepted? Is Mixed Methods Research Realistic? Summary Activities Additional Resources to Examine Chapter 10: Future Directions for Mixed Methods Research Needed Developments in Mixed Methods Research Summary Activities Additional Resources to Examine Appendix A. A Triangulation Design Appendix B. An Embedded Design Appendix C. An Explanatory Design Appendix D. An Exploratory Design References Index About the Authors

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Topics: Multimethodology (57%)

21,164 Citations


Open accessBook
Abraham H. Maslow1Institutions (1)
01 Jan 1954-
Abstract: Perspectives on Sexuality Sex Research - an Overview Part 1. Biological Perspectives: Sexual Anatomy 1. Sexual Physiology 2. Human Reproduction 3. Birth Control 4. Abortion Part 2. Developmental Perspectives: Childhood Sexuality 5. Adolescent Sexuality 6. Adult Sexuality 7. Gender Roles Part 3. Psychological Perspectives: Loving and Being Loved 8. Intimacy and Communication Skills 9. Enhancing your Sexual Relationships 10. Sexual Orientation 11. Sexual Behaviour 12. Sexual Variations 13. Coercive Sex - the Varieties of Sexual Assault Part 4. Sexual Health Perspectives: Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Sexual Infections 14. HIV Infection and AIDS 15. Sexual Dysfunctions and Sex Therapy 16. Sexual Disorders and Sexual Health Part 5 Cultural Perspectives: Sex and the Law 17. Religious and Ethical Perspectives and Sexuality

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Topics: Human sexuality (68%), Sexual orientation (67%), Sexology (67%) ... read more

20,702 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1207/S15327965PLI1104_01
Edward L. Deci1, Richard M. RyanInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Self-determination theory (SDT) maintains that an understanding of human motivation requires a consideration of innate psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness. We discuss the SDT concept of needs as it relates to previous need theories, emphasizing that needs specify the necessary conditions for psychological growth, integrity, and well-being. This concept of needs leads to the hypotheses that different regulatory processes underlying goal pursuits are differentially associated with effective functioning and well-being and also that different goal contents have different relations to the quality of behavior and mental health, specifically because different regulatory processes and different goal contents are associated with differing degrees of need satisfaction. Social contexts and individual differences that support satisfaction of the basic needs facilitate natural growth processes including intrinsically motivated behavior and integration of extrinsic motivations, whereas those that forestall autonomy, competence, or relatedness are associated with poorer motivation, performance, and well-being. We also discuss the relation of the psychological needs to cultural values, evolutionary processes, and other contemporary motivation theories.

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Topics: Self-determination theory (64%), Need theory (58%), Goal theory (57%) ... read more

19,104 Citations