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Journal ArticleDOI

Transparent heat-reflecting coatings for solar applications based on highly doped tin oxide and indium oxide

01 Mar 1983-Solar Energy Materials (North-Holland)-Vol. 8, Iss: 4, pp 387-398
TL;DR: In this paper, the electrical and optical properties of thin films of highly doped oxides of In and Sn were investigated and the free electron mobility was limited mainly by ionized impurity scattering.
About: This article is published in Solar Energy Materials.The article was published on 1983-03-01. It has received 77 citations till now. The article focuses on the topics: Indium tin oxide & Electron mobility.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors reviewed work on In2O3:Sn films prepared by reactive e−beam evaporation of In2 O3 with up to 9 mol'% SnO2 onto heated glass.
Abstract: We review work on In2O3:Sn films prepared by reactive e‐beam evaporation of In2O3 with up to 9 mol % SnO2 onto heated glass. These films have excellent spectrally selective properties when the deposition rate is ∼0.2 nm/s, the substrate temperature is ≳150 °C, and the oxygen pressure is ∼5×10−4 Torr. Optimized coatings have crystallite dimensions ≳50 nm and a C‐type rare‐earth oxide structure. We cover electromagnetic properties as recorded by spectrophotometry in the 0.2–50‐μm range, by X‐band microwave reflectance, and by dc electrical measurements. Hall‐effect data are included. An increase of the Sn content is shown to have several important effects: the semiconductor band gap is shifted towards the ultraviolet, the luminous transmittance remains high, the infrared reflectance increases to a high value beyond a certain wavelength which shifts towards the visible, phonon‐induced infrared absorption bands vanish, the microwave reflectance goes up, and the dc resisitivity drops to ∼2×10−4 Ω cm. The corre...

2,124 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a spray-deposition tin oxide thin film with fluorine, antimony and antimony dopants was presented, which was obtained by spray pyrolysis from a SnCl 2 precursor.

342 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a range of combination of rsquare operator approximately 30 Omega to 1 M Omega and T% (500 nm) approximately 1 to 65 and a color of reflected daylight (golden yellow, purple, blue, green, etc.) can be obtained from chemical baths constituted from copper(II) chloride, triethanolamine and thiourea at appropriate pH.
Abstract: CuxS thin films with a wide range of sheet resistances (rSquare Operator ) and optical transmittance (T%), indicating different composition x, have been obtained from chemical baths constituted from copper(II) chloride, triethanolamine and thiourea at appropriate pH (10-12). Depending on the deposition parameters, a range of combination of rSquare Operator approximately=30 Omega to 1 M Omega and T% (500 nm) approximately=1 to 65 and a range of colour of reflected daylight (golden yellow, purple, blue, green, etc.) can be obtained. The films have been found to be stable with respect to electrical and optical properties on storage under ambient. Various possible large area applications such as in architectural glazing, photothermal and photovoltaic conversions are discussed.

168 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, thin films of fluorine-doped tin oxide (SnO2:F) on glass were prepared by spray pyrolysis technique using stannous chloride (SnCl2) and ammonium fluoride (NH4F) as precursors.

164 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the structural, electrical, and optical properties of tin oxide thin films have been investigated as a function of doping amount, substrate temperature, and oxygen partial pressure during deposition.
Abstract: Antimony-doped tin oxide (SnO2:Sb) thin films (100–480 nm thick) have been deposited by pulsed-laser deposition on glass substrates without a postdeposition anneal. The structural, electrical, and optical properties of these films have been investigated as a function of doping amount, substrate temperature, and oxygen partial pressure during deposition. Films were deposited at temperatures ranging from 25 to 600 °C in O2 partial pressures ranging from 10 to 100 mTorr. The films (300 nm thick) deposited at 300 °C in 45 mTorr of oxygen show electrical resistivities as low as 9.8×10−4 Ω cm, an average visible transmittance of 90%, a refractive index of 1.98 (at 550 nm), and an optical band gap of 4.21 eV.

163 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI

1,892 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
G. Frank1, H. Köstlin1
TL;DR: In this article, a defect model for tin-doped In2O3:Sn is developed, which comprises two kinds of interstitial oxygen, one of which is loosely bound to tin, the other forming a strongly bound Sn2O4 complex.
Abstract: Tin-doped In2O3 layers were prepared by the spray technique with doping concentrationsc Sn between 1 and 20 at. % and annealed at 500 °C in gas atmospheres of varying oxygen partial pressures. The room-temperature electrical properties were measured. Maximum carrier concentrationsN=1.5×1021cm−3 and minimum resistivities ϱ=1.3×10−4 Ω cm are obtained if the layers are doped withc Sn≈9 at. % and annealed in an atmosphere of oxygen partial pressurep O2 ⋦10−20 bar. At fixed doping concentration, the carrier mobility increases with decreasing oxygen pressure. The maximum obtainable mobility can be described in terms of electron scattering by ionized impurities. From an analysis of the carrier concentration and additional precision measurements of the lattice constants and film thicknesses, a defect model for In2O3:Sn is developed. This comprises two kinds of interstitial oxygen, one of which is loosely bound to tin, the other forming a strongly bound Sn2O4 complex. At low doping concentrationc Sn≲4 at. % the carrier concentration is governed by the loosely bound tin-oxygen defects which decompose if the oxygen partial pressure is low. The carrier concentration follows from a relationN=K 1 ·p O2 −1/8 ·(3 ×1010 × cSn −N)1/4 with an equilibrium constantK 1=1.4×1015 cm−9/4bar1/8, determined from our measurements.

551 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
G. Frank1, E. Kauer1, H. Köstlin1
TL;DR: In this paper, the free electron densities of up to 1021 cm−3 and mobilities in the range 10−70 cm2 V−1s−1 can be obtained by means of an appropriate doping and/or oxygen deficit.

214 citations

BookDOI
01 Jan 1979
TL;DR: In this article, Mancher's Leserkreis machte ich auch mit dieser EinfUhrung ansprechen, daB sie auch für erfahrene Physiker nUtzlich und vor allem anregend sein wird.
Abstract: Oem vorliegenden Hochschultext "Freie Elektronen in Festkarpern" lagen Vorlesungen zugrunde, die ich in WUrzburg und Aachen fUr Studenten nach dem Vordiplom gehalten habe. Einen ahnlichen Leserkreis machte ich auch mit dieser EinfUhrung ansprechen. Doch hoffe ich, daB sie auch fUr erfahrene Physiker nUtzlich und vor allem anregend sein wird. Vielleicht macht es sogar manchem Kollegen SpaB zu sehen, welche FUlle von Phanomenen sich aus der einfachen, 80 Jahre alten Drude-Gleichung verstehen laBt. Mancher Kollege wird jetzt die Nase rUmpfen, wieso man heute - wo wir alles viel richtiger wissen - noch soviel Zeit auf diese Uberholten Modelle verschwenden kanne. Das sollte er nicht tun. Denn es geht hier nicht darum, auch in der Physik die heutige Flohmarkt-Ideologie einzufUhren, die auf Omas Requisiten zurUckgreift, weil wir mit den neuen, perfektionierten nicht zurecht kommen. Vielmehr ist es mein Anliegen, mit dem Anfanger oder dem Nichtspezialisten zu Uberlegen, daG die vielen unterschiedlichen Phanomene wie Leitfahigkeit, Lichtabsorption, Diffusion, Plasma kante, Hall-Effekt, Faraday-Effekt, Helicon-Wellen u.s.w. alle ganz zwanglos aus der Idee folgen, daB man ein geladenes Teilchen den Kraften des elektromagnetischen Feldes aussetzt. Jedoch nur begrenzte Zeit, Streuprozesse bringen alles wieder in Unordnung.

148 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
R. Groth1
TL;DR: In this paper, a spray technique was used to obtain indium oxide films with conductivities between 1.5 × 102 and 4.3 × 103 Ω−1cm−1 and free-carrier concentrations between 6 × 1020 cm−3.
Abstract: Nach dem „Spruhverfahren” wurden n-leitende Indiumoxydschichten mit Schichtdicken zwischen 0,1, und 0,5 μm auf Glasplatten hergestellt und die Herstellungsbedingungen dieser Schichten untersucht. Die Leitfahigkeit der Schichten liegt je nach Dotierung zwischen 1,5 × 102 und 4,3 × 103 Ω−1cm−1 und die Konzentration and freien Ladungstragern zwischen 1019 und 6 × 1020 cm−3. Die Beweglichkeit der freien Ladungstrager hangt erheblich von der jeweiligen Dotierung ab und wird vermutlich durch Streuung an den Korngrenzen der mikrokristallinen Schicht bestimmt. Die Schichten sind im sichtbaren Spektralbereich absorptionsfrei und zeigen im Ultrarot wegen der hohen Konzentration freier Ladungstrager ein hohes Reflexionsvermogen. Films of n-type indium oxide of thickness between 0.1 and 0.5 μm are prepared by a „spray technique”. By incorporating different impurities, films are obtained with conductivities between 1.5 × 102 and 4.3 × 103 Ω−1cm−1 and free-carrier concentrations between 1019 and 6 × 1020 cm−3. The carrier mobility is strongly dependent on the particular impurity used. This suggests that the carrier scattering is strongly dependent on the particular impurity used. This suggests that the carrier scattering is mainly due to the grain boundaries. The films show little optical absorption in the visible region but, due to the high concentration of free carriers, they have high infrared reflectivity.

136 citations