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Tratado de Derecho Penal

28 Jan 2013-
About: The article was published on 2013-01-28 and is currently open access. It has received 85 citations till now.
Citations
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01 Jan 2012
TL;DR: In this paper, the consequences of the exploitation of the individual and of the criminal law in the Contemporaneous State in the face of adoption of the Jakobs Law of the Enemy are analyzed.
Abstract: This dissertation, suitable to the area of concentration “Criminal System and Violence”, with emphasis on the research line on "Violence, Crime and Public Safety", of the Masters in Criminal Sciences at Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, was aimed to understand, from a transdisciplinary vision, the consequences of the exploitation of the individual and of the Criminal Law in the Contemporaneous State in face of adoption of “Criminal Law of the Enemy”. It was highlighted, initially, the study of the practices of choice of certain subjects to be considered as enemies of the State in the current “Society of Risk”, as defined by Beck. Then, the similar and previous theoretical positions were checked that support the thesis of Jakobs, as well as the Brazilian “situation” relating to the terrorism. It is known that Jakobs thesis has been introduced in several countries, mainly after the terrorist attack of September 11, in the United States, however there is a growing tendency that Jakobs thesis may provide new ways to think and act against the criminality, converted into a conception that is no longer limited to a simple description, unlike, postulate and require the exclusion and marginalization of the enemies of the system (dominant). An analysis has been taken about the welfare society, individualism as social classification and protection of the new legal assets, justified by the social insecurity in light of a “new criminality” as well as the search for preventive policies or security at all costs, as a way of social clamor propelled by the media and by fear. Finally, there was a reflection on the possibility of the instrumentalization of the individual and of the Criminal Law in view of Jakobs thesis in the current contemporaneous society as a justification of combat the enemy.

5 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
19 Jun 2017
TL;DR: In this article, the authors analyze a current issue and a concern to theorists of criminal law and the theory of the state, which is the social protest as a constitutional right and its processes of criminalization and prosecution by the Colombian State.
Abstract: This article aims to analyze a current issue and a concern to theorists of criminal law and the theory of the State, which is the social protest as a constitutional right and its processes of criminalization and prosecution by the Colombian State. The theme proposed to be studied here, has a close relationship with consolidation or debacle of social welfare law of Colombian Nation. This is due to the fact that the way the social protest is handled by the Government, suggests it’s democratic or authoritarian character, bearing in mind that criminal law turns outto be an appendage of the constitutional right of the rule of law, and therefore, an appendix to the theory of the State. Due to the above, the analysis made of the proposed theme, is looking from a critical perspective to determine the current situation in the exercise of the constitutional right to social protest, the challenges of ordinary legislation as regulations for emergency for full satisfaction of this right and the way how those challenges in authoritarian contexts, where takes precedence values such as safety above principles and higher values such as freedom, political pluralism and dissent; have denied in practice the exercise of this right, returning at times of the 1886 Constitution where it was expressly forbidden to exercise the citizen protest. Under the same line of analysis, it will seek to warn that the processes of criminalization and prosecution of social protest in Colombia have become a conception of popular struggle as a crime, which could be contained through criminal law, thus, criminal law becomes an instrument of power to control and maintain the established order, thus fulfilling a political and ideological function that circumvents the main liberal and democratic principles, that should inform their practice, thus becoming an authoritarian paradigm of state openly against the rule of law which formally proclaims the 1991 Constitution. According to the above, this research work seeks to demonstrate the following working hypothesis: “as opposed to the model of social and democratic state of law, formally declared in the Constitution of 1991, in reality there operates an authoritarian and democratic version of State of Rule, very efficient in terms of social control. In this context, the orientation of the criminal system and “public safety” departs from the system of guarantees inherent in the rule of law; to become a kind of authoritarian criminal law considering certain people as enemies of society, applying criminal law emergency which is incompatible with the principles of the rule of law”.

5 citations

Book ChapterDOI
04 Sep 2020
TL;DR: In this article, the authors study the limits of unbeatable fear in the state of necessity and propose a framework to define the necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of this kind of fear.
Abstract: This chapter focuses on the study of the limits of unbeatable fear in the state of necessity. Unbeatable fear remains one of the most complex exemptions to interpret, and it stands as a relevant issue both around sacrifice of persons and in cases of violence against women in Chile. Hence, our objective is not a mere analysis of unbeatable fear but rather its delimitation with respect to the state of necessity. The problem has its origin in specifying whether some of the requirements of unbeatable fear are part of the state of necessity. Therefore, the treatment of the nature of this kind of fear, as we have stated, is not peaceful in doctrine and creates insecurity in its interpretation. Therefore, the study of unbeatable fear deserves attention since it entails the analysis of fundamental concepts of the criminal law theory.

5 citations

DOI
20 Nov 2020
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors discuss the notion of criminal law as literature and analyze how images and words translate concepts such as evil or wrongfulness into visible shapes, through a process of rendering.
Abstract: The essay discusses the notion of Criminal law “as literature”. It assumes that the “offense definition” (Tipo, Fattispecie, Tatbestand) is a narrative text; one that portrays narratives capable of producing imaginative thinking through storytelling. For centuries, reading crime definitions meant being able to picture what evildoing/wrongdoing looked like. Building on the knowledge and terminology of figurative arts, the author analyzes how images and words translate concepts such as evil or wrongfulness into visible shapes, through a process of “rendering”. However, in contemporary societies, legal drafting based on “icons of evil” is under serious stress. Given the increasing de-materialization of reality and social relations, as well as the growing technical complexity of regulatory legislation, it has become necessary to draft offense definitions following new semiotic criteria and establishing a new “poetics” (aesthetic theory) for the Criminal law. After considering the new range of possibilities offered by digital signs (as bar codes) and artificial intelligence, the analysis concludes that it is possible to describe evildoing/wrongdoing using the creative resources of metaphors and imagination.

5 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...See: gArgAni (1997), pp. 11ff.; hAsseMer (1968); JíMénez De AsúA (1965), pp. 746ff.; Muñoz conDe & gArcíA Arán (2010), pp. 251ff.; PAlAzzo (1979), pp. 342ff.; quintero olivAres (2010), pp. 308ff.; vAssAlli (1992), pp. 535ff. 7 See also, for further references, PAPA (2019), pp. 22ff. 8 For this…...

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01 Jan 2017
TL;DR: In this article, a questao relativa ao elemento subjetivo do ato de improbidade administrativa, buscando fazer uma proposta de como deve tal elemento ser interpretado.
Abstract: O presente artigo aborda a questao relativa ao elemento subjetivo do ato de improbidade administrativa, buscando fazer uma proposta de como deve tal elemento ser interpretado. Para tanto, utiliza-se como ponto de referencia um julgado do Superior Tribunal de Justica, para, com base nele, analisar a gramatica do dolo e da imprudencia na improbidade administrativa.

5 citations

References
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Dissertation
16 Dec 2016
TL;DR: The concept de dysfonctionnement familial autour de trois criteres que sont la nature du dysfonoordentionnement, la gravite de ce dysfónality, and enfin le moment de son apparition as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: La famille est une cellule qui releve de l'intimite de tout un chacun. Des lors, comprendre l'intrusion d'un droit repressif en son sein n'est pas chose evidente. Pourtant, force est de constater que l'activite penale s'y est intensifiee ces dernieres annees. La question est alors de savoir quelles sont les raisons qui justifient cette intervention du droit penal au sein de la famille. Cette problematique nous conduit a interroger la place du droit penal dans la famille. Cette etude met en lumiere deux conditions de l'intervention du droit penal : l'existence d'un dysfonctionnement dans la famille, une condition indispensable ; et la protection de valeurs sociales au sein de la famille, une condition necessaire. Il convient par consequent de construire, premierement, le concept de dysfonctionnement familial autour de trois criteres que sont la nature du dysfonctionnement, la gravite de ce dysfonctionnement et enfin le moment de son apparition. Deuxiemement, s'agissant de la protection des valeurs sociales dans la famille, deux modalites d'intervention sont a dissocier : une modalite classique selon laquelle le droit penal est essentiellement un droit sanctionnateur et une modalite novatrice selon laquelle le droit penal affirme sa singularite.

40 citations

DissertationDOI
08 Jul 2013
TL;DR: In particular, the use of formulas alternativas that eviten the larga permanencia del individuo in la carcel presenta hoy un horizonte amplio de investigacion and despierta interes in distintos campos del saber as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: Actualmente se promueve una larga revision alrededor de la eficacia de las penas privativas de libertad El planteamiento sobre la utilizacion de formulas alternativas que eviten la larga permanencia del individuo en la carcel presenta hoy un horizonte amplio de investigacion y despierta interes en distintos campos del saber En este sentido, la libertad condicional se muestra como una opcion a considerar, una vez que centra la pena en la reinsercion del condenado, ofreciendole la oportunidad de salir antes de la prision, si cumple parte de su pena y progresa en el tratamiento penitenciario La tesis doctoral ?LIBERTAD CONDICIONAL Y REINSERCION SOCIAL: UN ANALISIS ENTRE BRASIL Y ESPANA?, tiene como principal objetivo analizar la institucion de la libertad condicional, estableciendo un analisis comparado entre las legislaciones de Brasil y Espana, reguladas en el codigo penal espanol y en el codigo penal brasileno, asi como en las respectivas leyes y reglamentos pertinentes a la ejecucion penal A pesar de las diferencias estructurales de los centros penitenciarios, la composicion de la libertad condicional en los dos paises es bastante semejante y revela que junto a requisitos vinculados al transcurso del tiempo de la pena privativa de libertad aplicada, intervienen requisitos subjetivos y hasta indeterminados referentes al regimen penitenciario, al tratamiento y a la posibilidad de evolucion futura del interno La innovacion de este trabajo consiste en no solo yuxtaponer dos realidades juridicas, sino emplear efectivamente una metodologia donde se pueda manifestar los criterios de comparacion, insertos dentro de los respectivos contextos historicos-culturales, comprendiendo el porque de las dificultades, diversas y comunes, para promover la reintegracion del penado en la sociedad Esbozados los principales aspectos de la libertad condicional, se puede concluir en primer lugar que, a partir de la observacion detallada de la aplicacion de la Ley de los dos paises que la institucion de la libertad condicional acaba por tener mas fines disciplinarios que reformadores y esta instrumentalizada para el mantenimiento del orden en prision Asi, es imperativa la realizacion de una rigurosa seleccion y entrenamiento de los profesionales responsables por la emision de estos pronosticos, evitando que se conviertan en maquinas de manipulacion e impongan a los penados valores morales personales que interferiran en la parcela de libertad del individuo que aun le queda a pesar de la prision Eso, por otra parte, hace imprescindible un serio y dinamico programa de asistencia post-penitenciaria, lo que en regla hace parte de los puntos olvidados por las Administraciones penitenciarias, en Brasil y, incluso, en Espana Otra conclusion importante y muy preocupante es que el incremento de la violencia ha generado en las sociedades el sentimiento de miedo y descredito en el sistema penal resocializador y las politicas de ?tolerancia cero? han sido exaltadas como la solucion para la criminalidad En Espana, en lo que respecta a los delitos terroristas se puede percibir que el legislador espanol continua siguiendo la tendencia punitivista mundial que mide la eficacia del control ejercido por el Estado de acuerdo con la demostracion de punicion ejemplar y publica que haga en el combate al crimen En la realidad brasilena, sin embargo, las politicas de represion y la creacion de mas tipos penales han criminalizado la pobreza, causando mas segregacion y un circulo vicioso de seleccion social, prision y exclusion de la camada economica que no interesa a la cultura dominante y a la estructura de poder formada en el pais Las poblaciones carcelarias exceden dos y hasta tres veces la capacidad oficial y el numero de presos aumenta en mas de 35000 a cada ano Este trato inhumano practicado por el Estado brasileno inviabiliza cualquier forma de tratamiento y esperar un buen pronostico de reinsercion social para fines de libertad condicional es practicamente imposible

38 citations

01 Jan 2014
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a planteamiento del problema, a formulación of the problem, and a set of variables for the investigation of this problem.
Abstract: ......................................................................................x INTRODUCCIÓN .............................................................................................. xv CAPÍTULO I. PLANTEAMIENTO DEL PROBLEMA .......................................... 1 1.1. Descripción del problema ............................................................................ 1 1.2. Formulación del Problema .......................................................................... 3 1.2.1. Problema General...................................................................3 1.2.2. Problemas Específicos.............................................................4 1.3. Objetivos de la investigación ....................................................................... 4 1.3.1. Objetivo General....................................................................4 1.3.2. Objetivos Específicos..............................................................4 1.4. Hipótesis y/o sistema de hipótesis .............................................................. 5 1.4.1. Hipótesis General...................................................................5 1.4.2. Hipótesis Específicas..............................................................5 1.5. Variables de investigación........................................................................... 5 1.5.1. Variable Independiente...........................................................6 1.5.2. Variable Dependiente.............................................................6 1.6. Justificación e importancia de la investigación ............................................ 6 1.7. Viabilidad ..................................................................................................... 8 1.8. Limitaciones ................................................................................................ 8

34 citations

Dissertation
22 Feb 2019
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors evaluate the efecto disuasorio de la ley penal en el sector medio-ambiental, based on empirico and distintos analisisis estadisticos.
Abstract: Desde que el Derecho penal moderno introdujo en su repertorio de bienes juridicos protegidos al medio ambiente, mucho se ha hablado sobre el tema. Esta investigacion se centra en los siguientes aspectos: el primero de ellos radica en conceptualizar al medioambiente como bien juridico penalmente protegido. Luego, se diferencia la proteccion administrativa y la proteccion penal del medioambiente, evaluando los aspectos mas destacados de ambas ramas del ordenamiento juridico. Posteriormente, se desarrollan los conceptos principales del analisis economico del derecho como metodo y/o herramienta para estudiar los efectos de la sancion en el comportamiento humano. Aplicando ese metodo se procede a evaluar el efecto disuasorio de la ley penal en el sector medioambiental. Para llevar adelante este trabajo se han realizado un estudio empirico y distintos analisis estadisticos para, intentar, responder a la pregunta que motivo la presente tesis: ?disuade el Derecho penal del medio ambiente? Si bien no se pretende que las conclusiones alcanzadas sean definitivas, sin embargo, si pueden considerarse un punto de partida para futuros estudios sobre la cuestion en Espana

33 citations