Tuer sans remords, une histoire de la peine de mort en Californie de la fin du XIXe siècle à nos jours
01 Oct 2011-
TL;DR: In California, the processus entier de la peine capitale en Californie depuis la fin du XIXe siecle, lorsque les executions sont transferees derriere les murs des penitenciers d'Etat, jusqu'a nos jours.
Abstract: La these propose l'etude du processus entier de la peine capitale en Californie depuis la fin du XIXe siecle, lorsque les executions sont transferees derriere les murs des penitenciers d'Etat, jusqu'a nos jours. L'etude se fonde sur les archives penitentiaires et les demandes de grâce des condamnes. La these est construite en croisant l'apport de M. Foucault sur le pouvoir de punir et de N. Elias sur le processus de civilisation. Il s'agit d'expliciter la disjonction temporelle grandissante entre condamnation a mort et execution. La premiere partie, juger, presente l'evolution de la procedure penale. L'acte de juger se complexifie avec la disparition progressive du droit de grâce et son remplacement par la confrontation complexe entre les cours californiennes et federales. La seconde partie, incarcerer, disseque la maniere dont les condamnes a mort ont ete traites dans les mois puis les annees precedant leur execution. Une incarceration d'un type nouveau apparait avec la surveillance croissante des gardiens, medecins et psychiatres. A mesure que le temps d'incarceration s'allonge, les condamnes du " couloir de la mort " finissent par arracher des droits comparables a ceux des longues peines. La troisieme partie, executer, explicite les mutations dans la methode et l'organisation de l'execution. La Californie pratique d'abord la pendaison avant d'adopter, en 1938, la chambre a gaz consideree alors comme moderne et indolore. En 1992, une juge federale bannit le gazage. La Californie adopte alors l'injection letale. Cette derniere technique ne resout pas les questions entourant la dignite de l'execution.
14 Aug 2009
TL;DR: In the Los Angeles suburb of South Gate, white migrants settled in the 1920s and built the suburb literally from the ground up, using sweat equity rather than cash to construct their own homes as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: In the 1920s, thousands of white migrants settled in the Los Angeles suburb of South Gate. Six miles from down-town and adjacent to Watts, South Gate and its neighboring communities served as L.A.'s Detroit, an industrial belt for mass production of cars, tires, steel, and other durable goods. Blue-collar workers built the suburb literally from the ground up, using sweat equity rather than cash to construct their own homes. As Becky M. Nicolaides shows in My Blue Heaven, this ethic of self-reliance and homeownership formed the core of South Gate's identity. With post-World War II economic prosperity, the community's emphasis shifted from building homes to protecting them as residents tried to maintain their standard of living against outside threats - including the growing civil rights movement - through grassroots conservative politics based on an ideal of white homeowner rights. As the citizens of South Gate struggled to defend their segregated American Dream of suburban community, they fanned the flames of racial inequality that erupted in the 1965 Watts riots.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present La Volonté de Savoir, the methodological introduction of a projected five-volume history of sexuality, which seems to have a special fascination for Foucault: the gradual emergence of medicine as an institution, the birth of political economy, demography and linguistics as human sciences, the invention of incarceration and confinement for the control of the "other" in society (the mad, the libertine, the criminal) and that special violence that lurks beneath the power to control discourse.
Abstract: This writer who has warned us of the “ideological” function of both the oeuvre and the author as unquestioned forms of discursive organization has gone quite far in constituting for both these “fictitious unities” the name (with all the problems of such a designation) Michel Foucault. One text under review, La Volonté de Savoir, is the methodological introduction of a projected five-volume history of sexuality. It will apparently circle back over that material which seems to have a special fascination for Foucault: the gradual emergence of medicine as an institution, the birth of political economy, demography and linguistics as “human sciences,” the invention of incarceration and confinement for the control of the “other” in society (the mad, the libertine, the criminal) and that special violence that lurks beneath the power to control discourse.
01 Jan 1991
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors focus on the relationship between the inmate and the institution, how the setting affects the person, and how the person can deal with life on the inside.
Abstract: "Asylums" is an analysis of life in 'total institutions' - closed worlds like prisons, army camps, boarding schools, nursing homes and mental hospitals. It focuses on the relationship between the inmate and the institution, how the setting affects the person and how the person can deal with life on the inside.
01 Jan 1979
TL;DR: In this article, the authors describe the role of computers in statistics and their role in statistical inference, and present a set of tools for the analysis of the data and the inference of the results.
Abstract: 1.Introduction 1.1 Introduction to statistical methodology 1.2 Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics 1.3 The role of computers in statistics 1.4 Chapter summary 2. Sampling and Measurement 2.1 Variables and their measurement 2.2 Randomization 2.3 Sampling variability and potential bias 2.4 other probability sampling methods * 2.4 Chapter summary 3. Descriptive statistics 3.1 Describing data with tables and graphs 3.2 Describing the center of the data 3.3 Describing variability of the data 3.4 Measure of position 3.5 Bivariate descriptive statistics 3.6 Sample statistics and population parameters 3.7 Chapter summary 4. Probability Distributions 4.1 Introduction to probability 4.2 Probablitity distributions for discrete and continuous variables 4.3 The normal probability distribution 4.4 Sampling distributions describe how statistics vary 4.5 Sampling distributions of sample means 4.6 Review: Probability, sample data, and sampling distributions 4.7 Chapter summary 5. Statistical inference: estimation 5.1 Point and interval estimation 5.2 Confidence interval for a proportion 5.3 Confidence interval for a mean 5.4 Choice of sample size 5.5 Confidence intervals for median and other parameters* 5.6 Chapter summary 6. Statistical Inference: Significance Tests 6.1 Steps of a significance test 6.2 Significance test for a eman 6.3 Significance test for a proportion 6.4 Decisions and types of errors in tests 6.5 Limitations of significance tests 6.6 Calculating P (Type II error)* 6.7 Small-sample test for a proportion: the binomial distribution* 6.8 Chapter summary 7. Comparison of Two Groups 7.1 Preliminaries for comparing groups 7.2 Categorical data: comparing two proportions 7.3 Quantitative data: comparing two means 7.4 Comparing means with dependent samples 7.5 Other methods for comparing means* 7.6 Other methods for comparing proportions* 7.7 Nonparametric statistics for comparing groups 7.8 Chapter summary 8. Analyzing Association between Categorical Variables 8.1 Contingency Tables 8.2 Chi-squared test of independence 8.3 Residuals: Detecting the pattern of association 8.4 Measuring association in contingency tables 8.5 Association between ordinal variables* 8.6 Inference for ordinal associations* 8.7 Chapter summary 9. Linear Regression and Correlation 9.1 Linear relationships 9.2 Least squares prediction equation 9.3 The linear regression model 9.4 Measuring linear association - the correlation 9.5 Inference for the slope and correlation 9.6 Model assumptions and violations 9.7 Chapter summary 10. Introduction to multivariate Relationships 10.1 Association and causality 10.2 Controlling for other variables 10.3 Types of multivariate relationships 10.4 Inferenential issus in statistical control 10.5 Chapter summary 11. Multiple Regression and Correlation 11.1 Multiple regression model 11.2 Example with multiple regression computer output 11.3 Multiple correlation and R-squared 11.4 Inference for multiple regression and coefficients 11.5 Interaction between predictors in their effects 11.6 Comparing regression models 11.7 Partial correlation* 11.8 Standardized regression coefficients* 11.9 Chapter summary 12. Comparing groups: Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) methods 12.1 Comparing several means: One way analysis of variance 12.2 Multiple comparisons of means 12.3 Performing ANOVA by regression modeling 12.4 Two-way analysis of variance 12.5 Two way ANOVA and regression 12.6 Repeated measures analysis of variance* 12.7 Two-way ANOVA with repeated measures on one factor* 12.8 Effects of violations of ANOVA assumptions 12.9 Chapter summary 13. Combining regression and ANOVA: Quantitative and Categorical Predictors 13.1 Comparing means and comparing regression lines 13.2 Regression with quantitative and categorical predictors 13.3 Permitting interaction between quantitative and categorical predictors 13.4 Inference for regression with quantitative and categorical predictors 13.5 Adjusted means* 13.6 Chapter summary 14. Model Building with Multiple Regression 14.1 Model selection procedures 14.2 Regression diagnostics 14.3 Effects of multicollinearity 14.4 Generalized linear models 14.5 Nonlinearity: polynomial regression 14.6 Exponential regression and log transforms* 14.7 Chapter summary 15. Logistic Regression: Modeling Categorical Responses 15.1 Logistic regression 15.2 Multiple logistic regression 15.3 Inference for logistic regression models 15.4 Logistic regression models for ordinal variables* 15.5 Logistic models for nominal responses* 15.6 Loglinear models for categorical variables* 15.7 Model goodness of fit tests for contingency tables* 15.9 Chapter summary 16. Introduction to Advanced Topics 16.1 Longitudinal data analysis* 16.2 Multilevel (hierarchical) models* 16.3 Event history analysis* 16.4 Path analysis* 16.5 Factor analysis* 16.6 Structural equation models* 16.7 Markov chains* Appendix: SAS and SPSS for Statistical Analyses Tables Answers to selected odd-numbered problems Index
TL;DR: The authors examines the major conceptual issues concerning medicalization and social control, emphasizing studies published on the topic since 1980, including the emergence, definition, contexts, process, degree, range, consequences, critiques, and future of medicalisation and demedicalization.
Abstract: This essay examines the major conceptual issues concerning medicalization and social control, emphasizing studies published on the topic since 1980. Several issues are considered: the emergence, definition, contexts, process, degree, range, consequences, critiques, and future of medicalization and demedicalization. Also discussed are the relation of medicalization and social control, the effect of changes in the medical profession and organization on medicalization, and dilemmas and lacunae in medicalization research.