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Journal ArticleDOI

Tunable and stable in time ferroelectric imprint through polarization coupling

23 Jun 2016-APL Materials (AIP Publishing)-Vol. 4, Iss: 6, pp 066103

AbstractHere we demonstrate a method to tune a ferroelectric imprint, which is stable in time, based on the coupling between the non-switchable polarization of ZnO and switchable polarization of PbZrxTi(1−x)O3. SrRuO3/PbZrxTi(1−x)O3/ZnO/SrRuO3 heterostructures were grown with different ZnO thicknesses. It is shown that the coercive voltages and ferroelectric imprint vary linearly with the thickness of ZnO. It is also demonstrated that the ferroelectric imprint remains stable with electric field cycling and electric field stress assisted aging more

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Journal ArticleDOI
03 Jun 2020-ACS Nano
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that Tin monosulfide films less than 6 nm thick shows optimum performance as semiconductor channel in in-plane ferro electric analogue synaptic device, whereas thicker films have much poorer ferroelectric response due to screening effects by a higher concentration of charge carriers.
Abstract: Two-dimensional ferroelectrics is attractive for synaptic device applications because of its low power consumption and amenability to high-density device integration. Here, we demonstrate that tin monosulfide (SnS) films less than 6 nm thick show optimum performance as a semiconductor channel in an in-plane ferroelectric analogue synaptic device, whereas thicker films have a much poorer ferroelectric response due to screening effects by a higher concentration of charge carriers. The SnS ferroelectric device exhibits synaptic behaviors with highly stable room-temperature operation, high linearity in potentiation/depression, long retention, and low cycle-to-cycle/device-to-device variations. The simulated device based on ferroelectric SnS achieves ∼92.1% pattern recognition accuracy in an artificial neural network simulation. By switching the ferroelectric domains partially, multilevel conductance states and the conductance ratio can be obtained, achieving high pattern recognition accuracy.

29 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Electric-field switching of polarization is the building block of a wide variety of ferroelectric devices. In turn, understanding the factors affecting ferroelectric switching and developing routes to control it are of great technological significance. This work provides systematic experimental evidence of the role of defects in affecting ferroelectric-polarization switching and utilizes the ability to deterministically create and spatially locate point defects in $\mathrm{PbZ}{\mathrm{r}}_{0.2}\mathrm{T}{\mathrm{i}}_{0.8}{\mathrm{O}}_{3}$ thin films via focused-helium-ion bombardment and the subsequent defect-polarization coupling as a knob for on-demand control of ferroelectric switching (e.g., coercivity and imprint). At intermediate ion doses ($0.22--2.2\ifmmode\times\else\texttimes\fi{}{10}^{14}\phantom{\rule{0.16em}{0ex}}\mathrm{ions}\phantom{\rule{0.16em}{0ex}}{\mathrm{cm}}^{\ensuremath{-}2}$), the dominant defects (isolated point defects and small clusters) show a weak interaction with domain walls (pinning potentials from $200--500\phantom{\rule{0.16em}{0ex}}\mathrm{K}\phantom{\rule{0.16em}{0ex}}\mathrm{MV}\phantom{\rule{0.16em}{0ex}}{\mathrm{cm}}^{\ensuremath{-}1}$), resulting in small and symmetric changes in the coercive field. At high doses ($0.22--1\ifmmode\times\else\texttimes\fi{}{10}^{15}\phantom{\rule{0.16em}{0ex}}\mathrm{ions}\phantom{\rule{0.16em}{0ex}}{\mathrm{cm}}^{\ensuremath{-}2}$), on the other hand, the dominant defects (larger defect complexes and clusters) strongly pin domain-wall motion (pinning potentials from 500 to $1600\phantom{\rule{0.16em}{0ex}}\mathrm{K}\phantom{\rule{0.16em}{0ex}}\mathrm{MV}\phantom{\rule{0.16em}{0ex}}{\mathrm{cm}}^{\ensuremath{-}1}$), resulting in a large increase in the coercivity and imprint, and a reduction in the polarization. This local control of ferroelectric switching provides a route to produce novel functions; namely, tunable multiple polarization states, rewritable pre-determined 180\ifmmode^\circ\else\textdegree\fi{} domain patterns, and multiple zero-field piezoresponse and permittivity states. Such an approach opens up pathways to achieve multilevel data storage and logic, nonvolatile self-sensing shape-memory devices, and nonvolatile ferroelectric field-effect transistors.

24 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Traditionally thermodynamically bistable ferroic materials are used for nonvolatile operations based on logic gates (e.g., in the form of field effect transistors). But, this inherent bistability in these class of materials limits their applicability for adaptive operations. Emulating biological synapses in real materials necessitates gradual tuning of resistance in a nonvolatile manner. Even though in recent years few observations have been made of adaptive devices using a ferroelectric, the principal question as to how to make a ferroelectric adaptive has remained elusive in the literature. Here, it is shown that by locally controlling the nucleation energy distribution at the ferroelectric–electrode interface multiple-addressable states in a ferroelectric can be created, which is necessary for adaptive/synaptic applications. This is realized by depositing a layer of nonswitchable ZnO on top of thin film ferroelectric PbZr x Ti(1– x )O3. This methodology of interface-engineered ferroelectric should enable realising brain-like adaptive/synaptic memory in complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) devices. Furthermore, the temporally stable multistability in ferroelectrics should enable the designing of multistate memory and logic devices

14 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A bridge is built between the hysteretic behavior observed either in the C- E and current-electric field characteristics on a MFS structure and the current characteristics of the BCZT/ZnO bilayers in a metal-ferroelectric-semiconductor (MFS) configuration.
Abstract: In the present work, we study the hysteretic behavior in the electric-field-dependent capacitance and the current characteristics of 0.5Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3–0.5(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3 (BCZT)/ZnO bilayers depo...

12 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Yongchao Li1, Jun Wu1, Haiyang Pan1, Jue Wang1, Guanghou Wang1, Jun-Ming Liu1, Jianguo Wan1 
Abstract: Mn:ZnO/Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) heterostructured films have been prepared on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si wafers by a sol-gel process. Nonvolatile and reversible manipulation of the magnetism and resistance by electric fields has been realized. Compared with the saturation magnetic moment (Ms) in the +3.0 V case, the modulation gain of Ms can reach 270% in the −3.0 V case at room temperature. The resistance change is attributed to the interfacial potential barrier height variation and the formation of an accumulation (or depletion) layer at the Mn:ZnO/PZT interface, which can be regulated by the ferroelectric polarization direction. The magnetism of Mn:ZnO originates from bound magnetic polarons. The mobile carrier variation in Mn:ZnO, owing to interfacial polarization coupling and the ferroelectric field effect, enables the electric manipulation of the magnetism in the Mn:ZnO/PZT heterostructured films. This work presents an effective method for modulating the magnetism of magnetic semiconductors and provides a promising avenue for multifunctional devices with both electric and magnetic functionalities.

7 citations

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13 Oct 2006

3,851 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: In the past ten years we have witnessed a revival of, and subsequent rapid expansion in, the research on zinc oxide (ZnO) as a semiconductor. Being initially considered as a substrate for GaN and related alloys, the availability of high-quality large bulk single crystals, the strong luminescence demonstrated in optically pumped lasers and the prospects of gaining control over its electrical conductivity have led a large number of groups to turn their research for electronic and photonic devices to ZnO in its own right. The high electron mobility, high thermal conductivity, wide and direct band gap and large exciton binding energy make ZnO suitable for a wide range of devices, including transparent thin-film transistors, photodetectors, light-emitting diodes and laser diodes that operate in the blue and ultraviolet region of the spectrum. In spite of the recent rapid developments, controlling the electrical conductivity of ZnO has remained a major challenge. While a number of research groups have reported achieving p-type ZnO, there are still problems concerning the reproducibility of the results and the stability of the p-type conductivity. Even the cause of the commonly observed unintentional n-type conductivity in as-grown ZnO is still under debate. One approach to address these issues consists of growing high-quality single crystalline bulk and thin films in which the concentrations of impurities and intrinsic defects are controlled. In this review we discuss the status of ZnO as a semiconductor. We first discuss the growth of bulk and epitaxial films, growth conditions and their influence on the incorporation of native defects and impurities. We then present the theory of doping and native defects in ZnO based on density-functional calculations, discussing the stability and electronic structure of native point defects and impurities and their influence on the electrical conductivity and optical properties of ZnO. We pay special attention to the possible causes of the unintentional n-type conductivity, emphasize the role of impurities, critically review the current status of p-type doping and address possible routes to controlling the electrical conductivity in ZnO. Finally, we discuss band-gap engineering using MgZnO and CdZnO alloys.

2,962 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
03 Apr 2009-Science
TL;DR: It is found that bulk electric conduction in ferroelectric monodomain BiFeO3 crystals is highly nonlinear and unidirectional.
Abstract: Unidirectional electric current flow, such as that found in a diode, is essential for modern electronics. It usually occurs at asymmetric interfaces such as p-n junctions or metal/semiconductor interfaces with Schottky barriers. We report on a diode effect associated with the direction of bulk electric polarization in BiFeO3: a ferroelectric with a small optical gap edge of ∼2.2 electron volts. We found that bulk electric conduction in ferroelectric monodomain BiFeO3 crystals is highly nonlinear and unidirectional. This diode effect switches its direction when the electric polarization is flipped by an external voltage. A substantial visible-light photovoltaic effect is observed in BiFeO3 diode structures. These results should improve understanding of charge conduction mechanisms in leaky ferroelectrics and advance the design of switchable devices combining ferroelectric, electronic, and optical functionalities.

1,418 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The review ends with the current status of RRAMs in terms of stability, scalability and switching speed, which are three important aspects of integration onto semiconductors.
Abstract: The resistance switching behaviour of several materials has recently attracted considerable attention for its application in non-volatile memory (NVM) devices, popularly described as resistive random access memories (RRAMs). RRAM is a type of NVM that uses a material(s) that changes the resistance when a voltage is applied. Resistive switching phenomena have been observed in many oxides: (i) binary transition metal oxides (TMOs), e.g. TiO(2), Cr(2)O(3), FeO(x) and NiO; (ii) perovskite-type complex TMOs that are variously functional, paraelectric, ferroelectric, multiferroic and magnetic, e.g. (Ba,Sr)TiO(3), Pb(Zr(x) Ti(1-x))O(3), BiFeO(3) and Pr(x)Ca(1-x)MnO(3); (iii) large band gap high-k dielectrics, e.g. Al(2)O(3) and Gd(2)O(3); (iv) graphene oxides. In the non-oxide category, higher chalcogenides are front runners, e.g. In(2)Se(3) and In(2)Te(3). Hence, the number of materials showing this technologically interesting behaviour for information storage is enormous. Resistive switching in these materials can form the basis for the next generation of NVM, i.e. RRAM, when current semiconductor memory technology reaches its limit in terms of density. RRAMs may be the high-density and low-cost NVMs of the future. A review on this topic is of importance to focus concentration on the most promising materials to accelerate application into the semiconductor industry. This review is a small effort to realize the ambitious goal of RRAMs. Its basic focus is on resistive switching in various materials with particular emphasis on binary TMOs. It also addresses the current understanding of resistive switching behaviour. Moreover, a brief comparison between RRAMs and memristors is included. The review ends with the current status of RRAMs in terms of stability, scalability and switching speed, which are three important aspects of integration onto semiconductors.

834 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that voltage-controlled domain configurations in ferroelectric tunnel barriers yield memristive behaviour with resistance variations exceeding two orders of magnitude and a 10 ns operation speed.
Abstract: Memristors are devices whose dynamic properties are of interest because they can mimic the operation of biological synapses. The demonstration that ferroelectric domains in tunnel junctions behave like memristors suggests new approaches for designing neuromorphic circuits.

720 citations