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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/15567036.2019.1630034

Two-dimensional surface models to predict the density of biodiesel-diesel-alcohol ternary blends

04 Mar 2021-Energy Sources Part A-recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects (Informa UK Limited)-Vol. 43, Iss: 5, pp 517-587
Abstract: Biodiesel, defined as mono-alkyl esters of triglycerides, has drawn considerable attention in recent years as a clean and renewable fuel. Density is one of the important properties of biodiesel tha...

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Topics: Biodiesel (65%), Diesel fuel (63%), Renewable fuels (54%)
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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.FUEL.2020.117295
Mohsen Amiri1, Alireza Shirneshan1Institutions (1)
15 May 2020-Fuel
Abstract: In this research, the effects of air swirling on the emission and combustion characteristics of a cylindrical furnace fueled with various diesel-biodiesel-n-butanol and diesel-biodiesel-methanol blends were studied. The tests conducted on a burner with a radial air swirler and different vane angles (15°, 25°, 35°, 45°, 60°, and 90°) that was mounted to the combustion chamber. The results showed that the air swirler with vane angles of 35° and 60° can improve the CO and HC emission. Also, the CO2 and NOx emissions improved at the angles of 45° and 60°. The results indicated that the use of n-butanol and methanol as the mixture with diesel-biodiesel blends can improve the CO and HC emissions compared to neat diesel combustion. However, a five percent increase in methanol and butanol amount resulted in an increase (around 18%) in these pollutants. On the other hand, an increase in the percentage of alcohol in fuel mixture can reduce CO2 and NOx emissions up to 12%. According to the results, the mean temperature of combustion gas decreased about 2% in some points with the addition of n-butanol and methanol in the fuel mixture due to the small cetane number and lower heating value of these alcohols compared to diesel and biodiesel. The results indicated that air swirler with the vane angle of 60° had a better condition for the reduction of pollutants among other angles.

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Topics: Diesel fuel (61%), Cetane number (58%), NOx (57%) ... read more

11 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.RENENE.2021.07.121
M.A. Mujtaba1, M.A. Mujtaba2, Md. Abul Kalam1, Haji Hassan Masjuki1  +11 moreInstitutions (8)
27 Jul 2021-Renewable Energy
Abstract: This study aims to investigate the density and viscosity of ternary biodiesel blends. Fuel density and viscosity play an important role in the fuel injection system, flame propagation, and combustion process in compression ignition engine. The density and viscosity of biodiesel are higher than high-speed diesel which is an implication in the commercialization of biodiesel. In the present study, palm oil has been used for the production of biodiesel through the ultrasound-assisted transesterification process. Three different types of fuel additives including butanol, dimethyl carbonate, and plastic oil have been used for the preparation of nine ternary biodiesel blends. The density and viscosity of individual fuels and ternary biodiesel were measured experimentally in a temperature range of 281.51 Ke348.15 K. For the prediction of density and viscosity of ternary biodiesel blends, four density and viscosity models were developed. The prediction accuracy of these developed models was assessed by a statistical tool absolute percentage error (APE). Newly proposed exponential regression models predicted well compared to experimental data for density and viscosity values with high regression coefficient 0.9995 and 0.9841 and lower mean absolute percentage of error 0.012 % and e 0.516 % at (348.15 K) temperature respectively. These correlations are significant for the automobile industry in developing fuel pipeline and transport equipment where additives would be present in diesel-biodiesel fuel blends.

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Topics: Biodiesel (59%), Diesel fuel (58%), Viscosity (56%)

4 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JENVMAN.2021.113102
Mirjana Ljubojević1, Milan Tomić1, Mirko Simikić1, Lazar Savin1  +5 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Due to Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm., high abundance in Novi Sad (Serbia) and previously confirmed biodiesel feedstock suitability, this study aimed to assess generative potential and yield, assess K. paniculata invasive risk, and investigate the influence of harvesting periods on the oil content and quality. Fifty-five specimens present in the Novi Sad inner-city core exhibited very high scores in the conducted invasiveness risk assessment (score 35/39). Determined good overall adaptability, growth and development, vitality and decorativeness of K. paniculata specimens, as well as the absence of phytopathological and entomological damages, due to lack of natural enemies, provided this species high unhindered yielding. The majority of investigated trees reached 5-10 m in height and canopy volumes from 10.1 to 70 m3, with an estimated more than 130 000-700 000 seeds produced per canopy. Seeds from one representative specimen were collected on different harvesting dates, at the end of August, September and October of 2019, and analyzed for oil content and quality for biodiesel production. With the average oil percentage of 22.8 w%, determined in the representative specimen, investigated 55 seed-bearing K. paniculata trees merely in the inner city core of Novi Sad, could produce 115 kg of oil. Since oil properties (<1 w% of free fatty acids and the acid number <2 mgKOH.g-1) and fatty acid profile (high content of monounsaturated fatty acids ≈72 w%) fit the requirements set in EN14214 biodiesel standard, regardless of the harvest date, harvest season can be extended to at least three months without compromising the oil quality for biodiesel production. Thus, intrinsic disservice of K. paniculata - high seed yielding can be shifted into a novel ecosystem service - quality biodiesel production. Aiming to avoid viable seed deposition in the ground and formation of the invasive seed bank, early August harvest can be recommended.

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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/15567036.2021.1900455
Abstract: Escalating energy requirements and concerns over the climate changes entail the researchers to find a viable alternate fuel. Energy derived from waste offers two advantages (i) it compensates the e...

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Topics: Diesel engine (60%), Biodiesel (56%), Common rail (54%)

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28 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.BIORTECH.2007.04.060
Abstract: Biodiesel production has received considerable attention in the recent past as a biodegradable and nonpolluting fuel. The production of biodiesel by transesterification process employing alkali catalyst has been industrially accepted for its high conversion and reaction rates. Recently, enzymatic transesterification has attracted much attention for biodiesel production as it produces high purity product and enables easy separation from the byproduct, glycerol. But the cost of enzyme remains a barrier for its industrial implementation. In order to increase the cost effectiveness of the process, the enzyme (both intracellular and extracellular) is reused by immobilizing in a suitable biomass support particle and that has resulted in considerable increase in efficiency. But the activity of immobilized enzyme is inhibited by methanol and glycerol which are present in the reacting mixture. The use of tert-butanol as solvent, continuous removal of glycerol, stepwise addition of methanol are found to reduce the inhibitory effects thereby increasing the cost effectiveness of the process. The present review analyzes these methods reported in literature and also suggests a suitable method for commercialization of the enzymatic process.

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Topics: Biodiesel production (68%), Cost effectiveness (57%), Transesterification (56%) ... read more

587 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.FUEL.2007.11.004
01 Aug 2008-Fuel
Abstract: The basic properties of several palm oil biodiesel–diesel fuel blends were measured according to the corresponding ASTM standards. In order to predict these properties, mixing rules are evaluated as a function of the volume fraction of biodiesel in the blend. Kay’s mixing rule is used for predicting density, heating value, three different points of the distillation curve (T10, T50 and T90), cloud point and calculated cetane index, while an Arrhenius mixing rule is used for viscosity. The absolute average deviations (AAD) obtained were low, demonstrating the suitability of the used mixing rules. It was found that the calculated cetane index of palm oil biodiesel obtained using ASTM D4737 is in better agreement with the reported cetane number than the one corresponding to the ASTM D976. This result is most likely due to the fact that the former standard takes into account the particular characteristics of the distillation curve.

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Topics: Cetane index (68%), Cetane number (66%), Biodiesel (57%) ... read more

425 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.FUPROC.2007.01.002
Abstract: The transesterification reaction of used frying oil by means of ethanol, using sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, sodium methoxide, and potassium methoxide as catalysts, was studied. The objective of the work was to characterize the ethyl esters for its use as biodiesels in compression ignition motors. The operation variables used were ethanol/oil molar ratio (6:1–12:1), catalyst concentration (0.1–1.5 wt.%), temperature (35–78 °C), and catalyst type. The evolution of the process was followed by gas chromatography, determining the concentration of the ethyl esters at different reaction times. The biodiesel was characterized by its density, viscosity, flash point, combustion point, cold filter plugging point, cloud and pour points, Conradson carbon residue, characteristics of distillation, cetane index and high heating value according to ISO norms. The biodiesel with the best properties was obtained using an ethanol/oil molar ratio of 12:1, potassium hydroxide as catalyst (1%), and 78 °C temperature. The density, viscosity, cetane index, Conradson carbon residue and calorific power of the biodiesel obtained had values close to those of a no. 2 diesel. On the contrary, the cold filter plugging point, and cloud and pour points are higher than the conventional diesel fuel. Although higher, flash and combustion points fulfil the norms for ethyl esters derived from vegetable oils. In consequence, the final product obtained had very similar characteristics to a no. 2 diesel oil, and therefore, these ethyl esters might be used as an alternative to fossil fuels. The two-stage transesterification was better than the one-stage process, and the yields of ethyl esters were improved 30% in relation with the one-stage transesterification.

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Topics: Biodiesel (65%), Biodiesel production (64%), Cold filter plugging point (60%) ... read more

396 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.ENERGY.2012.01.079
Nadir Yilmaz1Institutions (1)
01 Apr 2012-Energy
Abstract: In this work, standard diesel fuel, biodiesel (45%)–methanol (10%)–diesel (45%), biodiesel (40%)–methanol (20%)–diesel (40%), biodiesel (45%)–ethanol (10%)–diesel (45%) and biodiesel (40%)–ethanol (20%)–diesel (40%) blends are tested in a compression ignited engine under the same operating conditions. Performance and emission characteristics of the engine fueled with biodiesel–methanol–diesel (BMD) and biodiesel–ethanol–diesel (BED) are compared to standard diesel fuel as the baseline. Overall, biodiesel–alcohol–diesel blends show a higher brakespecific fuel consumption than diesel. As alcohol concentrations in blends increase, CO and HC emissions increase, while NO emissions are reduced. Also, methanol blends are more effective than ethanol blends for reducing CO and HC emissions, while NO reduction is achieved by ethanol blends.

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Topics: Diesel fuel (62%), Biodiesel (58%), Diesel engine (57%) ... read more

186 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/EF2002124
03 May 2011-Energy & Fuels
Abstract: Density is an important biodiesel parameter, with impact on fuel quality. Predicting density is of high relevance for a correct formulation of an adequate blend of raw materials that optimize the cost of biodiesel fuel production while allowing the produced fuel to meet the required quality standards. The aim of this work is to present new density data for different biodiesels and use the reported data to evaluate the predictive capability of models previously proposed to predict biodiesel or fatty acid methyl ester densities. Densities were measured here for 10 biodiesel samples, for which detailed composition is reported, at atmospheric pressure and temperatures from 278.15 to 373.15 K. Density dependence with temperature correlations was proposed for the biodiesels, and isobaric expansivities are presented. The new experimental data presented here were used along with other literature data to evaluate predictive density models, such as those based on Kay’s mixing rules and the GCVOL group contribution ...

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Topics: Biodiesel (54%)

149 Citations


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