TL;DR: Two unusual extensions are presented: Multiscale, which adds the ability to visualize large‐scale molecular assemblies such as viral coats, and Collaboratory, which allows researchers to share a Chimera session interactively despite being at separate locales.
Abstract: The design, implementation, and capabilities of an extensible visualization system, UCSF Chimera, are discussed. Chimera is segmented into a core that provides basic services and visualization, and extensions that provide most higher level functionality. This architecture ensures that the extension mechanism satisfies the demands of outside developers who wish to incorporate new features. Two unusual extensions are presented: Multiscale, which adds the ability to visualize large-scale molecular assemblies such as viral coats, and Collaboratory, which allows researchers to share a Chimera session interactively despite being at separate locales. Other extensions include Multalign Viewer, for showing multiple sequence alignments and associated structures; ViewDock, for screening docked ligand orientations; Movie, for replaying molecular dynamics trajectories; and Volume Viewer, for display and analysis of volumetric data. A discussion of the usage of Chimera in real-world situations is given, along with anticipated future directions. Chimera includes full user documentation, is free to academic and nonprofit users, and is available for Microsoft Windows, Linux, Apple Mac OS X, SGI IRIX, and HP Tru64 Unix from http://www.cgl.ucsf.edu/chimera/.
TL;DR: The authors show that this protein binds at least 10 times more tightly than the corresponding spike protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)–CoV to their common host cell receptor, and test several published SARS-CoV RBD-specific monoclonal antibodies found that they do not have appreciable binding to 2019-nCoV S, suggesting that antibody cross-reactivity may be limited between the two RBDs.
Abstract: The outbreak of a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) represents a pandemic threat that has been declared a public health emergency of international concern. The CoV spike (S) glycoprotein is a key target for vaccines, therapeutic antibodies, and diagnostics. To facilitate medical countermeasure development, we determined a 3.5-angstrom-resolution cryo-electron microscopy structure of the 2019-nCoV S trimer in the prefusion conformation. The predominant state of the trimer has one of the three receptor-binding domains (RBDs) rotated up in a receptor-accessible conformation. We also provide biophysical and structural evidence that the 2019-nCoV S protein binds angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) with higher affinity than does severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV S. Additionally, we tested several published SARS-CoV RBD-specific monoclonal antibodies and found that they do not have appreciable binding to 2019-nCoV S, suggesting that antibody cross-reactivity may be limited between the two RBDs. The structure of 2019-nCoV S should enable the rapid development and evaluation of medical countermeasures to address the ongoing public health crisis.
TL;DR: Recurrent mutations in the active site of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) occurred in a large fraction of young patients and in most patients with secondary GBMs and were associated with an increase in overall survival.
Abstract: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and lethal type of brain cancer. To identify the genetic alterations in GBMs, we sequenced 20,661 protein coding genes, determined the presence of amplifications and deletions using high-density oligonucleotide arrays, and performed gene expression analyses using next-generation sequencing technologies in 22 human tumor samples. This comprehensive analysis led to the discovery of a variety of genes that were not known to be altered in GBMs. Most notably, we found recurrent mutations in the active site of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) in 12% of GBM patients. Mutations in IDH1 occurred in a large fraction of young patients and in most patients with secondary GBMs and were associated with an increase in overall survival. These studies demonstrate the value of unbiased genomic analyses in the characterization of human brain cancer and identify a potentially useful genetic alteration for the classification and targeted therapy of GBMs.
TL;DR: It is found that pancreatic cancers contain an average of 63 genetic alterations, the majority of which are point mutations, which defined a core set of 12 cellular signaling pathways and processes that were each genetically altered in 67 to 100% of the tumors.
Abstract: There are currently few therapeutic options for patients with pancreatic cancer, and new insights into the pathogenesis of this lethal disease are urgently needed. Toward this end, we performed a comprehensive genetic analysis of 24 pancreatic cancers. We first determined the sequences of 23,219 transcripts, representing 20,661 protein-coding genes, in these samples. Then, we searched for homozygous deletions and amplifications in the tumor DNA by using microarrays containing probes for approximately 10(6) single-nucleotide polymorphisms. We found that pancreatic cancers contain an average of 63 genetic alterations, the majority of which are point mutations. These alterations defined a core set of 12 cellular signaling pathways and processes that were each genetically altered in 67 to 100% of the tumors. Analysis of these tumors' transcriptomes with next-generation sequencing-by-synthesis technologies provided independent evidence for the importance of these pathways and processes. Our data indicate that genetically altered core pathways and regulatory processes only become evident once the coding regions of the genome are analyzed in depth. Dysregulation of these core pathways and processes through mutation can explain the major features of pancreatic tumorigenesis.
TL;DR: SUPERFLIP is a computer program that can solve crystal structures from diffraction data using the recently developed charge-flipping algorithm and has been successfully compiled and tested on a variety of operating systems.
Abstract: SUPERFLIP is a computer program that can solve crystal structures from diffraction data using the recently developed charge-flipping algorithm. It can solve periodic structures, incommensurately modulated structures and quasicrystals from X-ray and neutron diffraction data. Structure solution from powder diffraction data is supported by combining the charge-flipping algorithm with a histogram-matching procedure. SUPERFLIP is written in Fortran90 and is distributed as a source code and as precompiled binaries. It has been successfully compiled and tested on a variety of operating systems.
Cites methods from "UCSF Chimera--a visualization syste..."
...This format can be read, for example, by the software package CHIMERA (Pettersen et al., 2004) to produce threedimensional isosurface plots of the density....
Abstract: Human cancer is caused by the accumulation of mutations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. To catalogue the genetic changes that occur during tumorigenesis, we isolated DNA from 11 breast and 11 colorectal tumors and determined the sequences of the genes in the Reference Sequence database in these samples. Based on analysis of exons representing 20,857 transcripts from 18,191 genes, we conclude that the genomic landscapes of breast and colorectal cancers are composed of a handful of commonly mutated gene “mountains” and a much larger number of gene “hills” that are mutated at low frequency. We describe statistical and bioinformatic tools that may help identify mutations with a role in tumorigenesis. These results have implications for understanding the nature and heterogeneity of human cancers and for using personal genomics for tumor diagnosis and therapy.
TL;DR: The goals of the PDB are described, the systems in place for data deposition and access, how to obtain further information and plans for the future development of the resource are described.
Abstract: The Protein Data Bank (PDB; http://www.rcsb.org/pdb/ ) is the single worldwide archive of structural data of biological macromolecules. This paper describes the goals of the PDB, the systems in place for data deposition and access, how to obtain further information, and near-term plans for the future development of the resource.
TL;DR: The CCP4 (Collaborative Computational Project, number 4) program suite is a collection of programs and associated data and subroutine libraries which can be used for macromolecular structure determination by X-ray crystallography.
Abstract: The CCP4 (Collaborative Computational Project, number 4) program suite is a collection of programs and associated data and subroutine libraries which can be used for macromolecular structure determination by X-ray crystallography. The suite is designed to be flexible, allowing users a number of methods of achieving their aims and so there may be more than one program to cover each function. The programs are written mainly in standard Fortran77. They are from a wide variety of sources but are connected by standard data file formats. The package has been ported to all the major platforms under both Unix and VMS. The suite is distributed by anonymous ftp from Daresbury Laboratory and is widely used throughout the world.
Abstract: A new software suite, called Crystallography & NMR System (CNS), has been developed for macromolecular structure determination by X-ray crystallography or solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. In contrast to existing structure-determination programs the architecture of CNS is highly flexible, allowing for extension to other structure-determination methods, such as electron microscopy and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. CNS has a hierarchical structure: a high-level hypertext markup language (HTML) user interface, task-oriented user input files, module files, a symbolic structure-determination language (CNS language), and low-level source code. Each layer is accessible to the user. The novice user may just use the HTML interface, while the more advanced user may use any of the other layers. The source code will be distributed, thus source-code modification is possible. The CNS language is sufficiently powerful and flexible that many new algorithms can be easily implemented in the CNS language without changes to the source code. The CNS language allows the user to perform operations on data structures, such as structure factors, electron-density maps, and atomic properties. The power of the CNS language has been demonstrated by the implementation of a comprehensive set of crystallographic procedures for phasing, density modification and refinement. User-friendly task-oriented input files are available for nearly all aspects of macromolecular structure determination by X-ray crystallography and solution NMR.
TL;DR: This database provides a detailed and comprehensive description of the structural and evolutionary relationships of the proteins of known structure and provides for each entry links to co-ordinates, images of the structure, interactive viewers, sequence data and literature references.
Abstract: To facilitate understanding of, and access to, the information available for protein structures, we have constructed the Structural Classification of Proteins (scop) database. This database provides a detailed and comprehensive description of the structural and evolutionary relationships of the proteins of known structure. It also provides for each entry links to co-ordinates, images of the structure, interactive viewers, sequence data and literature references. Two search facilities are available. The homology search permits users to enter a sequence and obtain a list of any structures to which it has significant levels of sequence similarity. The key word search finds, for a word entered by the user, matches from both the text of the scop database and the headers of Brookhaven Protein Databank structure files. The database is freely accessible on World Wide Web (WWW) with an entry point to URL http://scop.mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk/scop/ scop: an old English poet or minstrel (Oxford English Dictionary); ckon: pile, accumulation (Russian Dictionary).
TL;DR: It is demonstrated in this work that the surface tension, water‐organic solvent, transfer‐free energies and the thermodynamics of melting of linear alkanes provide fundamental insights into the nonpolar driving forces for protein folding and protein binding reactions.
Abstract: We demonstrate in this work that the surface tension, water-organic solvent, transfer-free energies and the thermodynamics of melting of linear alkanes provide fundamental insights into the nonpolar driving forces for protein folding and protein binding reactions. We first develop a model for the curvature dependence of the hydrophobic effect and find that the macroscopic concept of interfacial free energy is applicable at the molecular level. Application of a well-known relationship involving surface tension and adhesion energies reveals that dispersion forces play little or no net role in hydrophobic interactions; rather, the standard model of disruption of water structure (entropically driven at 25 degrees C) is correct. The hydrophobic interaction is found, in agreement with the classical picture, to provide a major driving force for protein folding. Analysis of the melting behavior of hydrocarbons reveals that close packing of the protein interior makes only a small free energy contribution to folding because the enthalpic gain resulting from increased dispersion interactions (relative to the liquid) is countered by the freezing of side chain motion. The identical effect should occur in association reactions, which may provide an enormous simplification in the evaluation of binding energies. Protein binding reactions, even between nearly planar or concave/convex interfaces, are found to have effective hydrophobicities considerably smaller than the prediction based on macroscopic surface tension. This is due to the formation of a concave collar region that usually accompanies complex formation. This effect may preclude the formation of complexes between convex surfaces.