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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1088/1367-2630/ABD9E7

Ultralight dark matter detection with mechanical quantum sensors

02 Mar 2021-New Journal of Physics (IOP Publishing)-Vol. 23, Iss: 2, pp 023041
Abstract: We consider the use of quantum-limited mechanical force sensors to detect ultralight (sub-meV) dark matter candidates which are weakly coupled to the standard model. We show that mechanical sensors with masses around or below the milligram scale, operating around the standard quantum limit, would enable novel searches for dark matter with natural frequencies around the kHz scale. This would complement existing strategies based on torsion balances, atom interferometers, and atomic clock systems.

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Topics: Dark matter (54%), Quantum sensor (52%), Quantum limit (52%)
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9 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1088/2058-9565/ABCFCD
Abstract: Numerous astrophysical and cosmological observations are best explained by the existence of dark matter, a mass density which interacts only very weakly with visible, baryonic matter. Searching for the extremely weak signals produced by this dark matter strongly motivate the development of new, ultra-sensitive detector technologies. Paradigmatic advances in the control and readout of massive mechanical systems, in both the classical and quantum regimes, have enabled unprecedented levels of sensitivity. In this white paper, we outline recent ideas in the potential use of a range of solid-state mechanical sensing technologies to aid in the search for dark matter in a number of energy scales and with a variety of coupling mechanisms.

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Topics: Dark matter (60%), Quantum sensor (51%)

22 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.SINTL.2021.100110
Mohd Javaid1, Abid Haleem1, Ravi Pratap Singh2, Shanay Rab1  +1 moreInstitutions (3)
01 Jan 2021-
Abstract: Sensors play a crucial role in factory automation in making the system intellectual. Different types of sensors are available as per the suitability and applications; some of them are produced in mass and available in the market at affordable costs. The standard sensor types available are position sensors, pressure sensors, flow sensors, temperature sensors, and force sensors. They are used in many sectors, such as motorsport, medical, industry, aerospace, agriculture, and daily life. The objective of Industry 4.0 is to increase efficiency through automation. Sensors are vital components of Industry 4.0, allowing several transitions such as changes in positions, length, height, external and dislocations in industrial production facilities to be detected, measured, analysed, and processed. Smart factories will also enhance sustainability by tracking real-time output, and automated control systems will minimise potential factory maintenance costs. It can also be seen that digitalisation can improve production mobility, which gives advanced manufacturing firms a competitive advantage. This paper discusses sensors and their various types, along with significant capabilities for manufacturing. The step-by-step working Blocks and Quality Services of Sensors during implementation in Industry 4.0 are elaborated diagrammatically. Finally, we identified thirteen significant applications of sensors for Industry 4.0. Industry 4.0 provides an excellent opportunity for the development of the sensor market across the globe. In Industry 4.0, sensors will enjoy higher acceptance rates and benefit from a fully enabled connecting and data exchange and logistics integration. In the coming years, sensor installations may grow in process management, automated production lines, and digital supply chains.

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Topics: Industry 4.0 (54%), Advanced manufacturing (53%), Automation (52%)

7 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1103/PHYSREVD.103.103002
A. L. Miller1, P. Astone, Giacomo Bruno1, Sebastien Clesse1  +12 moreInstitutions (3)
03 May 2021-Physical Review D
Abstract: We adapt a method, originally developed for searches for quasimonochromatic, quasi-infinite duration gravitational-wave signals, to directly detect new light gauge bosons with laser interferometers, which could be candidates for dark matter. To search for these particles, we optimally choose the analysis coherence time as a function of boson mass, such that all of the signal power will be confined to one frequency bin. We focus on the dark photon, a gauge boson that could couple to the baryon or baryon-lepton number, and explain that its interactions with gravitational-wave interferometers result in a narrow-band, stochastic signal. We provide an end-to-end analysis scheme, estimate its computational cost, and investigate follow-up techniques to confirm or rule out dark matter candidates. Furthermore, we derive a theoretical estimate of the sensitivity, and show that it is consistent with both the empirical sensitivity determined through simulations, and results from a cross-correlation search. Finally, we place Feldman-Cousins upper limits using data from LIGO Livingston's second observing run, which give a new and strong constraint on the coupling of gauge bosons to the interferometer.

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Topics: Gauge boson (63%), Dark photon (57%), Boson (55%) ... read more

6 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S42005-021-00656-7
Abstract: Quantum technologies are opening novel avenues for applied and fundamental science at an impressive pace. In this perspective article, we focus on the promises coming from the combination of quantum technologies and space science to test the very foundations of quantum physics and, possibly, new physics. In particular, we survey the field of mesoscopic superpositions of nanoparticles and the potential of interferometric and non-interferometric experiments in space for the investigation of the superposition principle of quantum mechanics and the quantum-to-classical transition. We delve into the possibilities offered by the state-of-the-art of nanoparticle physics projected in the space environment and discuss the numerous challenges, and the corresponding potential advancements, that the space environment presents. In doing this, we also offer an ab-initio estimate of the potential of space-based interferometry with some of the largest systems ever considered and show that there is room for tests of quantum mechanics at an unprecedented level of detail. This perspective presents current and future possibilities offered by space technology for testing quantum mechanics, with a focus on mesoscopic superposition of nanoparticles and the potential of interferometric and non-interferometric experiments in space.

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Topics: Quantum technology (65%), Mesoscopic physics (55%), Space technology (51%) ... read more

1 Citations


Open accessPosted Content
Abstract: We propose a novel thermal production mechanism for dark matter based on the idea that dark matter particles $\chi$ can transform (`infect') heat bath particles $\psi$: $\chi \psi \rightarrow \chi \chi$ For a small initial abundance of $\chi$ this induces an exponential growth in the dark matter number density, closely resembling the epidemic curves of a spreading pathogen after an initial outbreak To quantify this relation we present a sharp duality between the Boltzmann equation for the dark matter number density and epidemiological models for the spread of infectious diseases Finally we demonstrate that the exponential growth naturally stops before $\chi$ thermalizes with the heat bath, corresponding to a triumphant `flattening of the curve' that matches the observed dark matter abundance

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Topics: Dark matter (55%)

1 Citations


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57 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/10/100001
Keith A. Olive1, Kaustubh Agashe2, Claude Amsler3, Mario Antonelli  +222 moreInstitutions (107)
01 Aug 2014-Chinese Physics C
Abstract: The Review summarizes much of particle physics and cosmology. Using data from previous editions, plus 3,283 new measurements from 899 Japers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons and the recently discovered Higgs boson, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as heavy neutrinos, supersymmetric and technicolor particles, axions, dark photons, etc. All the particle properties and search limits are listed in Summary Tables. We also give numerous tables, figures, formulae, and reviews of topics such as Supersymmetry, Extra Dimensions, Particle Detectors, Probability, and Statistics. Among the 112 reviews are many that are new or heavily revised including those on: Dark Energy, Higgs Boson Physics, Electroweak Model, Neutrino Cross Section Measurements, Monte Carlo Neutrino Generators, Top Quark, Dark Matter, Dynamical Electroweak Symmetry Breaking, Accelerator Physics of Colliders, High-Energy Collider Parameters, Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, Astrophysical Constants and Cosmological Parameters.

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Topics: Technicolor (66%), Higgs boson (64%), Gauge boson (64%) ... read more

7,156 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1103/PHYSREVD.98.030001
17 Aug 2018-Physical Review D
Abstract: The complete Review(both volumes) is published online on the website of the Particle Data Group(http://pdg.lbl.gov) and in a journal. Volume 1 is available in print as thePDG Book. AParticle Physics Bookletwith the Summary Tables and essential tables, figures, and equations from selected review articles is also available.

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5,916 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1103/REVMODPHYS.86.1391
Abstract: We review the field of cavity optomechanics, which explores the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and nano- or micromechanical motion This review covers the basics of optical cavities and mechanical resonators, their mutual optomechanical interaction mediated by the radiation pressure force, the large variety of experimental systems which exhibit this interaction, optical measurements of mechanical motion, dynamical backaction amplification and cooling, nonlinear dynamics, multimode optomechanics, and proposals for future cavity quantum optomechanics experiments In addition, we describe the perspectives for fundamental quantum physics and for possible applications of optomechanical devices

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Topics: Optomechanics (78%)

3,289 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NPHOTON.2011.35
01 Apr 2011-Nature Photonics
Abstract: The statistical error in any estimation can be reduced by repeating the measurement and averaging the results. The central limit theorem implies that the reduction is proportional to the square root of the number of repetitions. Quantum metrology is the use of quantum techniques such as entanglement to yield higher statistical precision than purely classical approaches. In this Review, we analyse some of the most promising recent developments of this research field and point out some of the new experiments. We then look at one of the major new trends of the field: analyses of the effects of noise and experimental imperfections.

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Topics: Quantum metrology (67%), Heisenberg limit (59%), Quantum entanglement (56%) ... read more

2,293 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1103/PHYSREVD.23.1693
Carlton M. Caves1Institutions (1)
15 Apr 1981-Physical Review D
Abstract: The interferometers now being developed to detect gravitational waves work by measuring the relative positions of widely separated masses. Two fundamental sources of quantum-mechanical noise determine the sensitivity of such an interferometer: (i) fluctuations in number of output photons (photon-counting error) and (ii) fluctuations in radiation pressure on the masses (radiation-pressure error). Because of the low power of available continuous-wave lasers, the sensitivity of currently planned interferometers will be limited by photon-counting error. This paper presents an analysis of the two types of quantum-mechanical noise, and it proposes a new technique---the "squeezed-state" technique---that allows one to decrease the photon-counting error while increasing the radiation-pressure error, or vice versa. The key requirement of the squeezed-state technique is that the state of the light entering the interferometer's normally unused input port must be not the vacuum, as in a standard interferometer, but rather a "squeezed state"---a state whose uncertainties in the two quadrature phases are unequal. Squeezed states can be generated by a variety of nonlinear optical processes, including degenerate parametric amplification.

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Topics: Interferometry (59%), Noise (electronics) (57%), Squeezed coherent state (57%) ... read more

2,255 Citations


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No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
YearCitations
20217
20202