Under a Pale Grey Sky: An Interactive Timeline of Iroquoian Warfare and its Impact on the Acceleration of American Colonization
01 Jan 2013-
About: The article was published on 2013-01-01 and is currently open access. It has received 1 citations till now.
TL;DR: In this special issue of Visible Language, Visual Metaphors, the role of metaphor and the authors' various understanding's of metaphor are discussed and Articles are introduced revealing their particular foundational position with regard to metaphor.
Abstract: Introducing this special issue, Visual Metaphors, the role of metaphor and our various understanding's of metaphor are discussed. Articles are introduced revealing their particular foundational position with regard to metaphor. The array of information applications covered by authors in this issue is broad, from italic type to nutrition diagrams, from computer interface to designers' abstraction processes. Examples with analyses regarding abstraction and reference are all part of the investigation. The increasing complexity of the world around us is reflected in the increasing complexity of our communication with this world. Finding our ways in complex surroundings, installing and using more and more complex technological products, software and services, traveling and interacting more and more internationally, meanwhile getting less and less direct personal help-it has all created massive quantities of instructions, from tooltips to guided tours to interactive tutorials to safety instruction cards to wayfinding signage systems. Complexity and communication only seem to increase more rapidly than ever, and there is no reason to believe that it will get less in the near future. Increasing complexity of the world around us not only implies increasing quantities of information; it also implies increasing complexity of the communication. Technical phrases, color-coded drawings, multimedia presentation, higher levels of abstraction, more symbolism, more metaphoric communication-all possibilities are applied to get the difficult messages across. Micro-electronics forced instructional graphic design to make giant leaps. Because of nternationalization, distant marketing, increase of functionalities per device, together with miniaturization of the devices and displays, verbal language can often not be applied or may not be the most efficient way to communicate. As a consequence, we see the application of visuals, instructive pictures, schemas, signs, icons, visual symbols and other visual tools, all part of a visual instructive language which is supposed to be understood internationally. Such visuals may be thought of as just direct representations of reality. But of course they are not. Every visual-however realistic-is an interpretation or abstraction of the reality it depicts. A photo may be only a selection of reality-and further be completely realistic. But technical drawings, pictograms, icons, schemas and other visualizations are always interpretations and abstractions from reality. In our view, metaphors are a specific type of abstraction and when we started conceptualizing this special issue of Visible Language, we thought of metaphors as abstractions in the ancient, traditional, literary way: a metaphor describes one thing in terms of another. That enables us to grasp abstract concepts, for instance the complex technological problems which we are confronted with when using modern electronic devices. Such metaphors are omnipresent in user interfaces of electronic devices, software, way signage systems, etc. We all know the famous examples: the wastebasket on the computer screen that indicates that we throw away a document or a program or whatever from the computer hard disk by dragging the icon into the wastebasket. Some may remember the only interesting alternative: the black hole on the NeXT computer. By far the most used-but rarely mentioned visual metaphor-is the arrow to indicate direction (see figures 1, 2 and 4). Another nice metaphor in the strict sense is the bird's feather on a gas pedal in a car to indicate: 'drive carefully' (see figure 3); the idea can be seen in various other car manuals. Metaphors in the wider, but still literary sense, figures of speech, are for example the pars pro toto (a kind of metonymy) (figure 5), a euphemism (figure 6). On the edge of being a metaphor in its widest meaning may be for instance the anacoluthon (figure 7)-if the anacoluthon can be a figure of speech at all. …
01 Dec 1988
TL;DR: The authors comparee des guerres chez les Jivaro, les Iroquois, les Maori, les Dani, and les Tiwari, and comparee le complexe de vengeance.
Abstract: La transformation du conflit intra ou interethnique traditionnel, fonde sur ce que l'A. appelle le " complexe de vengeance ", en affrontement de type genocidaire virtualise techniquement, economiquement et socialement par les echanges avec les Europeens. Etude comparee des guerres chez les Jivaro, les Iroquois, les Maori et les Dani
TL;DR: A study of the documentary sources makes it possible to arrive at an approximate assessment of the demographic damage suffered by the native population during the Indian wars of the seventeenth century in New England as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: A study of the documentary sources makes it possible to arrive at an approximate assessment of the demographic damage suffered by the native population during the Indian wars of the seventeenth century in New England. There were three periods of intense military effort, the Pequot War, 1634, the Dutch War, 1643, and King Philip's War, 1675-1676. The number of Indians killed on the field of battle is estimated as 2,950, or close to eight percent of the total population loss suffered by the tribes concerned during the period from 1620 to 1750. If those who died of wounds are added the casualties become 3,745, or eleven percent of the population decline. Indirect losses were incurred through capture and slavery, exposure and starvation during periods of active operations, and the permanent removal of refugees. These factors are calculated to account for 6,000 persons during King Philip's War alone, and bring the total to 9,745. This is roughly one quarter of the 36,000 Indians who, according to Mooney (1928), inhabited New England and southeastern New York, and who were effectively extinct by 1 750. The destruction of the other three quarters must be ascribed to disease and to social causes. The tremendous decline in numbers suffered by the North American Indians in the early days of European colonization may be ascribed to a number of factors. Among these is disease introduced by the whites, which accounted certainly for more than half the population loss. Also of outstanding significance was warfare, which, apart from battle casualties. contributed to profound social and economic disruption. The effect of warfare has usually been discussed in very general terms. and where specific cases are mentioned, there has been little attempt to analyze them in terms of the number of persons involved. It is therefore of interest to examine the role of warfare in the fortunes of the native population in a limited region and during a restricted period. For this purpose ETHNOHISTORY 20/1 (Winter 1973) This content downloaded from 220.127.116.11 on Wed, 20 Jul 2016 06:11:14 UTC All use subject to http://about.jstor.org/terms
TL;DR: A partir d'une critique de l'analyse de G. T. Hunt des causes des guerres iroquoises de 1609-1653 dans son ouvrage: The Wars of the Iroquois, l'A.A. reexamine les motifs qui ont pousse ceux-ci a combattre les Francais et les tribus dominees par les Francs.
Abstract: A partir d'une critique de l'analyse de G. T. Hunt des causes des guerres iroquoises de 1609-1653 dans son ouvrage: The Wars of the Iroquois, l'A. reexamine les motifs qui ont pousse ceux-ci a combattre les Francais et les tribus dominees par les Francais. Les motifs economiques ne sont pas plus importants, ni le commerce des fourrures| par contre l'extension de la variole constitue l'une des causes de la destruction des tribus indiennes, du Quebec au Wisconsin, a cette epoque.
TL;DR: Most colonial observers, as well as most past and present historians, consider the Iroquois of upstate New York as the central military and diplomatic Indian force of the Eastern Woodlands during the 17th and 18th centuries as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: Most colonial observers, as well as most past and present historians, consider the Iroquois of the Five Nations of upstate New York as the central military and diplomatic Indian force of the Eastern Woodlands during the 17th and 18th centuries. On the other hand, the traditions of the Ojibwas/Chippewas, Ottawas and Hurons talk of an extended and fiercely contested struggle that by 1700 had soundly crushed the Five Nations Iroquois. The internal consistency of Indian oral traditions as they have been preserved by 19th century Indian writers strongly support these ancient traditions of a catyclysmic defeat suffered by the Iroquois. Supporting data can also be found in the usual colonial historial records.