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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/ACS.ACCOUNTS.0C00859

Understanding Discrete Growth in Semiconductor Nanocrystals: Nanoplatelets and Magic-Sized Clusters.

04 Mar 2021-Accounts of Chemical Research (American Chemical Society)-Vol. 54, Iss: 7, pp 1545-1554
Abstract: ConspectusSemiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) fluoresce with a color that strongly depends on their size and shape. Thus, to obtain homogeneous optical properties, researchers have strived to synthesize particles that are uniform. However, because NCs typically grow through continuous, incremental addition of material, slight differences in the growth process between individual crystallites yield statistical distributions in size and shape, leading to inhomogeneities in their optical characteristics. Much work has focused on improving synthetic protocols to control these distributions and enhance performance. Interestingly, during these efforts, several syntheses were discovered that exhibit a different type of growth process. The NCs jump from one discrete size to the next. Through purification methods, one of these sizes can then be isolated, providing a different approach to uniform NCs. Unfortunately, the fundamental mechanism behind such discrete growth and how it differs from the conventional continuous process have remained poorly understood.Discrete growth has been observed in two major classes of NCs: semiconductor nanoplatelets (NPLs) and magic-sized clusters (MSCs). NPLs are quasi-two-dimensional crystallites that exhibit a precise thickness of only a few atomic layers but much larger lateral dimensions. During growth, NPLs slowly appear with an increasing number of monolayers. By halting this process at a specific time, NPLs with a desired thickness can then be isolated (e.g., four monolayers). Because the optical properties are primarily governed by this thickness, which is uniform, NPLs exhibit improved optical properties such as narrower fluorescence line widths.While NPLs have highly anisotropic shapes and show discrete growth only in one dimension (thickness), MSCs are isotropic particles. The name "magic" arose because a specific set of NC sizes appear during synthesis. They have been believed to represent special atomic arrangements that possess enhanced structural stability. Historically, they were very small, hence molecular-scale "clusters." Isolation of one of the MSC sizes can then, in principle, provide a uniform sample of NCs. More recently, MSC growth has been extended to larger sizes, beyond what is commonly considered to be the "cluster" regime, challenging the conventional explanation for these materials.This Account summarizes recent work by our group to understand the mechanism that governs discrete growth in semiconductor NCs. We begin by describing the synthesis of NPLs. Next, we discuss the mechanism behind the highly anisotropic shape of NPLs. We build on this by examining the ripening process in NPLs. We show that NPLs slowly appear with increasing thickness, counterintuitively through lateral growth. Then, we turn to the synthesis of MSCs, in particular focusing on their growth mechanism. Our findings indicate a strong connection between NPLs and MSCs. Finally, we review several remaining challenges for the growth of NPLs and MSCs and give a brief outlook on the future of discrete growth. By understanding the underlying process, we believe that it can be exploited more broadly, potentially moving us toward more uniform nanomaterials.

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7 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/ACS.JPCC.1C03880
Abstract: The optoelectronic properties of metal chalcogenide colloidal nanoplatelets are often interpreted in terms of excitonic states. However, recent spectroscopic experiments evidence the presence of trion states, enabled by the slow Auger recombination in these structures. We analyze how the presence of an additional charge in trions modifies the emission energy and oscillator strength as compared to neutral excitons. These properties are very sensitive to dielectric confinement and electronic correlations, which we describe accurately using image-charge and variational Quantum Monte Carlo methods in effective mass Hamiltonians. We observe that the giant oscillator strength of neutral excitons is largely suppressedin trions. Both negative and positive trions are redshifted with respect to the exciton, and their emission energy increases with increasing dielectric mismatch between the platelet and its surroundings, which is a consequence of the self-energy potential. Our results are consistent with experiments in the literature, and assess on the validity of previous theoretical approximations.

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Topics: Trion (68%), Oscillator strength (56%), Exciton (54%) ... read more

2 Citations


Open accessPosted Content
Abstract: The optoelectronic properties of metal chalcogenide colloidal nanoplatelets are often interpreted in terms of excitonic states. However, recent spectroscopic experiments evidence the presence of trion states, enabled by the slow Auger recombination in these structures. We analyze how the presence of an additional charge in trions modifies the emission energy and oscillator strength as compared to neutral excitons. These properties are very sensitive to dielectric confinement and electronic correlations, which we describe accurately using image-charge and variational Quantum Monte Carlo methods in effective mass Hamiltonians. We observe that the giant oscillator strength of neutral excitons is largely suppressedin trions. Both negative and positive trions are redshifted with respect to the exciton, and their emission energy increases with increasing dielectric mismatch between the platelet and its surroundings, which is a consequence of the self-energy potential. Our results are consistent with experiments in the literature, and assess on the validity of previous theoretical approximations.

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Topics: Trion (68%), Oscillator strength (56%), Exciton (54%) ... read more

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1063/5.0061799
Robert W. Epps1, Milad Abolhasani1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Autonomous experimentation and chemical discovery strategies are rapidly rising across multiple fields of science. However, closed-loop material development approaches have not been widely employed in colloidal nanoscience mainly due to the challenges in synthesis space size, sensitivity to reaction conditions, and the complexity of monitoring multiple synthesis outputs. Recent advancements in automated reactor designs for controlled and reproducible nanocrystal synthesis and intelligent experiment selection algorithms are leading to wider propagation of artificial intelligence-guided autonomous experimentation techniques in colloidal nanoscience. This review will cover the current literature on closed-loop, autonomous platforms for accelerated development of colloidal nanomaterials and discuss the critical features and strategies for developing autonomous robotic experimentation systems suitable to problems in colloidal nanoscience, while providing the context, effectiveness, and prospects of each technique. Then, we will discuss some immediate opportunities in the field for more rapid technological advancement and colloidal nanomaterial discovery.

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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/ACS.JPCLETT.1C02243
Li Liu1, Keliang Pan, Ke Xu2, Xitian Peng  +1 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Mn2+-doped amino lead halide molecular clusters (MCs) are synthesized using amine (e.g., n-octylamine, or butylamine) as passivating ligand and MnX2 (X = Cl or Br) as the Mn2+ doping source at room temperature. Their optical properties are investigated with UV-visible absorption, photoluminescence (PL), and PL excitation spectroscopy. The Mn2+ precursor plays a vital role in the synthesis of Mn2+-doped MCs. MnCl2 seems to facilitate the incorporation of Mn. The MnCl2 doping causes electronic absorption blue shift and leads to a spin-forbidden 4T1 → 6A1 Mn d-electron emission. With the help of time-resolved PL, Fourier transform infrared, and electron paramagnetic resonance results, a model is proposed to explain the formation mechanism. We suggest that Mn2+ doping replaces Pb2+ is assisted by Cl- ions that replace Br- ions. This study demonstrates the possibility of doping MCs and has important implications in gaining new fundamental insight into the growth mechanisms of perovskite nanostructures.

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Topics: Photoluminescence (51%), Perovskite (structure) (51%), Electron paramagnetic resonance (50%) ... read more

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/ACS.NANOLETT.1C02412
31 Aug 2021-Nano Letters
Abstract: Magic-sized semiconductor nanocrystals (MSNCs) grow via discrete jumps between specific sizes. Despite their potential to offer atomically precise structures, their use has been limited by poor stability and trap-dominated photoluminescence. Recently, CdSe MSNCs have been grown to larger sizes. We exploit such particles and demonstrate a method to grow shells on CdSe MSNC cores via high-temperature synthesis. Thin CdS shells lead to dramatic improvements in the emissive properties of the MSNCs, narrowing their fluorescence line widths, enhancing photoluminescence quantum yields, and eliminating trap emission. Although thicker CdS shells lead to decreased performance, CdxZn1-xS alloyed shells maintain efficient and narrow emission lines. These alloyed core/shell crystallites exhibit a tetrahedral shape, in agreement with a recent model for MSNC growth. Our results indicate that MSNCs can compete with other state-of-the-art semiconductor nanocrystals. Furthermore, these core/shell structures will allow further study of MSNCs and their potential for atomically precise growth.

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Topics: Photoluminescence (50%)

References
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58 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/JA00072A025
Abstract: A simple route to the production of high-quality CdE (E=S, Se, Te) semiconductor nanocrystallites is presented. Crystallites from ∼12 A to ∼115 A in diameter with consistent crystal structure, surface derivatization, and a high degree of monodispersity are prepared in a single reaction. The synthesis is based on the pyrolysis of organometallic reagents by injection into a hot coordinating solvent. This provides temporally discrete nucleation and permits controlled growth of macroscopic quantities of nanocrystallites. Size selective precipitation of crystallites from Portions of the growth solution isolates samples with narrow size distributions (<5% rms in diameter). High sample quality results in sharp absorption features and strong «band-edge» emission which is tunable with particle size and choice of material

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Topics: Crystallite (52%), Nucleation (52%), Particle size (51%)

7,951 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/CR030063A
18 Mar 2005-Chemical Reviews
Abstract: The interest in nanoscale materials stems from the fact that new properties are acquired at this length scale and, equally important, that these properties * To whom correspondence should be addressed. Phone, 404-8940292; fax, 404-894-0294; e-mail, mostafa.el-sayed@ chemistry.gatech.edu. † Case Western Reserve UniversitysMillis 2258. ‡ Phone, 216-368-5918; fax, 216-368-3006; e-mail, burda@case.edu. § Georgia Institute of Technology. 1025 Chem. Rev. 2005, 105, 1025−1102

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6,510 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/35003535
Xiaogang Peng1, Liberato Manna1, Liberato Manna2, Liberato Manna3  +15 moreInstitutions (3)
02 Mar 2000-Nature
Abstract: Nanometre-size inorganic dots, tubes and wires exhibit a wide range of electrical and optical properties1,2 that depend sensitively on both size and shape3,4, and are of both fundamental and technological interest In contrast to the syntheses of zero-dimensional systems, existing preparations of one-dimensional systems often yield networks of tubes or rods which are difficult to separate5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12 And, in the case of optically active II–VI and III–V semiconductors, the resulting rod diameters are too large to exhibit quantum confinement effects6,8,9,10 Thus, except for some metal nanocrystals13, there are no methods of preparation that yield soluble and monodisperse particles that are quantum-confined in two of their dimensions For semiconductors, a benchmark preparation is the growth of nearly spherical II–VI and III–V nanocrystals by injection of precursor molecules into a hot surfactant14,15 Here we demonstrate that control of the growth kinetics of the II–VI semiconductor cadmium selenide can be used to vary the shapes of the resulting particles from a nearly spherical morphology to a rod-like one, with aspect ratios as large as ten to one This method should be useful, not only for testing theories of quantum confinement, but also for obtaining particles with spectroscopic properties that could prove advantageous in biological labelling experiments16,17 and as chromophores in light-emitting diodes18,19

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Topics: Quantum dot (57%), Cadmium selenide (55%)

4,128 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1146/ANNUREV.MATSCI.30.1.545
Abstract: ▪ Abstract Solution phase syntheses and size-selective separation methods to prepare semiconductor and metal nanocrystals, tunable in size from ∼1 to 20 nm and monodisperse to ≤5%, are presented. Preparation of monodisperse samples enables systematic characterization of the structural, electronic, and optical properties of materials as they evolve from molecular to bulk in the nanometer size range. Sample uniformity makes it possible to manipulate nanocrystals into close-packed, glassy, and ordered nanocrystal assemblies (superlattices, colloidal crystals, supercrystals). Rigorous structural characterization is critical to understanding the electronic and optical properties of both nanocrystals and their assemblies. At inter-particle separations 5–100 A, dipole-dipole interactions lead to energy transfer between neighboring nanocrystals, and electronic tunneling between proximal nanocrystals gives rise to dark and photoconductivity. At separations <5 A, exchange interactions cause otherwise insulating ass...

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Topics: Nanocrystal (53%), Colloidal crystal (53%), Quantum dot (52%) ... read more

3,927 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE04165
Yadong Yin1, A. Paul Alivisatos1Institutions (1)
29 Sep 2005-Nature
Abstract: Colloidal nanocrystals are solution-grown, nanometre-sized, inorganic particles that are stabilized by a layer of surfactants attached to their surface. The inorganic cores possess useful properties that are controlled by their composition, size and shape, and the surfactant coating ensures that these structures are easy to fabricate and process further into more complex structures. This combination of features makes colloidal nanocrystals attractive and promising building blocks for advanced materials and devices. Chemists are achieving ever more exquisite control over the composition, size, shape, crystal structure and surface properties of nanocrystals, thus setting the stage for fully exploiting the potential of these remarkable materials.

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Topics: Particle size (51%)

2,700 Citations


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