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Journal ArticleDOI

Understanding Impoverishment: The Consequences of Development-Induced Displacement

TL;DR: In this article, the authors reveal the enormous problems and disastrous affects which continue to accompany displacement operations in many countries, which raise the ever more urgent question of whether the benefits of infrastructure development justify or outweigh the pain of the radical disruption of peoples lives.
Abstract: Infrastructure development projects are set to continue into the next century as developing country governments seek to manage population growth, urbanization and industrialization. The contributions in this volume raise many questions about 'development' and 'progress' in the late twentieth century. What is revealed are the enormous problems and disastrous affects which continue to accompany displacement operations in many countries, which raise the ever more urgent question of whether the benefits of infrastructure development justify or outweigh the pain of the radical disruption of peoples lives, exacerbated by the fact that, with some notable exceptions, there has been a lack of official recognition on the part of governments and international agencies that development-induced displacement is a problem at all. This important volume addresses the issues and shows just how serious the situation is.
Citations
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Book
Michael M. Cernea1
01 Jun 1997
TL;DR: The model suggests that reconstructing and improving the livelihood of those displaced require risk-reversals through explicit strategies backed up by adequate financing, and flawed approaches to reconstruction and the intrinsic limitations of cost-benefit analysis are discussed.
Abstract: Involuntary population displacements and resettlement entailed by development programs have reached a magnitude and frequency that give these phenomena worldwide relevance and require policy-guided solutions. The author extracts the general trends and common characteristics revealed by a vast body of empirical data, to construct a theoretical model of displacement and reconstruction. The model captures the socioeconomic content of both segments of the process: forced displacement and reestablishment. It identifies the key risks and impoverishment processes in displacement as: (a) landlessness; (b) joblessness; (c) homelessness; (d) marginalization: (e) food insecurity; (f) loss of access to common property resources; (g) increased morbidity; (h) community disarticulation. Conversely, the model suggests that reconstructing and improving the livelihood of those displaced require risk-reversals through explicit strategies backed up by adequate financing. Flawed approaches to reconstruction and the intrinsic limitations of cost-benefit analysis are discussed. The paper shows how the proposed model can be used by practitioners and researchers as a diagnostic tool, a predictive tool, a problem-resolution tool and a research-guidance tool.

627 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A lack of synergy between conservation and other social goals such as poverty alleviation, disease eradication, economic growth, and social equity have been advanced by many different scholars.
Abstract: Contemporary efforts to protect biodiversity internationally are beset by multiple problems. Growing consumption pressures are contributing to ever faster declines in species and the systems they depend on. Available funds for conservation have declined. High visibility issues such as global climate change have attracted signiÞ cant attention in the past decade, and perhaps contributed to lower interest in biodiversity conservation. Accusations regarding a lack of synergy between conservation and other social goals such as poverty alleviation, disease eradication, economic growth, and social equity have been advanced by many different scholars [As Sanderson (2002: 162 –63) puts it, ‘Global losses in biodiversity and wild places are not the stuff of environmental alarmism; they describe our world today, as detailed in volumes of hard scientiÞ c evidence… All these impending losses have a human origin. Economic expansion, population growth, urbanization, and development lead to greater consumption. In turn, growing consumer demand Þ res competition for fresh water, energy, arable land, forest products, and Þ sh. And globalized production permits the harvesting of nature at ever more rapid rates’. See also Chapin 2004; Sanderson 2005]. Faced with these constant challenges, the response of international conservation organizations has been to try to occupy a higher ground by arguing, among other things, that biodiversity conservation is an ethical necessity (Angermeier 2000; Ehrlich 2002); that the operational obstacles the above threats pose to conservation need to be addressed by sharpening the message of conservation and persuading others of the importance of biodiversity (Balmford & Whitten 2003; Perrings et al. 1992); that conservation can be accomplished together with poverty alleviation (Wells & McShane 2004); that biodiversity conservation is important in utilitarian terms for human well-being in the long run (Burton et al. 1992); and that an exclusive concern with human development often leads to undesirable impacts on biodiversity conservation (Redford et al. 2006). These

354 citations


Cites background from "Understanding Impoverishment: The C..."

  • ...Others have provided numbers that range closer to 100 million (Koenig 2002; McDowell 1996), and the increasing number continues to be in the neighborhood of an additional 10 million people annually....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors reviewed the growth of the field of refugee studies, focusing on its links with, and impact on, refugee policy and identified areas in which future policy-oriented work might be developed.
Abstract: This article reviews the growth of the field of refugee studies, focusing on its links with, and impact on, refugee policy. The last fifty years, and especially the last two decades, have witnessed both a dramatic increase in academic work on refugees and significant institutional development in the field. It is argued that these institutions have developed strong links with policymakers, although this has often failed to translate into significant policy impacts. Areas in which future policy-orientated work might be developed are considered.

229 citations

01 Jan 2002
TL;DR: TEBEREBIE, TARKWA, MANDEKROM, SOFO MENSAKOM, AKONTANSE, KYEKYEWERE, NKWANTAKROM as mentioned in this paper, DAMANG, BODWIRE AGYA, HUNISO, ABEKOASE, KOJOKROM, BARANJ MOKASA, CHAK BRANJ, CHICHORDI, KOPERAPOCA LAMA, NAWARIPI LAMA*, NEGERIPI, SADIOLA, FARABAKOUTA
Abstract: TEBEREBIE * TARKWA * MANDEKROM * SOFO MENSAKROM * OLD ATUABO * AKONTANSE * KYEKYEWERE * NKWANTAKROM * DAMANG * BODWIRE AGYA * HUNISO * ABEKOASE * KOJOKROM * BARANJ MOKASA * CHAK BRANJ * CHICHORDI * KOPERAPOCA LAMA * NAWARIPI LAMA * NEGERIPI * SADIOLA * FARABAKOUTA * NIAMBOULAMA * NAR HEW * WAN SAM * WAN MONG * SOM KHOM * WAN HOK * LOOK NIU * TA SARM POO * WAN PARMG * NAM ARNG * PENG OO * KUNG NIM * NAM PAR MOONG * KORNG HAK * NAM POON * MONG KHAMG * PAENG * SONORA (AZ) * BORWA TOLA * TURI TOLA * MUSLIM TOLA * GANJU TOLA * SONU GUTTU * JOGWA TOLA * DURU MUSLIM TOLA * DURU KASMAR * THOM * LOI WAENG * NORNG TAW * NAR PAE * NORNG KHAET *TORNG HEW * PARNG KHARM SAI * HORNG LERK * WAN LI * NYANDAHUN * SEGWEMA * SEMABU * VAAMA * NDENDMOIA * MONDOKO * PEJEBU * GANGAMA * MBELLEH * LLUNGA * GA-TILA * NEW KOFFIEKAMP * KAKOLA * OVACIK PARNG KHARM KORNG MU * NAM YOM * HUAY HE * WAN KYORNG * PUTPUT I * KAPIT * TAMBO GRANDE * BAMBA * BELEBU * NYOKOVULAHUN * KANGA * FOINDA * MADINA

197 citations

References
More filters
Book
Michael M. Cernea1
01 Jun 1997
TL;DR: The model suggests that reconstructing and improving the livelihood of those displaced require risk-reversals through explicit strategies backed up by adequate financing, and flawed approaches to reconstruction and the intrinsic limitations of cost-benefit analysis are discussed.
Abstract: Involuntary population displacements and resettlement entailed by development programs have reached a magnitude and frequency that give these phenomena worldwide relevance and require policy-guided solutions. The author extracts the general trends and common characteristics revealed by a vast body of empirical data, to construct a theoretical model of displacement and reconstruction. The model captures the socioeconomic content of both segments of the process: forced displacement and reestablishment. It identifies the key risks and impoverishment processes in displacement as: (a) landlessness; (b) joblessness; (c) homelessness; (d) marginalization: (e) food insecurity; (f) loss of access to common property resources; (g) increased morbidity; (h) community disarticulation. Conversely, the model suggests that reconstructing and improving the livelihood of those displaced require risk-reversals through explicit strategies backed up by adequate financing. Flawed approaches to reconstruction and the intrinsic limitations of cost-benefit analysis are discussed. The paper shows how the proposed model can be used by practitioners and researchers as a diagnostic tool, a predictive tool, a problem-resolution tool and a research-guidance tool.

627 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A lack of synergy between conservation and other social goals such as poverty alleviation, disease eradication, economic growth, and social equity have been advanced by many different scholars.
Abstract: Contemporary efforts to protect biodiversity internationally are beset by multiple problems. Growing consumption pressures are contributing to ever faster declines in species and the systems they depend on. Available funds for conservation have declined. High visibility issues such as global climate change have attracted signiÞ cant attention in the past decade, and perhaps contributed to lower interest in biodiversity conservation. Accusations regarding a lack of synergy between conservation and other social goals such as poverty alleviation, disease eradication, economic growth, and social equity have been advanced by many different scholars [As Sanderson (2002: 162 –63) puts it, ‘Global losses in biodiversity and wild places are not the stuff of environmental alarmism; they describe our world today, as detailed in volumes of hard scientiÞ c evidence… All these impending losses have a human origin. Economic expansion, population growth, urbanization, and development lead to greater consumption. In turn, growing consumer demand Þ res competition for fresh water, energy, arable land, forest products, and Þ sh. And globalized production permits the harvesting of nature at ever more rapid rates’. See also Chapin 2004; Sanderson 2005]. Faced with these constant challenges, the response of international conservation organizations has been to try to occupy a higher ground by arguing, among other things, that biodiversity conservation is an ethical necessity (Angermeier 2000; Ehrlich 2002); that the operational obstacles the above threats pose to conservation need to be addressed by sharpening the message of conservation and persuading others of the importance of biodiversity (Balmford & Whitten 2003; Perrings et al. 1992); that conservation can be accomplished together with poverty alleviation (Wells & McShane 2004); that biodiversity conservation is important in utilitarian terms for human well-being in the long run (Burton et al. 1992); and that an exclusive concern with human development often leads to undesirable impacts on biodiversity conservation (Redford et al. 2006). These

354 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors reviewed the growth of the field of refugee studies, focusing on its links with, and impact on, refugee policy and identified areas in which future policy-oriented work might be developed.
Abstract: This article reviews the growth of the field of refugee studies, focusing on its links with, and impact on, refugee policy. The last fifty years, and especially the last two decades, have witnessed both a dramatic increase in academic work on refugees and significant institutional development in the field. It is argued that these institutions have developed strong links with policymakers, although this has often failed to translate into significant policy impacts. Areas in which future policy-orientated work might be developed are considered.

229 citations

01 Jan 2002
TL;DR: TEBEREBIE, TARKWA, MANDEKROM, SOFO MENSAKOM, AKONTANSE, KYEKYEWERE, NKWANTAKROM as mentioned in this paper, DAMANG, BODWIRE AGYA, HUNISO, ABEKOASE, KOJOKROM, BARANJ MOKASA, CHAK BRANJ, CHICHORDI, KOPERAPOCA LAMA, NAWARIPI LAMA*, NEGERIPI, SADIOLA, FARABAKOUTA
Abstract: TEBEREBIE * TARKWA * MANDEKROM * SOFO MENSAKROM * OLD ATUABO * AKONTANSE * KYEKYEWERE * NKWANTAKROM * DAMANG * BODWIRE AGYA * HUNISO * ABEKOASE * KOJOKROM * BARANJ MOKASA * CHAK BRANJ * CHICHORDI * KOPERAPOCA LAMA * NAWARIPI LAMA * NEGERIPI * SADIOLA * FARABAKOUTA * NIAMBOULAMA * NAR HEW * WAN SAM * WAN MONG * SOM KHOM * WAN HOK * LOOK NIU * TA SARM POO * WAN PARMG * NAM ARNG * PENG OO * KUNG NIM * NAM PAR MOONG * KORNG HAK * NAM POON * MONG KHAMG * PAENG * SONORA (AZ) * BORWA TOLA * TURI TOLA * MUSLIM TOLA * GANJU TOLA * SONU GUTTU * JOGWA TOLA * DURU MUSLIM TOLA * DURU KASMAR * THOM * LOI WAENG * NORNG TAW * NAR PAE * NORNG KHAET *TORNG HEW * PARNG KHARM SAI * HORNG LERK * WAN LI * NYANDAHUN * SEGWEMA * SEMABU * VAAMA * NDENDMOIA * MONDOKO * PEJEBU * GANGAMA * MBELLEH * LLUNGA * GA-TILA * NEW KOFFIEKAMP * KAKOLA * OVACIK PARNG KHARM KORNG MU * NAM YOM * HUAY HE * WAN KYORNG * PUTPUT I * KAPIT * TAMBO GRANDE * BAMBA * BELEBU * NYOKOVULAHUN * KANGA * FOINDA * MADINA

197 citations