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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/IJERPH18052571

Understanding Period Poverty: Socio-Economic Inequalities in Menstrual Hygiene Management in Eight Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

04 Mar 2021-International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (MDPI AG)-Vol. 18, Iss: 5, pp 2571
Abstract: Menstrual hygiene management and health is increasingly gaining policy importance in a bid to promote dignity, gender equality and reproductive health. Effective and adequate menstrual hygiene management requires women and girls to have access to their menstrual health materials and products of choice, but also extends into having private, clean and safe spaces for using these materials. The paper provides empirical evidence of the inequality in menstrual hygiene management in Kinshasa (DRC), Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Rajasthan (India), Indonesia, Nigeria and Uganda using concentration indices and decomposition methods. There is consistent evidence of wealth-related inequality in the conditions of menstrual hygiene management spaces as well as access to sanitary pads across all countries. Wealth, education, the rural-urban divide and infrastructural limitations of the household are major contributors to these inequalities. While wealth is identified as one of the key drivers of unequal access to menstrual hygiene management, other socio-economic, environmental and household factors require urgent policy attention. This specifically includes the lack of safe MHM spaces which threaten the health and dignity of women and girls.

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Topics: Reproductive health (54%), Poverty (51%)
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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/03630242.2021.1970502
Márcia Mendonça Carneiro1Institutions (1)
01 Sep 2021-Women & Health
Abstract: Menstruation is a physiological process that happens every month to about 1.8 billion people worldwide from menarche to menopause. The normal menstrual cycle brings about numerous changes to girls,...

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Topics: Menstruation (63%), Menarche (59%), Menopause (51%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.38126/JSPG180416
Shelby Weaver1, Zena Jensvold1, Marie Fiori1Institutions (1)
27 Sep 2021-
Abstract: The population of incarcerated people who menstruate in the Wisconsin correctional system has increased significantly over the last decade. Though necessary for the health and wellbeing of these individuals, menstrual products are not guaranteed at a reasonable cost throughout the Wisconsin correctional system, making them inaccessible, particularly to individuals from marginalized communities. The current system causes extreme physical and mental health problems, as many incarcerated individuals may go without these necessary products or attempt to make their own. Thirteen states have enacted legislation to provide menstrual products at no cost to citizens in prisons and jails. We advise that the Wisconsin State Legislature pass similar legislation that requires prisons and jails to provide free menstrual products to incarcerated Wisconsinites.

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Topics: Health equity (58%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/IJERPH18115534
Jui-Che Tu1, Ting-Yun Lo1, Yi-Ting Lai1Institutions (1)
Abstract: With rapid technology developments and the convenient and fast pace of life in recent years, many people are using disposable products, which cause environmental and ecological damages. A variety of eco-friendly menstrual products have been launched on the market, and "menstrual pads" now have a large market share in Taiwan's menstrual product industry. This study interviewed experts and collected questionnaires for qualitative and quantitative investigation and analysis. The results show that women have positive and open concepts regarding sustainability, as well as a good understanding of their body and are very interested in the performance and usage efficiency of products. The results also indicate that consumers purchase based on their lifestyles; most women collected enough product information before purchasing while overcoming the difficulties in dealing with the environment and learning to adapt them, and the majority of consumers attach importance to comfort, volume, and duration of blood absorption. The results suggest that the government and private enterprises should increase and improve sanitation education and sanitary facilities and guide the approach and serve as an important reference index for the promotion of eco-friendly menstrual products for environmental benefits.

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Topics: Market share (50%), Product (business) (50%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1371/JOURNAL.PONE.0259583
09 Nov 2021-PLOS ONE
Abstract: Background Infectious disease outbreaks like COVID-19 and their mitigation measures can exacerbate underlying gender disparities, particularly among adolescents and young adults in densely populated urban settings. Methods An existing cohort of youth ages 16-26 in Nairobi, Kenya completed a phone-based survey in August-October 2020 (n = 1217), supplemented by virtual focus group discussions and interviews with youth and stakeholders, to examine economic, health, social, and safety experiences during COVID-19, and gender disparities therein. Results COVID-19 risk perception was high with a gender differential favoring young women (95.5% vs. 84.2%; p Implications Youth and young adults face gendered impacts of COVID-19, reflecting both underlying disparities and the pandemic's economic and social shock. Economic, health and technology-based supports must ensure equitable access for young women. Gender-responsive recovery efforts are necessary and must address the unique needs of youth.

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Topics: Focus group (51%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FRPH.2021.703978
27 Aug 2021-
Abstract: Background. Girls and women face substantial menstrual hygiene management (MHM) challenges in low and middle-income countries. These challenges are related to inadequate knowledge, and insufficient water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) facilities. Currently, literature on MHM among college-attending women in Bhutan is scarce. We aimed to explore knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of female college students from all ten government colleges of Bhutan, documenting conditions of available MHM facilities, from August to September 2018. Methods: A cross-sectional KAP survey was conducted with a random sample of female students from all years and a random sample of MHM facilities at each college and hostel. A questionnaire was adapted from a similar study conducted with school students in Bhutan. Socio-demographics, overall KAP findings, and differences in KAP between first and final year students were analyzed; college and hostel toilets were reported. Results: 1,010 participants completed the self-administered questionnaire. Comprehensive knowledge of menstruation was low (35.5%). Half (50.3%) reported their mother as source of information and 35.1% of the participants agreed that women should not enter a shrine during menstruation. Approximately 4% of median monthly pocket money was spent on absorbents with 96.9% absorbents wrapped before disposal. Half (55.1%) reported menstruation affecting daily activities and 24.2% missed college due to dysmenorrhea. One fifth of participants (21.3%) reported unavailability of water in college, 80.1% of participants reported absence of soap for hand washing and 24.1% described no bins for disposal. In 33.7% of hostel toilets, participants reported doors missing locks. Our team’s observations had similar findings. Conclusion: Female students living in hostels during college years lose considerable resources during their formative years of learning: time, energy, and money, due to issues of menstruation management. Although the overall understanding of menstruation was low, our participants’ MHM practices scored highly, and the vast majority of them asked for a platform to discuss menstruation. Despite some agreement with menstrual taboos (e.g. visiting shrine), only 5.1% were uncomfortable conversing about MHM. Improved public health knowledge, psychosocial/medical support, and WASH infrastructure with freely available menstrual products could lead to more effective MHM practices among female college students.

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41 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1214/SS/1177013815
Abstract: This is a review of bootstrap methods, concentrating on basic ideas and applications rather than theoretical considerations. It begins with an exposition of the bootstrap estimate of standard error for one-sample situations. Several examples, some involving quite complicated statistical procedures, are given. The bootstrap is then extended to other measures of statistical accuracy such as bias and prediction error, and to complicated data structures such as time series, censored data, and regression models. Several more examples are presented illustrating these ideas. The last third of the paper deals mainly with bootstrap confidence intervals.

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5,515 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/01621459.1987.10478410
Bradley Efron1Institutions (1)
Abstract: We consider the problem of setting approximate confidence intervals for a single parameter θ in a multiparameter family. The standard approximate intervals based on maximum likelihood theory, , can be quite misleading. In practice, tricks based on transformations, bias corrections, and so forth, are often used to improve their accuracy. The bootstrap confidence intervals discussed in this article automatically incorporate such tricks without requiring the statistician to think them through for each new application, at the price of a considerable increase in computational effort. The new intervals incorporate an improvement over previously suggested methods, which results in second-order correctness in a wide variety of problems. In addition to parametric families, bootstrap intervals are also developed for nonparametric situations.

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2,673 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/0277-9536(91)90212-U
Abstract: This paper offers a critical appraisal of the various methods employed to date to measure inequalities in health. It suggests that only two of these—the slope index of inequality and the concentration index—are likely to present an accurate picture of socioeconomic inequalities in health. The paper also presents several empirical examples to illustrate of the dangers of using other measures such as the range, the Lorenz curve and the index of dissimilarity.

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1,470 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0304-4076(96)01807-6
Abstract: This paper clarifies the relationship between two widely used indices of health inequality and explains why these are superior to others indices used in the literature. It also develops asymptotic estimators for their variances and clarifies the role that demographic standardization plays in the analysis of socioeconomic inequalities in health. Empirical illustrations are presented for Dutch health survey data.

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Topics: Health equity (57%), Statistical inference (51%)

1,170 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.2307/2231833
Nanak Kakwani1Institutions (1)
Topics: Fiscal incidence (55%)

948 Citations