Abstract: The development of a low-cost and high-efficiency oxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalyst is essential to meet the future industrial demand for hydrogen production by electrochemical water splitting. Given the limited reserves of noble metals and many competitive applications in environmental protection, new energy, and chemical industries, many studies have focused on exploring new and efficient non-noble metal catalytic systems, improving the understanding of the OER mechanism of non-noble metal surfaces, and designing electrocatalysts with higher activity than traditional noble metals. This Review summarizes the research progress of anode OER catalysts for hydrogen production by electrochemical water splitting in recent years, for noble metal and non-noble metal catalysts, where non-noble metal catalysts are highlighted. The categories are as follows: (1) Transition metal-based compounds, including transition metal-based oxides, transition metal-based layered hydroxides, and transition metal-based sulfides, phosphides, selenides, borides, carbides, and nitrides. Transition metal-based oxides can also be divided into perovskite, spinel, amorphous, rock-salt-type, and lithium oxides according to their different structures. (2) Carbonaceous materials and their composite materials with transition metals. (3) Transition metal-based metal-organic frameworks and their derivatives. Finally, the challenges and future development of the OER process of water splitting are discussed.
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