# Unified model for electrical and optical characteristics of a Transistor Laser with InGaAs quantum well and dot in GaAs base

20 Oct 2011-pp 1-4

TL;DR: In this article, a synthesis of the optical model for a quantum well (QW) and a quantum dot (QD) laser using Fermi golden rule and the electrical model based on continuity equation for a Transistor Laser was made.

Abstract: A synthesis is made of the optical model for a quantum well (QW) and a quantum dot (QD) laser using Fermi golden rule and the electrical model based on continuity equation for a Transistor Laser. The calculated values of threshold base current and light power for InGaAs QW embedded in GaAs base agree with the experimental value. The predicted threshold base current for Quantum Dots is an order of magnitude lower.

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TL;DR: In this article, different confinement structures were analyzed to achieve higher optoelectronic performances for double quantum well vertical cavity transistor laser with graded index separate confinement heterostructure, adding the drift component to the diffusion term of the current density and solving new sets of equations, modified electro-optic performances of the device was obtained.

Abstract: Different confinement structures are analyzed to achieve higher optoelectronic performances for double quantum well vertical cavity transistor laser with graded index separate confinement heterostructure. Adding the drift component to the diffusion term of the current density and solving new sets of equations, modified electro-optic performances of the device is obtained. Band-gap engineering of the original structure predicts simultaneous improvements in both current gain (more than two times) and −3 dB optical bandwidth (by 1.5 GHz). Other less critical, yet important, performance metrics including optical output power and threshold current (up to 20%) are enhanced due to applying graded layers of AlξGa1-ξAs in the base region.

2 citations

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23 Jan 2003

TL;DR: In this paper, the authors introduce the theory of OPTICAL PROCESSES and its application in two-dimensional (2D) systems and demonstrate the effects of electrics on low-dimensional (low-DIMENSIONal) systems.

Abstract: 1 INTRODUCTION 2 CLASSICAL THEORY OF OPTICAL PROCESSES 3 PHOTONS 4 ELECTRON BAND STRUCTURE AND ITS MODIFICATIONS 5 INTERBAND AND IMPURITY ABSORPTIONS 6 EXCITONIC ABSORPTION 7 ABSORPTION AND REFRACTION IN AN ELECTRIC FIELD 8 INTERBAND MAGNETO-OPTICAL EFFECTS 9 FREE CARRIER PROCESSES 10 RECOMBINATION PROCESSES 11 INTRODUCTION TO TWO-DIMENSIONAL SYSTEMS 12 OPTICAL PROCESSES IN QUANTUM WELLS 13 EXCITONS AND IMPURITIES IN QUANTUM WELLS 14 OPTICAL PROCESSES IN QUANTUM WIRES AND DOTS 15 SUPERLATTICES 16 STRAINED LAYERS 17 EFFECTS OF ELECTRIC FIELD ON LOW DIMENSIONAL SYSTEMS

289 citations

### "Unified model for electrical and op..." refers background in this paper

...The optical gain G for 2D carrier density N, photon density NP, and photon energy ω is expressed as [9-11] ( ) ) , E ( N / N ) , E ( L f f ) E ( ) E ( dE n ) , N , N ( G ch s , p P , ch hh e E...

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors demonstrate the laser operation of an InGaP-GaAs-InGaAs heterojunction bipolar light-emitting transistor with AlGaAs confining layers and recombination quantum well incorporated in the p-type base region.

Abstract: Data are presented demonstrating the laser operation (quasicontinuous, ∼200K) of an InGaP–GaAs–InGaAs heterojunction bipolar light-emitting transistor with AlGaAs confining layers and an InGaAs recombination quantum well incorporated in the p-type base region Besides the usual spectral narrowing and mode development occurring at laser threshold, the transistor current gain β=ΔIc∕ΔIb in common emitter operation decreases sharply at laser threshold (65→25,β>1)

171 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the InGaP-GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistor laser with AlGaAs optical confining layers and an InGaAs recombination quantum well incorporated into the p-type base region is demonstrated.

Abstract: Continuous wave laser operation at 25°C, with simultaneous electrical gain, of an InGaP–GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistor laser, with AlGaAs optical confining layers and an InGaAs recombination quantum well incorporated into the p-type base region, is demonstrated. At laser threshold (IB=40mA, VCB=0, 25°C), the transistor current gain β=ΔIC∕ΔIB in common-emitter operation changes abruptly (2.3→1.2,β>1), with laser modes developing at wavelength λ∼1006nm. Direct three-port modulation of the transistor laser at 3GHz is demonstrated for a device with a 2.2μm emitter width and a 850μm length between cleaved Fabry–Perot facets (which is the performance of an exploratory device and not near the limits).

158 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the minority carrier distribution in the base region of the transistor laser (TL) employing the relevant continuity equations and experimental carrier lifetimes, spontaneous and stimulated, extracted from the transistor I-V characteristics was derived.

Abstract: The authors report the calculation of the minority carrier distribution in the base region of the transistor laser (TL) employing the relevant continuity equations and experimental carrier lifetimes, spontaneous and stimulated, extracted from the transistor I-V characteristics. A charge control model of the TL is developed, consistent with the short recombination lifetime of the quantum-well base (which competes with the short emitter-to-collector transit time). The absence of carrier-photon resonance of a TL is demonstrated with the 3dB bandwidth (IB∕IB,th=1.5) estimated to be 30GHz for a 400μm long laser cavity length and 70GHz for a 150μm cavity.

116 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors derived analytic expressions for the small-signal modulation response of the transistor laser operating in the common-emitter (CE) and common-base (CB) configurations.

Abstract: We derive analytic expressions for the small-signal modulation response of the transistor laser (TL) operating in the common-emitter (CE) and common-base (CB) configurations. We compare the performance (current gain and small-signal modulation bandwidth) of the TL in these two modes of operation. The CE operation results in a small-signal modulation response with the same relaxation oscillation limitations as conventional lasers. The CB configuration shows a bandwidth enhancement due to a bandwidth equalization together with a suppression of the relaxation oscillations. Finally, we show that the small-signal responses of the CB and CE can be approximated by a third-order transfer function.

80 citations