Abstract: RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Despite all the benefits and effectiveness of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines mentioned in recent clinical trials, some post-vaccination side effects such as lymphadenopathy (LAP) were observed. The present study reviewed all studies with imaging findings presentation of LAP after COVID-19 vaccination. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a literature search in online databases, including Scopus, Medline (PubMed), Web of Science, Embase (Elsevier), Cochrane library, and Google Scholar. RESULTS: A total of 19 studies (68 cases), including 60 (88.2%) females and eight (11.8%) males with a presentation of LAP after COVID-19 vaccination, were reviewed. LAP was identified after first or second dosages of three types of COVID-19 vaccines, including Pfizer-BioNTech (nâ¯=â¯30, 44.1%), Moderna (nâ¯=â¯17, 25%), and Oxford-AstraZeneca (nâ¯=â¯1, 1.5%). In 20 (29.4%) cases, vaccine type was not reported or only reported as mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. The median days of LAP presentation after the first and second dosages of COVID-19 vaccination, were 12 and 5 days, respectively. Most of the LAP imaging findings related to COVID-19 vaccination (nâ¯=â¯66, 97%) were seen from first day to 4 weeks after vaccination. However, LAP remained after 5 and 6 weeks of the first and second dosages of COVID-19 vaccination with decreased lymph nodes' size and residual cortical thickening in two cases. CONCLUSION: This review study of cases with LAP-associated COVID-19 vaccination guides radiologists and physicians to rely on patient's clinical context and updated resources to prevent potential disease upstaging and change in therapy.
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