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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/07448481.2021.1891086

University students under lockdown, the psychosocial effects and coping strategies during COVID-19 pandemic: A cross sectional study in Egypt.

02 Mar 2021-Journal of American College Health (Taylor & Francis)-pp 1-12
Abstract: This study aimed to assess the psychosocial effects and coping strategies of university students during COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Between 30 May and 6 June 2020, an online cross-sectional survey ...

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Topics: Psychosocial (56%), Coping (psychology) (52%)
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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JAD.2021.05.121
Abstract: Background The COVID-19 pandemic has brought about tremendous social and economic turmoil, which has been associated with increased levels of depression and anxiety. Methods We analyzed data from the Healthy Minds Study (Fall Semester Cohort 2020), a non-probability sample of students across multiple colleges who completed an online survey between September – December 2020. Using multivariable logistic regression, we examined the associations between COVID-19 dimensions (concern, racial/ethnic discrimination, financial distress, infection, illness of loved one, death of loved one, caregiving) and mental health outcomes (depression, anxiety), adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and international student status. Results Nearly a fifth of the sample reported moderately severe or severe depression, and nearly a third reported moderately severe or severe anxiety over the past two weeks. When accounting for all COVID-19 dimensions in the same model, COVID-19 concern, racial/ethnic discrimination, financial distress, and infection were significantly associated with moderately severe or severe depression; COVID-19 concern, financial distress, and infection were significantly associated with moderately severe or severe anxiety. Conclusions This study showed that the COVID-19 pandemic may have shaped mental health through a range of potential social and environmental dimensions. Interventions are required that consider multiple dimensions of COVID-19 to improve mental health during and after the pandemic.

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Topics: Anxiety (57%), Mental health (54%), Psychological intervention (51%)

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/IJERPH18158133
Abstract: Few studies have used a multidimensional approach to describe lifestyle changes among undergraduate students during the COVID-19 pandemic or have included controls. This study aimed to evaluate lifestyle behaviors and mental health of undergraduate students and compare them with an age and sex-matched control group. A cross-sectional web survey using snowball sampling was conducted several months after the beginning of COVID-19 pandemic in Spain. A sample of 221 students was recruited. The main outcome was the total SMILE-C score. Students showed a better SMILE-C score than controls (79.8 + 8.1 vs. 77.2 + 8.3; p < 0.001), although these differences disappeared after controlling for covariates. While groups did not differ in the screenings of depression and alcohol abuse, students reported lower rates of anxiety (28.5% vs. 37.1%; p = 0.042). A lower number of cohabitants, poorer self-perceived health and positive screening for depression and anxiety, or for depression only were independently associated (p < 0.05) with unhealthier lifestyles in both groups. History of mental illness and financial difficulties were predictors of unhealthier lifestyles for students, whereas totally/moderate changes in substance abuse and stress management (p < 0.05) were predictors for the members of the control group. Several months after the pandemic, undergraduate students and other young adults had similar lifestyles.

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Topics: Substance abuse (50%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/IJERPH18126426
Abstract: Virtually no studies appraised the co-use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) among Finn undergraduates. We assessed the associations between sociodemographic, health, academic, policy, and lifestyle characteristics (independent variables); and individual, multiple and increasing ATOD use (dependent variables) using regression analyses. Data were collected by online questionnaire at the University of Turku, Finland (1177 students). Roughly 22% of the sample smoked, 21% ever used illicit drug/s, 41% were high frequency drinkers, and 31.4%, 16.3%, and 6.7% reported 1, 2, or 3 ATOD behaviors respectively. Individual ATOD use was significantly positively associated with the use of the other two substances [adjusted odds ratio (Adj OR range 1.893–3.311)]. Multiple ATOD use was negatively associated with being single (p = 0.021) or agreeing with total smoking or alcohol ban policy on campus (p < 0.0001 for each); but positively associated with not living with parents (p = 0.004). Increasing ATOD behaviors were significantly less likely among those agreeing with total smoking or alcohol ban policy on campus (p range 0.024 to <0.0001). Demographics significant to either individual, multiple, or increasing ATOD use included males, being single, not living with their parents during semesters, and to some extent, religiosity. Age, depressive symptoms, perceived stress, self-rated health, health awareness, income sufficiency, and academic variables were not associated with individual, multiple, or increasing ATOD use. Education and prevention efforts need to reinforce abstinence from ATOD, highlight their harmful outcomes, and target risk groups highlighted above. University strategies should be part of the wider country-wide successful ATOD control policies.

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1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FPSYT.2021.761964
Lulu Yuan1, Lu Lu2, Xue-Hang Wang1, Xiao-Xi Guo1  +3 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Background: The rapid spread of Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) infection has been the most important public health crisis across the globe since the end of 2019. Anxiety and depression are the most common mental health problems among people during the pandemic, and many studies have reported anxiety and depressive symptoms in college students. However, information on the mental health status of international medical students during this critical period of time has been scarce, which hinders the efforts in making proper policy or strategies to help these students. The present study aims to explore the prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms in international medical students in China and to find out the factors that have potential predictive value for anxiety and depressive symptoms. Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out for international medical students during November 2020 at China Medical University in Shenyang, China. Five hundred and nineteen international students were interviewed with questionnaires containing demographic variables, Stressors in school, Generalized Anxiety Disorder Assessment (GAD-7), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire (SCSQ), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), Revised Life Orientation Test (LOT-R) and Resilience Scale-14 (RS-14). Univariate logistic regression and stepwise multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted where appropriate to explore the predictive factors of anxiety symptoms and depressive symptoms. Results: The prevalence of anxiety symptoms and depressive symptoms in the sample population was 28.5% (148/519) and 31.6% (164/519), respectively. Stressors in school (β = 0.176, OR = 1.192, CI: 1.102-1.289), negative coping style (β = 0.639, OR = 1.894, CI: 1.287-2.788) and perceived stress (β = 0.230, OR = 1.258, CI: 1.184-1.337) were found to be the predictors of anxiety symptoms among the international medical students; while gender (β = -0.594, OR = 0.552, CI: 0.315-0.968), stay up late (β = 0.828, OR = 2.288, CI: 1.182-4.431), current place of residence (β = 1.082, OR = 2.951, CI: 1.256-6.931), stressors in the school (β = 0.303, OR = 1.354, CI: 1.266-1.496), negative coping style (β = 0.866, OR = 2.377, CI: 1.516-3.725), perceived stress (β = 0.233, OR = 1.262, CI: 1.180-1.351) were found to be predictors of depressive symptoms. Conclusion: The prevalence of anxiety symptoms and depressive symptoms was moderate among international medical students in China. The communal predictors of anxiety and depressive symptoms were stressors in school, negative coping style and perceived stress; while demographic factors such as gender (male), stay up late at night and current place of residence were found associated with depressive symptoms. These results suggest that proper stress management and specific interventions are needed to help students maintain their mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic period.

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Topics: Anxiety (62%), Perceived Stress Scale (54%), Generalized anxiety disorder (54%) ... show more

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1136/BMJOPEN-2021-054007
Qunfang Miao1, Lin Xie1, Bingyu Xing1, Xiaolei Wang1  +2 moreInstitutions (1)
26 Aug 2021-BMJ Open
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the emotion, coping strategy, dealing methods and their correlation in the COVID-19 outbreak among nursing and non-nursing students. DESIGN AND SETTING: A cross-sectional online survey. PARTICIPANTS: Full-time nursing and non-nursing undergraduate students. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7 (GAD-7) and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) were used to determine the emotional status in the COVID-19 pandemic among nursing and non-nursing students. Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ) was used to measure the emotion regulation strategies and the Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire (SCSQ) was used to evaluate the coping methods among nursing and non-nursing students. RESULTS: In total, 746 students including 366 nursing students and 380 non-nursing students participated in the survey. Compared with the non-nursing students, a significant decrease was noticed in GAD-7 score (p<0.01) and PHQ-9 (p<0.01) in the nursing students. The cognition re-evaluation score in the nursing students was significantly lower than that of the non-nursing students (p<0.05). In the nursing students, the score of anxiety was positively correlated with ERQ expression inhibition (p<0.01) and SCSQ negative coping (p<0.01), while the score of depression was also positively correlated with ERQ expression inhibition (p<0.01) and SCSQ negative coping (p<0.01). There was a negative correlation between SCSQ and the scores of anxiety (p<0.05) and depression (p<0.05). In the non-nursing students, the anxiety score was positively correlated with the SCSQ negative coping (p<0.01), while the depression score was positively correlated with the ERQ expression inhibition (p<0.01) and SCSQ negative coping (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 affected the emotional status of nursing and non-nursing students. The emotional status was correlated with the emotional regulation and coping methods. Staff involved in the nursing professionals should pay attention to the psychological status of the nursing and non-nursing students, and give moderate psychological interference in the presence of COVID-19.

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References
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61 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30460-8
14 Mar 2020-The Lancet
Abstract: The December, 2019 coronavirus disease outbreak has seen many countries ask people who have potentially come into contact with the infection to isolate themselves at home or in a dedicated quarantine facility. Decisions on how to apply quarantine should be based on the best available evidence. We did a Review of the psychological impact of quarantine using three electronic databases. Of 3166 papers found, 24 are included in this Review. Most reviewed studies reported negative psychological effects including post-traumatic stress symptoms, confusion, and anger. Stressors included longer quarantine duration, infection fears, frustration, boredom, inadequate supplies, inadequate information, financial loss, and stigma. Some researchers have suggested long-lasting effects. In situations where quarantine is deemed necessary, officials should quarantine individuals for no longer than required, provide clear rationale for quarantine and information about protocols, and ensure sufficient supplies are provided. Appeals to altruism by reminding the public about the benefits of quarantine to wider society can be favourable.

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Topics: Quarantine (52%)

6,092 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.2307/2136617
Abstract: This study analyzes the ways 100 community-residing men and women aged 45 to 64 coped with the stressful events of daily living during one year. Lazarus's cognitive-phenomenological analysis of psychological stress provides the theoreticalframework. Information about recently experienced stressful encounters was elicited through monthly interviews and self-report questionnaires completed between interviews. At the end of each interview and questionnaire, the participant indicated on a 68-item Ways of Coping checklist those coping thoughts and actions used in the specific encounter. A mean of 13.3 episodes was reported by each participant. Two functions of coping, problem-focused and emotion-focused, are analyzed with separate measures. Both problemand emotion-focused coping were used in 98% of the 1,332 episodes, emphasizing that coping conceptualized in either defensive or problem-solving terms is incomplete-both functions are usually involved. Intraindividual analyses show that people are more variable than consistent in their coping patterns. The context of an event, who is involved, how it is appraised, age, and gender are examined as potential influences on coping. Context and how the event is appraised are the most potent factors. Work contexts favor problem-focused coping, and health contexts favor emotionfocused coping. Situations in which the person thinks something constructive can be done or that are appraised as requiring more information favor problem-focused coping, whereas those having to be acceptedfavor emotion-focused coping. There are no effects associated with age, and gender differences emerge only in problem-focused coping: Men use more problem-focused coping than women at work and in situations having to be accepted and requiring more information. Contrary to the cultural stereotype, there are no gender differences in emotionfocused coping.

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Topics: Coping (psychology) (65%)

5,336 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1207/S15327558IJBM0401_6
Charles S. Carver1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Studies of coping in applied settings often confront the need to minimize time demands on participants. The problem of participant response burden is exacerbated further by the fact that these studies typically are designed to test multiple hypotheses with the same sample, a strategy that entails the use of many time-consuming measures. Such research would benefit from a brief measure of coping assessing several responses known to be relevant to effective and ineffective coping. This article presents such a brief form of a previously published measure called the COPE inventory (Carver, Scheier, & Wcintraub, 1989), which has proven to be useful in health-related research. The Brief COPE omits two scales of the full COPE, reduces others to two items per scale, and adds one scale. Psychometric properties of the Brief COPE arc reported, derived from a sample of adults participating in a study of the process of recovery after Hurricane Andrew.

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Topics: Coping (psychology) (52%)

4,854 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/IJERPH17051729
Cuiyan Wang1, Riyu Pan1, Xiaoyang Wan1, Yilin Tan1  +4 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: Background: The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic is a public health emergency of international concern and poses a challenge to psychological resilience. Research data are needed to develop evidence-driven strategies to reduce adverse psychological impacts and psychiatric symptoms during the epidemic. The aim of this study was to survey the general public in China to better understand their levels of psychological impact, anxiety, depression, and stress during the initial stage of the COVID-19 outbreak. The data will be used for future reference. Methods: From 31 January to 2 February 2020, we conducted an online survey using snowball sampling techniques. The online survey collected information on demographic data, physical symptoms in the past 14 days, contact history with COVID-19, knowledge and concerns about COVID-19, precautionary measures against COVID-19, and additional information required with respect to COVID-19. Psychological impact was assessed by the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), and mental health status was assessed by the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Results: This study included 1210 respondents from 194 cities in China. In total, 53.8% of respondents rated the psychological impact of the outbreak as moderate or severe; 16.5% reported moderate to severe depressive symptoms; 28.8% reported moderate to severe anxiety symptoms; and 8.1% reported moderate to severe stress levels. Most respondents spent 20–24 h per day at home (84.7%); were worried about their family members contracting COVID-19 (75.2%); and were satisfied with the amount of health information available (75.1%). Female gender, student status, specific physical symptoms (e.g., myalgia, dizziness, coryza), and poor self-rated health status were significantly associated with a greater psychological impact of the outbreak and higher levels of stress, anxiety, and depression (p < 0.05). Specific up-to-date and accurate health information (e.g., treatment, local outbreak situation) and particular precautionary measures (e.g., hand hygiene, wearing a mask) were associated with a lower psychological impact of the outbreak and lower levels of stress, anxiety, and depression (p < 0.05). Conclusions: During the initial phase of the COVID-19 outbreak in China, more than half of the respondents rated the psychological impact as moderate-to-severe, and about one-third reported moderate-to-severe anxiety. Our findings identify factors associated with a lower level of psychological impact and better mental health status that can be used to formulate psychological interventions to improve the mental health of vulnerable groups during the COVID-19 epidemic.

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Topics: Mental health (58%), Anxiety (57%), Psychological intervention (56%) ... show more

4,080 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1001/JAMA.291.21.2581
02 Jun 2004-JAMA
Abstract: Context Little is known about the extent or severity of untreated mental disorders, especially in less-developed countries. Objective To estimate prevalence, severity, and treatment of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) mental disorders in 14 countries (6 less developed, 8 developed) in the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative. Design, Setting, and Participants Face-to-face household surveys of 60463 community adults conducted from 2001-2003 in 14 countries in the Americas, Europe, the Middle East, Africa, and Asia. Main Outcome Measures The DSM-IV disorders, severity, and treatment were assessed with the WMH version of the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI), a fully structured, lay-administered psychiatric diagnostic interview. Results The prevalence of having any WMH-CIDI/DSM-IV disorder in the prior year varied widely, from 4.3% in Shanghai to 26.4% in the United States, with an interquartile range (IQR) of 9.1%-16.9%. Between 33.1% (Colombia) and 80.9% (Nigeria) of 12-month cases were mild (IQR, 40.2%-53.3%). Serious disorders were associated with substantial role disability. Although disorder severity was correlated with probability of treatment in almost all countries, 35.5%.to 50.3% of serious cases in developed countries and 76.3% to 85.4% in less-developed countries received no treatment in the 12 months before the interview. Due to the high prevalence of mild and subthreshold cases, the number of those who received treatment far exceeds the number of untreated serious cases in every country. Conclusions Reallocation of treatment resources could substantially decrease the problem of unmet need for treatment of mental disorders among serious cases. Structural barriers exist to this reallocation. Careful consideration needs to be given to the value of treating some mild cases,. especially those at risk for progressing to more serious disorders.

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Topics: Mental health (55%), Global health (52%), Context (language use) (52%)

2,850 Citations


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