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Proceedings ArticleDOI

Unraveling Human Perception of Facial Aging Using Eye Gaze

01 Jun 2018-pp 2140-2147

TL;DR: Eye gaze is utilized as a medium to unravel the cues utilized by humans for the perception of facial aging and explore the tasks of face age estimation and age-separate face verification and analyze the eye gaze patterns of participants to understand the strategy followed by human participants.

AbstractContinuous efforts are being made to understand human perception network with the purpose of developing enhanced computational models for vision-based tasks. In this paper, we utilize eye gaze as a medium to unravel the cues utilized by humans for the perception of facial aging. Specifically, we explore the tasks of face age estimation and age-separate face verification and analyze the eye gaze patterns of participants to understand the strategy followed by human participants. To facilitate this, eye gaze data from 50 participants is acquired using two different eye gaze trackers: Eye Tribe and GazePoint GP3. Comprehensive analysis of various eye movement metrics is performed with respect to different face parts to illustrate their relevance for age estimation and age-separated face verification tasks.

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This paper presents a theoretical account of the sequence and duration of eye fixation during a number of simple cognitive tasks, such as mental rotation, sentence verification, and quantitative comparison. In each case, the eye fixation behavior is linked to a processing model for the task by assuming that the eye fixates the referent of the symbol being operated on.

1,388 citations


"Unraveling Human Perception of Faci..." refers background in this paper

  • ...ual’s attention for a given visual stimuli [11]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Current approaches and empirical findings in human gaze control during real-world scene perception are reviewed.
Abstract: In human vision, acuity and color sensitivity are best at the point of fixation, and the visual-cognitive system exploits this fact by actively controlling gaze to direct fixation towards important and informative scene regions in real time as needed. How gaze control operates over complex real-world scenes has recently become of central concern in several core cognitive science disciplines including cognitive psychology, visual neuroscience, and machine vision. This article reviews current approaches and empirical findings in human gaze control during real-world scene perception.

1,237 citations


"Unraveling Human Perception of Faci..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...Henderson [17] noted the importance of eye movements due to the attentional system employed by humans during a visual task....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: One of the more powerful impressions created by vision is that of a coherent, richly detailed world where everything is present simultaneously. Indeed, this impression is so compelling that we tend to ascribe these properties not only to the external world, but to our internal representations as well. But results from several recent experiments argue against this latter ascription. For example, changes in images of real-world scenes often go unnoticed when made during a saccade, flicker, blink, or movie cut. This “change blindness” provides strong evidence against the idea that our brains contain a picture-like representation of the scene that is everywhere detailed and coherent. How then do we represent a scene? It is argued here that focused attention provides spatiotemporal coherence for the stable representation of one object at a time. It is then argued that the allocation of attention can be co-ordinated to create a “virtual representation”. In such a scheme, a stable object representation is formed...

953 citations


"Unraveling Human Perception of Faci..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Visual cognition based studies have established that attentive mechanisms in human brain supervise the gaze only on the salient parts of the stimuli [15]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Data obtained from eye movements can significantly enhance the observation of users' strategies while using computer interfaces, which can subsequently improve the precision of computer interface evaluations.
Abstract: Eye movement-based analysis can enhance traditional performance, protocol, and walk-through evaluations of computer interfaces. Despite a substantial history of eye movement data collection in tasks, there is still a great need for an organized definition and evaluation of appropriate measures. Several measures based upon eye movement locations and scanpaths were evaluated here, to assess their validity for assessment of interface quality. Good and poor interfaces for a drawing tool selection program were developed by manipulating the grouping of tool icons. These were subsequently evaluated by a collection of 50 interface designers and typical users. Twelve subjects used the interfaces while their eye movements were collected. Compared with a randomly organized set of component buttons, well-organized functional grouping resulted in shorter scanpaths, covering smaller areas. The poorer interface resulted in more, but similar duration, fixations than the better interface. Whereas the poor interface produced less efficient search behavior, the layout of component representations did not influence their interpretability. Overall, data obtained from eye movements can significantly enhance the observation of users' strategies while using computer interfaces, which can subsequently improve the precision of computer interface evaluations. Relevance to industry The software development industry requires improved methods for the objective analysis and design of software interfaces. This study provides a foundation for using eye movement analysis as part of an objective evaluation tool for many phases of interface analysis. The present approach is instructional in its definition of eye movement-based measures, and is evaluative with respect to the utility of these measures.

885 citations


"Unraveling Human Perception of Faci..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Eye tracking technology has been successfully deployed to learn an individual’s intent for various application such as user-specific advertising [12] and developing user-friendly interfaces [13, 14]....

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  • ...• Number of saccades: Saccades are quick eye movements which occur between different fixations [13, 21]....

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  • ...During a fixation, central foveal vision is held in place to allow the visual network to gather detailed information about the stimuli [13, 20]....

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  • ...In the literature, more number of fixations indicates less efficient search and difficulty in extracting information from the stimulus [13]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The first work involving age classification, and the first work that successfully extracts and uses natural wrinkles, is also a successful demonstration that facial features are sufficient for a classification task, a finding that is important to the debate about what are appropriate representations for facial analysis.
Abstract: This paper presents a theory and practical computations for visual age classification from facial images. Currently, the theory has only been implemented to classify input images into one of three age-groups: babies, young adults, and senior adults. The computations are based on cranio-facial development theory and skin wrinkle analysis. In the implementation, primary features of the face are found first, followed by secondary feature analysis. The primary features are the eyes, nose, mouth, chin, virtual-top of the head and the sides of the face. From these features, ratios that distinguish babies from young adults and seniors are computed. In secondary feature analysis, a wrinkle geography map is used to guide the detection and measurement of wrinkles. The wrinkle index computed is sufficient to distinguish seniors from young adults and babies. A combination rule for the ratios and the wrinkle index thus permits categorization of a face into one of three classes. Results using real images are presented. This is the first work involving age classification, and the first work that successfully extracts and uses natural wrinkles. It is also a successful demonstration that facial features are sufficient for a classification task, a finding that is important to the debate about what are appropriate representations for facial analysis.

566 citations