scispace - formally typeset
Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.EJPHAR.2020.173836

Unraveling the mechanism of arbidol binding and inhibition of SARS-CoV-2: Insights from atomistic simulations.

05 Mar 2021-European Journal of Pharmacology (Elsevier)-Vol. 894, pp 173836
Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has spread rapidly and poses an unprecedented threat to the global economy and human health. Broad-spectrum antivirals are currently being administered to treat severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). China's prevention and treatment guidelines suggest the use of an anti-influenza drug, arbidol, for the clinical treatment of COVID-19. Reports indicate that arbidol could neutralize SARS-CoV-2. Monotherapy with arbidol is superior to lopinavir-ritonavir or favipiravir for treating COVID-19. In SARS-CoV-2 infection, arbidol acts by interfering with viral binding to host cells. However, the detailed mechanism by which arbidol induces the inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 is not known. Here, we present atomistic insights into the mechanism underlying membrane fusion inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 by arbidol. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation-based analyses demonstrate that arbidol binds and stabilizes at the receptor-binding domain (RBD)/ACE2 interface with a high affinity. It forms stronger intermolecular interactions with the RBD than ACE2. Analyses of the detailed decomposition of energy components and binding affinities revealed a substantial increase in the affinity between the RBD and ACE2 in the arbidol-bound RBD/ACE2 complex, suggesting that arbidol generates favorable interactions between them. Based on our MD simulation results, we propose that the binding of arbidol induces structural rigidity in the viral glycoprotein, thus restricting the conformational rearrangements associated with membrane fusion and virus entry. Furthermore, key residues of the RBD and ACE2 that interact with arbidol were identified, opening the door for developing therapeutic strategies and higher-efficacy arbidol derivatives or lead drug candidates.

... read more

Citations
  More

9 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.TIBS.2021.06.001
Ruchao Peng1, Lian Ao Wu2, Qingling Wang3, Jianxun Qi1  +2 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: Severe acute respiratory syndrome virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) invades host cells by interacting with receptors/coreceptors, as well as with other cofactors, via its spike (S) protein that further mediates fusion between viral and cellular membranes. The host membrane protein, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), is the major receptor for SARS-CoV-2 and is a crucial determinant for cross-species transmission. In addition, some auxiliary receptors and cofactors are also involved that expand the host/tissue tropism of SARS-CoV-2. After receptor engagement, specific proteases are required that cleave the S protein and trigger its fusogenic activity. Here we discuss the recent advances in understanding the molecular events during SARS-CoV-2 entry which will contribute to developing vaccines and therapeutics.

... read more

Topics: Viral entry (59%), Tissue tropism (56%), Receptor (51%)

16 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/07391102.2021.1902858
Abstract: SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in China in December 2019 and its spread as worldwide pandemic has been a major global health crisis Extremely high infection and mortality rate has severely affected all secto

... read more

Topics: Host cell surface (58%)

7 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/ACS.JPCB.1C04556
Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has emerged as a global medico-socio-economic disaster. Given the lack of effective therapeutics against SARS-CoV-2, scientists are racing to disseminate suggestions for rapidly deployable therapeutic options, including drug repurposing and repositioning strategies. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have provided the opportunity to make rational scientific breakthroughs in a time of crisis. Advancements in these technologies in recent years have become an indispensable tool for scientists studying protein structure, function, dynamics, interactions, and drug discovery. Integrating the structural data obtained from high-resolution methods with MD simulations has helped in comprehending the process of infection and pathogenesis, as well as the SARS-CoV-2 maturation in host cells, in a short duration of time. It has also guided us to identify and prioritize drug targets and new chemical entities, and to repurpose drugs. Here, we discuss how MD simulation has been explored by the scientific community to accelerate and guide translational research on SARS-CoV-2 in the past year. We have also considered future research directions for researchers, where MD simulations can help fill the existing gaps in COVID-19 research.

... read more

7 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FIMMU.2021.752227
Abstract: Since November 2019 the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has caused nearly 200 million infection and more than 4 million deaths globally (Updated information from the World Health Organization, as on 2nd Aug 2021). Within only one year into the pandemic, several vaccines were designed and reached approval for the immunization of the world population. The remarkable protective effects of the manufactured vaccines are demonstrated in countries with high vaccination rates, such as Israel and UK. However, limited production capacities, poor distribution infrastructures and political hesitations still hamper the availability of vaccines in many countries. In addition, due to the emergency of SARS-CoV-2 variants with immune escape properties towards the vaccines the global numbers of new infections as well as patients developing severe COVID-19, remains high. New studies reported that about 8% of infected individuals develop long term symptoms with strong personal restrictions on private as well as professional level, which contributes to the long socioeconomic problems caused by this pandemic. Until today, emergency use-approved treatment options for COVID-19 are limited to the antiviral Remdesivir, a nucleoside analogue targeting the viral polymerase, the glucocorticosteroide Dexamethasone as well as neutralizing antibodies. The therapeutic benefits of these treatments are under ongoing debate and clinical studies assessing the efficiency of these treatments are still underway. To identify new therapeutic treatments for COVID-19, now and by the post-pandemic era, diverse experimental approaches are under scientific evaluation in companies and scientific research teams all over the world. To accelerate clinical translation of promising candidates, repurposing approaches of known approved drugs are specifically fostered but also novel technologies are being developed and are under investigation. This review summarizes the recent developments from the lab bench as well as the clinical status of emerging therapeutic candidates and discusses possible therapeutic entry points for the treatment strategies with regard to the biology of SARS-CoV-2 and the clinical course of COVID-19.

... read more

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FCHEM.2021.709932
Abstract: The inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) activity prevents tau hyperphosphorylation and binds it to the microtubule network. Therefore, a GSK-3β inhibitor may be a recommended drug for Alzheimer’s treatment. In silico methods are currently considered as one of the fastest and most cost-effective available alternatives for drug/design discovery in the field of treatment. In this study, computational drug design was conducted to introduce compounds that play an effective role in inhibiting the GSK-3β enzyme by molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation. The iridoid glycosides of the common snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus), including loganin, secologanin, and loganetin, are compounds that have an effect on improving memory and cognitive impairment and the results of which on Alzheimer’s have been studied as well. In this study, in the molecular docking phase, loganin was considered a more potent inhibitor of this protein by establishing a hydrogen bond with the ATP-binding site of GSK-3β protein and the most negative binding energy to secologanin and loganetin. Moreover, by molecular dynamics simulation of these ligands and GSK-3β protein, all structures were found to be stable during the simulation. In addition, the protein structure represented no change and remained stable by binding ligands to GSK-3β protein. Furthermore, loganin and loganetin have higher binding free energy than secologanin; thus, these compounds could effectively bind to the active site of GSK-3β protein. Hence, loganin and loganetin as iridoid glycosides can be effective in Alzheimer’s prevention and treatment, and thus, further in vitro and in vivo studies can focus on these iridoid glycosides as an alternative treatment.

... read more

Topics: Iridoid Glycosides (61%), Loganin (58%), Secologanin (56%) ... show more

References
  More

73 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/0263-7855(96)00018-5
Abstract: VMD is a molecular graphics program designed for the display and analysis of molecular assemblies, in particular biopolymers such as proteins and nucleic acids. VMD can simultaneously display any number of structures using a wide variety of rendering styles and coloring methods. Molecules are displayed as one or more "representations," in which each representation embodies a particular rendering method and coloring scheme for a selected subset of atoms. The atoms displayed in each representation are chosen using an extensive atom selection syntax, which includes Boolean operators and regular expressions. VMD provides a complete graphical user interface for program control, as well as a text interface using the Tcl embeddable parser to allow for complex scripts with variable substitution, control loops, and function calls. Full session logging is supported, which produces a VMD command script for later playback. High-resolution raster images of displayed molecules may be produced by generating input scripts for use by a number of photorealistic image-rendering applications. VMD has also been expressly designed with the ability to animate molecular dynamics (MD) simulation trajectories, imported either from files or from a direct connection to a running MD simulation. VMD is the visualization component of MDScope, a set of tools for interactive problem solving in structural biology, which also includes the parallel MD program NAMD, and the MDCOMM software used to connect the visualization and simulation programs. VMD is written in C++, using an object-oriented design; the program, including source code and extensive documentation, is freely available via anonymous ftp and through the World Wide Web.

... read more

Topics: Rendering (computer graphics) (52%), Molecular graphics (52%), Visualization (51%) ... show more

36,939 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1063/1.464397
Tom Darden1, Darrin M. York1, Lee G. Pedersen1Institutions (1)
Abstract: An N⋅log(N) method for evaluating electrostatic energies and forces of large periodic systems is presented. The method is based on interpolation of the reciprocal space Ewald sums and evaluation of the resulting convolutions using fast Fourier transforms. Timings and accuracies are presented for three large crystalline ionic systems.

... read more

Topics: Ewald summation (69%), P3M (64%), Particle Mesh (51%)

20,639 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1063/1.328693
Abstract: A new Lagrangian formulation is introduced. It can be used to make molecular dynamics (MD) calculations on systems under the most general, externally applied, conditions of stress. In this formulation the MD cell shape and size can change according to dynamical equations given by this Lagrangian. This new MD technique is well suited to the study of structural transformations in solids under external stress and at finite temperature. As an example of the use of this technique we show how a single crystal of Ni behaves under uniform uniaxial compressive and tensile loads. This work confirms some of the results of static (i.e., zero temperature) calculations reported in the literature. We also show that some results regarding the stress‐strain relation obtained by static calculations are invalid at finite temperature. We find that, under compressive loading, our model of Ni shows a bifurcation in its stress‐strain relation; this bifurcation provides a link in configuration space between cubic and hexagonal close packing. It is suggested that such a transformation could perhaps be observed experimentally under extreme conditions of shock.

... read more

10,963 Citations


Abstract: In this article, we present a new LINear Constraint Solver (LINCS) for molecular simulations with bond constraints. The algorithm is inherently stable, as the constraints themselves are reset instead of derivatives of the constraints, thereby eliminating drift. Although the derivation of the algorithm is presented in terms of matrices, no matrix matrix multiplications are needed and only the nonzero matrix elements have to be stored, making the method useful for very large molecules. At the same accuracy, the LINCS algorithm is three to four times faster than the SHAKE algorithm. Parallelization of the algorithm is straightforward. (C) 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

... read more

10,230 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1063/1.2408420
Abstract: The authors present a new molecular dynamics algorithm for sampling the canonical distribution. In this approach the velocities of all the particles are rescaled by a properly chosen random factor. The algorithm is formally justified and it is shown that, in spite of its stochastic nature, a quantity can still be defined that remains constant during the evolution. In numerical applications this quantity can be used to measure the accuracy of the sampling. The authors illustrate the properties of this new method on Lennard-Jones and TIP4P water models in the solid and liquid phases. Its performance is excellent and largely independent of the thermostat parameter also with regard to the dynamic properties.

... read more

Topics: Sampling (statistics) (57%), Stochastic process (52%), Canonical ensemble (52%) ... show more

8,777 Citations