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Unsupervised Representation Learning with Deep Convolutional Generative Adversarial Networks

TL;DR: This work introduces a class of CNNs called deep convolutional generative adversarial networks (DCGANs), that have certain architectural constraints, and demonstrates that they are a strong candidate for unsupervised learning.
Abstract: In recent years, supervised learning with convolutional networks (CNNs) has seen huge adoption in computer vision applications. Comparatively, unsupervised learning with CNNs has received less attention. In this work we hope to help bridge the gap between the success of CNNs for supervised learning and unsupervised learning. We introduce a class of CNNs called deep convolutional generative adversarial networks (DCGANs), that have certain architectural constraints, and demonstrate that they are a strong candidate for unsupervised learning. Training on various image datasets, we show convincing evidence that our deep convolutional adversarial pair learns a hierarchy of representations from object parts to scenes in both the generator and discriminator. Additionally, we use the learned features for novel tasks - demonstrating their applicability as general image representations.
Citations
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Proceedings ArticleDOI
21 Jul 2017
TL;DR: Conditional adversarial networks are investigated as a general-purpose solution to image-to-image translation problems and it is demonstrated that this approach is effective at synthesizing photos from label maps, reconstructing objects from edge maps, and colorizing images, among other tasks.
Abstract: We investigate conditional adversarial networks as a general-purpose solution to image-to-image translation problems. These networks not only learn the mapping from input image to output image, but also learn a loss function to train this mapping. This makes it possible to apply the same generic approach to problems that traditionally would require very different loss formulations. We demonstrate that this approach is effective at synthesizing photos from label maps, reconstructing objects from edge maps, and colorizing images, among other tasks. Moreover, since the release of the pix2pix software associated with this paper, hundreds of twitter users have posted their own artistic experiments using our system. As a community, we no longer hand-engineer our mapping functions, and this work suggests we can achieve reasonable results without handengineering our loss functions either.

11,958 citations


Cites background or methods from "Unsupervised Representation Learnin..."

  • ...We adapt our generator and discriminator architectures from those in [41]....

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  • ...Fortunately, this is exactly what is done by the recently proposed Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) [22, 12, 41, 49, 59]....

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Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Oct 2017
TL;DR: CycleGAN as discussed by the authors learns a mapping G : X → Y such that the distribution of images from G(X) is indistinguishable from the distribution Y using an adversarial loss.
Abstract: Image-to-image translation is a class of vision and graphics problems where the goal is to learn the mapping between an input image and an output image using a training set of aligned image pairs. However, for many tasks, paired training data will not be available. We present an approach for learning to translate an image from a source domain X to a target domain Y in the absence of paired examples. Our goal is to learn a mapping G : X → Y such that the distribution of images from G(X) is indistinguishable from the distribution Y using an adversarial loss. Because this mapping is highly under-constrained, we couple it with an inverse mapping F : Y → X and introduce a cycle consistency loss to push F(G(X)) ≈ X (and vice versa). Qualitative results are presented on several tasks where paired training data does not exist, including collection style transfer, object transfiguration, season transfer, photo enhancement, etc. Quantitative comparisons against several prior methods demonstrate the superiority of our approach.

11,682 citations

Posted Content
TL;DR: Conditional Adversarial Network (CA) as discussed by the authors is a general-purpose solution to image-to-image translation problems, which can be used to synthesize photos from label maps, reconstructing objects from edge maps, and colorizing images, among other tasks.
Abstract: We investigate conditional adversarial networks as a general-purpose solution to image-to-image translation problems. These networks not only learn the mapping from input image to output image, but also learn a loss function to train this mapping. This makes it possible to apply the same generic approach to problems that traditionally would require very different loss formulations. We demonstrate that this approach is effective at synthesizing photos from label maps, reconstructing objects from edge maps, and colorizing images, among other tasks. Indeed, since the release of the pix2pix software associated with this paper, a large number of internet users (many of them artists) have posted their own experiments with our system, further demonstrating its wide applicability and ease of adoption without the need for parameter tweaking. As a community, we no longer hand-engineer our mapping functions, and this work suggests we can achieve reasonable results without hand-engineering our loss functions either.

11,127 citations

Posted Content
TL;DR: This work proposes a simple modification to recover the original formulation of weight decay regularization by decoupling the weight decay from the optimization steps taken w.r.t. the loss function, and provides empirical evidence that this modification substantially improves Adam's generalization performance.
Abstract: L$_2$ regularization and weight decay regularization are equivalent for standard stochastic gradient descent (when rescaled by the learning rate), but as we demonstrate this is \emph{not} the case for adaptive gradient algorithms, such as Adam. While common implementations of these algorithms employ L$_2$ regularization (often calling it "weight decay" in what may be misleading due to the inequivalence we expose), we propose a simple modification to recover the original formulation of weight decay regularization by \emph{decoupling} the weight decay from the optimization steps taken w.r.t. the loss function. We provide empirical evidence that our proposed modification (i) decouples the optimal choice of weight decay factor from the setting of the learning rate for both standard SGD and Adam and (ii) substantially improves Adam's generalization performance, allowing it to compete with SGD with momentum on image classification datasets (on which it was previously typically outperformed by the latter). Our proposed decoupled weight decay has already been adopted by many researchers, and the community has implemented it in TensorFlow and PyTorch; the complete source code for our experiments is available at this https URL

6,909 citations


Cites methods from "Unsupervised Representation Learnin..."

  • ...…gradient methods, such as AdaGrad (Duchi et al., 2011), RMSProp (Tieleman & Hinton, 2012), Adam (Kingma & Ba, 2014) and most recently AMSGrad (Reddi et al., 2018) have become a default method of choice for training feed-forward and recurrent neural networks (Xu et al., 2015; Radford et al., 2015)....

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  • ..., 2018) have become a default method of choice for training feed-forward and recurrent neural networks (Xu et al., 2015; Radford et al., 2015)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This survey will present existing methods for Data Augmentation, promising developments, and meta-level decisions for implementing DataAugmentation, a data-space solution to the problem of limited data.
Abstract: Deep convolutional neural networks have performed remarkably well on many Computer Vision tasks. However, these networks are heavily reliant on big data to avoid overfitting. Overfitting refers to the phenomenon when a network learns a function with very high variance such as to perfectly model the training data. Unfortunately, many application domains do not have access to big data, such as medical image analysis. This survey focuses on Data Augmentation, a data-space solution to the problem of limited data. Data Augmentation encompasses a suite of techniques that enhance the size and quality of training datasets such that better Deep Learning models can be built using them. The image augmentation algorithms discussed in this survey include geometric transformations, color space augmentations, kernel filters, mixing images, random erasing, feature space augmentation, adversarial training, generative adversarial networks, neural style transfer, and meta-learning. The application of augmentation methods based on GANs are heavily covered in this survey. In addition to augmentation techniques, this paper will briefly discuss other characteristics of Data Augmentation such as test-time augmentation, resolution impact, final dataset size, and curriculum learning. This survey will present existing methods for Data Augmentation, promising developments, and meta-level decisions for implementing Data Augmentation. Readers will understand how Data Augmentation can improve the performance of their models and expand limited datasets to take advantage of the capabilities of big data.

5,782 citations


Cites background or methods from "Unsupervised Representation Learnin..."

  • ...The DCGAN [91] architecture was proposed to expand on the internal complexity of the generator and discriminator networks....

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  • ...Amongst these new architectures, DCGANs, Progressively Growing GANs, CycleGANs, and Conditional GANs seem to have the most application potential in Data Augmentation....

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  • ...The DCGAN was tested to generate results on the LSUN interior bedroom image dataset, each image being 64 × 64 × 3, for a total of 12,288 pixels, (compared to 784 in MNIST)....

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  • ...architectures, the use of super-resolution networks such as SRGAN could be an effective technique for improving the quality of outputs from a DCGAN [91] model....

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  • ...After using classical augmentations to achieve 78.6% sensitivity and 88.4% specificity, they observed an increase to 85.7% sensitivity and 92.4% specificity once they added the DCGAN-generated samples....

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References
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Proceedings ArticleDOI
Jia Deng1, Wei Dong1, Richard Socher1, Li-Jia Li1, Kai Li1, Li Fei-Fei1 
20 Jun 2009
TL;DR: A new database called “ImageNet” is introduced, a large-scale ontology of images built upon the backbone of the WordNet structure, much larger in scale and diversity and much more accurate than the current image datasets.
Abstract: The explosion of image data on the Internet has the potential to foster more sophisticated and robust models and algorithms to index, retrieve, organize and interact with images and multimedia data. But exactly how such data can be harnessed and organized remains a critical problem. We introduce here a new database called “ImageNet”, a large-scale ontology of images built upon the backbone of the WordNet structure. ImageNet aims to populate the majority of the 80,000 synsets of WordNet with an average of 500-1000 clean and full resolution images. This will result in tens of millions of annotated images organized by the semantic hierarchy of WordNet. This paper offers a detailed analysis of ImageNet in its current state: 12 subtrees with 5247 synsets and 3.2 million images in total. We show that ImageNet is much larger in scale and diversity and much more accurate than the current image datasets. Constructing such a large-scale database is a challenging task. We describe the data collection scheme with Amazon Mechanical Turk. Lastly, we illustrate the usefulness of ImageNet through three simple applications in object recognition, image classification and automatic object clustering. We hope that the scale, accuracy, diversity and hierarchical structure of ImageNet can offer unparalleled opportunities to researchers in the computer vision community and beyond.

49,639 citations


"Unsupervised Representation Learnin..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...We use Imagenet-1k (Deng et al., 2009) as a source of natural images for unsupervised training....

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  • ...We trained DCGANs on three datasets, Large-scale Scene Understanding (LSUN) (Yu et al., 2015), Imagenet-1k and a newly assembled Faces dataset....

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  • ...To evaluate the quality of the representations learned by DCGANs for supervised tasks, we train on Imagenet-1k and then use the discriminator’s convolutional features from all layers, maxpooling each layers representation to produce a 4 × 4 spatial grid....

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Journal ArticleDOI
08 Dec 2014
TL;DR: A new framework for estimating generative models via an adversarial process, in which two models are simultaneously train: a generative model G that captures the data distribution and a discriminative model D that estimates the probability that a sample came from the training data rather than G.
Abstract: We propose a new framework for estimating generative models via an adversarial process, in which we simultaneously train two models: a generative model G that captures the data distribution, and a discriminative model D that estimates the probability that a sample came from the training data rather than G. The training procedure for G is to maximize the probability of D making a mistake. This framework corresponds to a minimax two-player game. In the space of arbitrary functions G and D, a unique solution exists, with G recovering the training data distribution and D equal to ½ everywhere. In the case where G and D are defined by multilayer perceptrons, the entire system can be trained with backpropagation. There is no need for any Markov chains or unrolled approximate inference networks during either training or generation of samples. Experiments demonstrate the potential of the framework through qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the generated samples.

38,211 citations

Posted Content
TL;DR: In this article, the adaptive estimates of lower-order moments are used for first-order gradient-based optimization of stochastic objective functions, based on adaptive estimate of lowerorder moments.
Abstract: We introduce Adam, an algorithm for first-order gradient-based optimization of stochastic objective functions, based on adaptive estimates of lower-order moments. The method is straightforward to implement, is computationally efficient, has little memory requirements, is invariant to diagonal rescaling of the gradients, and is well suited for problems that are large in terms of data and/or parameters. The method is also appropriate for non-stationary objectives and problems with very noisy and/or sparse gradients. The hyper-parameters have intuitive interpretations and typically require little tuning. Some connections to related algorithms, on which Adam was inspired, are discussed. We also analyze the theoretical convergence properties of the algorithm and provide a regret bound on the convergence rate that is comparable to the best known results under the online convex optimization framework. Empirical results demonstrate that Adam works well in practice and compares favorably to other stochastic optimization methods. Finally, we discuss AdaMax, a variant of Adam based on the infinity norm.

23,486 citations

Posted Content
Sergey Ioffe1, Christian Szegedy1
TL;DR: Batch Normalization as mentioned in this paper normalizes layer inputs for each training mini-batch to reduce the internal covariate shift in deep neural networks, and achieves state-of-the-art performance on ImageNet.
Abstract: Training Deep Neural Networks is complicated by the fact that the distribution of each layer's inputs changes during training, as the parameters of the previous layers change. This slows down the training by requiring lower learning rates and careful parameter initialization, and makes it notoriously hard to train models with saturating nonlinearities. We refer to this phenomenon as internal covariate shift, and address the problem by normalizing layer inputs. Our method draws its strength from making normalization a part of the model architecture and performing the normalization for each training mini-batch. Batch Normalization allows us to use much higher learning rates and be less careful about initialization. It also acts as a regularizer, in some cases eliminating the need for Dropout. Applied to a state-of-the-art image classification model, Batch Normalization achieves the same accuracy with 14 times fewer training steps, and beats the original model by a significant margin. Using an ensemble of batch-normalized networks, we improve upon the best published result on ImageNet classification: reaching 4.9% top-5 validation error (and 4.8% test error), exceeding the accuracy of human raters.

17,184 citations

Book ChapterDOI
06 Sep 2014
TL;DR: A novel visualization technique is introduced that gives insight into the function of intermediate feature layers and the operation of the classifier in large Convolutional Network models, used in a diagnostic role to find model architectures that outperform Krizhevsky et al on the ImageNet classification benchmark.
Abstract: Large Convolutional Network models have recently demonstrated impressive classification performance on the ImageNet benchmark Krizhevsky et al. [18]. However there is no clear understanding of why they perform so well, or how they might be improved. In this paper we explore both issues. We introduce a novel visualization technique that gives insight into the function of intermediate feature layers and the operation of the classifier. Used in a diagnostic role, these visualizations allow us to find model architectures that outperform Krizhevsky et al on the ImageNet classification benchmark. We also perform an ablation study to discover the performance contribution from different model layers. We show our ImageNet model generalizes well to other datasets: when the softmax classifier is retrained, it convincingly beats the current state-of-the-art results on Caltech-101 and Caltech-256 datasets.

12,783 citations


"Unsupervised Representation Learnin..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...Deep belief networks (Lee et al., 2009) have also been shown to work well in learning hierarchical representations....

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  • ...Previous work has demonstrated that supervised training of CNNs on large image datasets results in very powerful learned features (Zeiler & Fergus, 2014)....

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  • ...(Zeiler & Fergus, 2014) showed that by using deconvolutions and filtering the maximal activations, one can find the approximate purpose of each convolution filter in the network....

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