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Journal ArticleDOI

Urban land development for biodiversity: suggested development and management guidelines for eco-estates using case studies from coastal KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

TL;DR: In this article, the authors provide the first comprehensive development and management guidelines for eco-estates, reviewed and assessed research into the effects of eco-estate development on environmental functionality and connectivity using case studies from coastal KwaZulu-Natal.
About: This article is published in Urban Forestry & Urban Greening.The article was published on 2021-11-01. It has received 4 citations till now. The article focuses on the topics: Urban planning & Ecosystem health.
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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors analyzed the flora of 1045 gardens in Bujumbura, Burundi and found that 85% of the species were not native, mainly from tropical America (43%), tropical Asia (30%) or Africa (17%).
Abstract: Domestic gardens can have both positive and negative effects on urban biodiversity conservation. We analyzed the flora of 1045 gardens in Bujumbura, Burundi. Among the 567 species identified in the gardens, 85% were not native. They originate mainly from tropical America (43%), tropical Asia (30%) or Africa (17%). Three plant assemblages were defined from a cluster analysis, corresponding to ornamental gardens, utilitarian gardens (plants used for fencing and food production), and mixed gardens (intermediate between the two former types). A Non-metric Multidimensional Scaling analysis showed that the main floristic gradients in the garden vegetation were correlated to the socio-economical status of the neighborhood. High standing neighborhoods have higher proportion of ornamental gardens while most gardens in the popular and semi-rural neighborhoods are utilitarian. The species richness per garden was highest in high standing neighborhoods, mainly due to an area effect. When controlling for garden area, species richness is highest in the middle class neighborhoods. City gardens play an important role in the functioning of the urban ecosystem and provide shelter to native plant species and to the urban fauna. However, gardens also are sources of introduction of alien species. In Bujumbura, 9% of the alien garden species have already naturalized in the city, among which 14 invasive species. This number is expected to increase in the coming decennia as there are about 121 other garden species that present a high invasion risk: they are invasive in other parts of the world in climates comparable to that of the Bujumbura region. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

4 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, the Howard College Campus of the University of KwaZulu-Natal, a registered conservancy where there are differing opinions concerning the resident feral cat population.
Abstract: The ability of cats (Felis catus) to colonize most land habitats worldwide led to an increasing number of feral cat populations in many areas where food resources are easily available. High densities of feral cats in urban areas, particularly in conservancies, have the potential to impact negatively on both human and local wildlife populations. Of particular interest was the Howard College Campus of the University of KwaZulu-Natal, a registered conservancy where there are differing opinions concerning the resident feral cat population. Consequently methods of controlling feral cat populations and the implications of these methods were reviewed. Despite various methods of feral cat population control existing there are two basic categories : either eradication or reproductive regulation. It is suggested that to control the feral cat population effectively in this urban conservancy, a suitable and ongoing sterilization programme, that is run in conjunction with a feral cat feeding programme,needs to be implemented. Both programmes need to be long-term and overseen by management. The feral cat population needs to be maintained at a level that allows the lowest migration rate into the conservancy, as well as a predation rate that will not negatively affect the resident wildlife populations. This may require some removal of feral cats at the start of a programme. Whatever management actions are followed, a monitoring programme must be put in place to document how effective the actions are.

3 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Zhang et al. as discussed by the authors used the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), spatial autocorrelation analysis, and geographic detectors to reveal the spatial pattern of agricultural production space suitability in China, explores the impact mechanism of agricultural productivity development, and explores the optimization and promotion strategies for the development of regional agricultural production in various regions in the future.
Abstract: The paper uses the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), spatial autocorrelation analysis, and geographic detectors to reveal the spatial pattern of agricultural production space suitability in China, explores the impact mechanism of agricultural production development, and explores the optimization and promotion strategies for the development of regional agricultural production in various regions in the future. The results show that the resource and environmental carrying capacity, and the agricultural production space suitability under the direction of China’s agricultural production function, show a ‘polarization’ development trend in space, with high levels in the southeast and low levels in the northwest, with significant spatial agglomeration. The factors influencing the suitability of agricultural production have significant spatial differentiation laws in the Nine Agricultural Areas of China. Climate change factors are the dominant factors affecting the areas with poor resource endowment and traditional agricultural areas in the northwest. Factors that reflect the level of urbanization are the main factors that affect the agricultural production space suitability in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River and South China. China’s agricultural production spatial suitability areas can be divided into nine types of suitable geographical areas. In the future, the impacts of climate change and urbanization on agricultural production space should be considered, and strategies should be taken, according to local conditions, in different regions to improve their suitability.
Journal ArticleDOI
15 Dec 2022-Ostrich
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors assessed parakeets' breeding status and behaviour by locating their roost and breeding sites in Durban, eThekwini Metropole, KwaZulu-Natal province.
Abstract: The Rose-ringed Parakeet Psittacula krameri has established feral populations in South African suburban areas. However, the information on the breeding biology of parakeets remains poorly documented in the country. We assessed parakeets’ breeding status and behaviour by locating their roost and breeding sites in Durban, eThekwini Metropole, KwaZulu-Natal province. We also placed artificial nest boxes to determine the occupancy of parakeets or other bird species. We identified 39 parakeet breeding sites with a total of 72 nests. There were no significant differences between the number of active parakeet nests in the first (n = 53 nests) and second breeding seasons (n = 59). Rose-ringed Parakeets used four tree species for nesting, with the white milkwood Sideroxylon inerme used the most (71%). Only East African lowland honey bees Apis mellifera scutellata and Common Mynas Acridotheres tristis used the artificial nest boxes. Parakeet fledgings recorded ranged between one and three per nest, and their numbers differed significantly between seasons. The number of fledglings was not influenced by any of the tree variables measured and distance or location. The distance between the parakeets’ roosting and breeding sites ranged from 1.43 to 5.0 km. Our study provides essential data for an overall management strategy, including eradication programs for this species in South Africa.
References
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Journal ArticleDOI
22 Jul 2005-Science
TL;DR: Global croplands, pastures, plantations, and urban areas have expanded in recent decades, accompanied by large increases in energy, water, and fertilizer consumption, along with considerable losses of biodiversity.
Abstract: Land use has generally been considered a local environmental issue, but it is becoming a force of global importance. Worldwide changes to forests, farmlands, waterways, and air are being driven by the need to provide food, fiber, water, and shelter to more than six billion people. Global croplands, pastures, plantations, and urban areas have expanded in recent decades, accompanied by large increases in energy, water, and fertilizer consumption, along with considerable losses of biodiversity. Such changes in land use have enabled humans to appropriate an increasing share of the planet’s resources, but they also potentially undermine the capacity of ecosystems to sustain food production, maintain freshwater and forest resources, regulate climate and air quality, and ameliorate infectious diseases. We face the challenge of managing trade-offs between immediate human needs and maintaining the capacity of the biosphere to provide goods and services in the long term.

10,117 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
10 Mar 2000-Science
TL;DR: This study identified a ranking of the importance of drivers of change, aranking of the biomes with respect to expected changes, and the major sources of uncertainties in projections of future biodiversity change.
Abstract: Scenarios of changes in biodiversity for the year 2100 can now be developed based on scenarios of changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide, climate, vegetation, and land use and the known sensitivity of biodiversity to these changes. This study identified a ranking of the importance of drivers of change, a ranking of the biomes with respect to expected changes, and the major sources of uncertainties. For terrestrial ecosystems, land-use change probably will have the largest effect, followed by climate change, nitrogen deposition, biotic exchange, and elevated carbon dioxide concentration. For freshwater ecosystems, biotic exchange is much more important. Mediterranean climate and grassland ecosystems likely will experience the greatest proportional change in biodiversity because of the substantial influence of all drivers of biodiversity change. Northern temperate ecosystems are estimated to experience the least biodiversity change because major land-use change has already occurred. Plausible changes in biodiversity in other biomes depend on interactions among the causes of biodiversity change. These interactions represent one of the largest uncertainties in projections of future biodiversity change.

8,401 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors suggest that the term "fragmentation" should be reserved for the breaking apart of habitat, independent of habitat loss, and that fragmentation per se has much weaker effects on biodiversity that are at least as likely to be positive as negative.
Abstract: ■ Abstract The literature on effects of habitat fragmentation on biodiversity is huge. It is also very diverse, with different authors measuring fragmentation in different ways and, as a consequence, drawing different conclusions regarding both the magnitude and direction of its effects. Habitat fragmentation is usually defined as a landscape-scale process involving both habitat loss and the breaking apart of habitat. Results of empirical studies of habitat fragmentation are often difficult to interpret because (a) many researchers measure fragmentation at the patch scale, not the landscape scale and (b) most researchers measure fragmentation in ways that do not distinguish between habitat loss and habitat fragmentation per se, i.e., the breaking apart of habitat after controlling for habitat loss. Empirical studies to date suggest that habitat loss has large, consistently negative effects on biodiversity. Habitat fragmentation per se has much weaker effects on biodiversity that are at least as likely to be positive as negative. Therefore, to correctly interpret the influence of habitat fragmentation on biodiversity, the effects of these two components of fragmentation must be measured independently. More studies of the independent effects of habitat loss and fragmentation per se are needed to determine the factors that lead to positive versus negative effects of fragmentation per se. I suggest that the term “fragmentation” should be reserved for the breaking apart of habitat, independent of habitat loss.

6,341 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the negative and positive effects of agricultural land use for the conservation of biodiversity, and its relation to ecosystem services, need a landscape perspective, which is difficult to be found in the literature.
Abstract: Understanding the negative and positive effects of agricultural land use for the conservation of biodiversity, and its relation to ecosystem services, needs a landscape perspective. Agriculture can contribute to the conservation of high-diversity systems, which may provide important ecosystem services such as pollination and biological control via complementarity and sampling effects. Land-use management is often focused on few species and local processes, but in dynamic, agricultural landscapes, only a diversity of insurance species may guarantee resilience (the capacity to reorganize after disturbance). Interacting species experience their surrounding landscape at different spatial scales, which influences trophic interactions. Structurally complex landscapes enhance local diversity in agroecosystems, which may compensate for local high-intensity management. Organisms with high-dispersal abilities appear to drive these biodiversity patterns and ecosystem services, because of their recolonization ability and larger resources experienced. Agri-environment schemes (incentives for farmers to benefit the environment) need to broaden their perspective and to take the different responses to schemes in simple (high impact) and complex (low impact) agricultural landscapes into account. In simple landscapes, local allocation of habitat is more important than in complex landscapes, which are in total at risk. However, little knowledge of the relative importance of local and landscape management for biodiversity and its relation to ecosystem services make reliable recommendations difficult.

3,460 citations

01 Jan 2005
TL;DR: In this article, the negative and positive effects of agricultural land use for the conservation of biodiversity, and its relation to ecosystem services, need a landscape perspective, which may compensate for local highintensity management.
Abstract: Understanding the negative and positive effects of agricultural land use for the conservation of biodiversity, and its relation to ecosystem services, needs a landscape perspective. Agriculture can contribute to the conservation of high-diversity systems, which may provide important ecosystem services such as pollination and biological control via complementarity and sampling effects. Land-use management is often focused on few species and local processes, but in dynamic, agricultural landscapes, only a diversity of insurance species may guarantee resilience (the capacity to reorganize after disturbance). Interacting species experience their surrounding landscape at different spatial scales, which influences trophic interactions. Structurally complex landscapes enhance local diversity in agroecosystems, which may compensate for local highintensity management. Organisms with high-dispersal abilities appear to drive these biodiversity patterns and ecosystem services, because of their recolonization ability and larger resources experienced. Agri-environment schemes (incentives for farmers to benefit the environment) need to broaden their perspective and to take the different responses to schemes in simple (high impact) and complex (low impact) agricultural landscapes into account. In simple landscapes, local allocation of habitat is more important than in complex landscapes, which are in total at risk. However, little knowledge of the relative importance of local and landscape management for biodiversity and its relation to ecosystem services make reliable recommendations difficult.

3,387 citations