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Proceedings ArticleDOI

Use of leaf colour for drought stress analysis in rice

01 Dec 2015-pp 1-4

TL;DR: The proposed technique uses leaf color as the phenomic trait to assess stress levels using Relative water content (RWC) as a quantitative proxy and extracted the change in leaf color in response to drought stress using the color features obtained using Random forest.

AbstractWe propose a novel approach of utilizing phenomic traits to automatically quantify stress in plants using machine learning techniques. Moisture deficit conditions cause change in leaf color due to decrease in chlorophyll content as chloroplast is damaged by active oxygen species. Therefore, the proposed technique uses leaf color as the phenomic trait to assess stress levels using Relative water content (RWC) as a quantitative proxy. We extracted the change in leaf color in response to drought stress using the color features obtained using Random forest. A regressor has been modeled to predict the stress level of rice genotypes via RWC by employing colour histogram as a feature vector. The experiment was performed with pot images of different rice genotypes under normal and drought stressed conditions. We report a correlation coefficient of 0.89 obtained using this model demonstrating the capability of the presented technique for stress level predictions.

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References
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01 Oct 2001
TL;DR: Internal estimates monitor error, strength, and correlation and these are used to show the response to increasing the number of features used in the forest, and are also applicable to regression.
Abstract: Random forests are a combination of tree predictors such that each tree depends on the values of a random vector sampled independently and with the same distribution for all trees in the forest. The generalization error for forests converges a.s. to a limit as the number of trees in the forest becomes large. The generalization error of a forest of tree classifiers depends on the strength of the individual trees in the forest and the correlation between them. Using a random selection of features to split each node yields error rates that compare favorably to Adaboost (Y. Freund & R. Schapire, Machine Learning: Proceedings of the Thirteenth International conference, aaa, 148–156), but are more robust with respect to noise. Internal estimates monitor error, strength, and correlation and these are used to show the response to increasing the number of features used in the splitting. Internal estimates are also used to measure variable importance. These ideas are also applicable to regression.

58,232 citations


"Use of leaf colour for drought stre..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...Random forest classifier with its associated Gini feature [9] importance, on the other hand, allows for an explicit feature elimination....

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  • ...Random forest classifier [9] was used to extract multivariate feature importance scores....

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  • ...Gini importance [9] can be used as an importance score which provides relative ranking of the features....

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TL;DR: Issues such as solving SVM optimization problems theoretical convergence multiclass classification probability estimates and parameter selection are discussed in detail.
Abstract: LIBSVM is a library for Support Vector Machines (SVMs). We have been actively developing this package since the year 2000. The goal is to help users to easily apply SVM to their applications. LIBSVM has gained wide popularity in machine learning and many other areas. In this article, we present all implementation details of LIBSVM. Issues such as solving SVM optimization problems theoretical convergence multiclass classification probability estimates and parameter selection are discussed in detail.

37,868 citations


"Use of leaf colour for drought stre..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...Optimal w was found using a standard SVR program [13]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work presents two algorithms based on graph cuts that efficiently find a local minimum with respect to two types of large moves, namely expansion moves and swap moves that allow important cases of discontinuity preserving energies.
Abstract: Many tasks in computer vision involve assigning a label (such as disparity) to every pixel. A common constraint is that the labels should vary smoothly almost everywhere while preserving sharp discontinuities that may exist, e.g., at object boundaries. These tasks are naturally stated in terms of energy minimization. The authors consider a wide class of energies with various smoothness constraints. Global minimization of these energy functions is NP-hard even in the simplest discontinuity-preserving case. Therefore, our focus is on efficient approximation algorithms. We present two algorithms based on graph cuts that efficiently find a local minimum with respect to two types of large moves, namely expansion moves and swap moves. These moves can simultaneously change the labels of arbitrarily large sets of pixels. In contrast, many standard algorithms (including simulated annealing) use small moves where only one pixel changes its label at a time. Our expansion algorithm finds a labeling within a known factor of the global minimum, while our swap algorithm handles more general energy functions. Both of these algorithms allow important cases of discontinuity preserving energies. We experimentally demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach for image restoration, stereo and motion. On real data with ground truth, we achieve 98 percent accuracy.

7,060 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Jan 1999
TL;DR: This paper proposes two algorithms that use graph cuts to compute a local minimum even when very large moves are allowed, and generates a labeling such that there is no expansion move that decreases the energy.
Abstract: In this paper we address the problem of minimizing a large class of energy functions that occur in early vision. The major restriction is that the energy function's smoothness term must only involve pairs of pixels. We propose two algorithms that use graph cuts to compute a local minimum even when very large moves are allowed. The first move we consider is an /spl alpha/-/spl beta/-swap: for a pair of labels /spl alpha/,/spl beta/, this move exchanges the labels between an arbitrary set of pixels labeled a and another arbitrary set labeled /spl beta/. Our first algorithm generates a labeling such that there is no swap move that decreases the energy. The second move we consider is an /spl alpha/-expansion: for a label a, this move assigns an arbitrary set of pixels the label /spl alpha/. Our second algorithm, which requires the smoothness term to be a metric, generates a labeling such that there is no expansion move that decreases the energy. Moreover, this solution is within a known factor of the global minimum. We experimentally demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach on image restoration, stereo and motion.

3,195 citations


"Use of leaf colour for drought stre..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...In our approach we segment the input images using graph cut segmentation technique [11] to separate the leaf region from the non-leaf region....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The relative turgidity technique consists in comparing the initial and turgid water contents, on a percentage basis, of disks punched from leaves, the turgid water content being obtained by floating the disks on water.

2,255 citations


"Use of leaf colour for drought stre..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...Relative water content was determined based on the fresh weight (FW), turgid weight (TW) and dry weight (DW) [8] of the leaf manually sampled from the plant canopy....

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