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Proceedings ArticleDOI

Using Alternative Flours as Partial Replacement in Barbari Bread (Traditional Iranian Bread) Formulation

TL;DR: In this article, five different flours (Amaranth, barley, DDGS, rye and oat) were used as alternatives to wheat flour in production of Iranian traditional bread, Barbari.
Abstract: Since cereals and cereal-based products are a cheap source of energy, they are highly consumed in all of countries. Wheat is the major cereal, consumed in different food products, especially bread. Today, whole wheat flour is being consumed in most of the breads because of its nutrient components but still different problems are associated with this flour, such as allergies and loss of nutrient components due to milling and refining. Thus, to find different sources to fortify products made with wheat flour as their major ingredient, especially bread is important. In this study, five different flours (20% of each flour plus 80% of wheat flour) were used as alternatives to wheat flour in production of Iranian traditional bread, Barbari. These flours were amaranth, barley, DDGS, rye and oat. Proximate analyses were conducted in order to find out the moisture, fat, fiber, protein and ash content of each product. Also rheological tests were done to understand the change in the color, thickness and texture of final products. The results showed that the gluten content of each flour had significant effect on the texture and thickness of the bread. As for the color, it was shown that the bread made with rye flour had the highest L* value and the one made with oat flour had the highest a* value. As for the b* value, the highest was for the bread made with DDGS. As for the chemical properties of the breads, it was determined that bread made with 20% DDGS and 80% of wheat flour had the highest fiber and moisture content. The bread made with amaranth had the highest ash content, while the one made with rye had the highest protein and fat content. Overall, adding different flours to wheat flour can change the physical and chemical attributes of final product significantly.

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Journal ArticleDOI
13 Jan 2016
TL;DR: In this paper, supplementation of several hydrocolloids having different chemical structure and diverse origin to the flat-bread making process is presented, which provide proper texture, control moisture, improve overall product quality and stability, reduce cost, and facilitate processing in the flat breads.
Abstract: Flat breads are popular all over the world. There are several forms of flat bread, which differ in their methods of preparation. In comparison to pan breads, the leavened flat breads have shorter fermentation period. Nowadays, the use of additives has become a common practice in the baking industry. In this paper, supplementation of several hydrocolloids having different chemical structure and diverse origin to the flatbread making process is presented. Hydrocolloids comprise a number of water-soluble polysaccharides providing a range of functional properties that make them suitable to this application. They provide proper texture, control moisture, improve overall product quality and stability, reduce cost, and facilitate processing in the flat breads. Various gluten-free formulations have applied hydrocolloids to mimic the viscoelastic properties of gluten. Hydrocolloids have been used for retarding the staling and for improving the quality of the fresh products. In addition to this, good sensory properties for visual appearance, aroma, flavor, crunchiness, and overall acceptability were obtained.

30 citations


Cites background from "Using Alternative Flours as Partial..."

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  • ...Dough balls are flattened into an oval shape and rested for 20 minutes [36]....

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References
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Book
01 Jan 2008
TL;DR: The concept of bio-refining with explicit application to materials is discussed in this paper, where an impressive variety of novel macromolecular materials are discussed with the purpose of showing the extraordinary variety of materials that can be prepared from their intelligent exploitation.
Abstract: The progressive dwindling of fossil resources, coupled with the drastic increase in oil prices, have sparked a feverish activity in search of alternatives based on renewable resources for the production of energy. Given the predominance of petroleum- and carbon-based chemistry for the manufacture of organic chemical commodities, a similar preoccupation has recently generated numerous initiatives aimed at replacing these fossil sources with renewable counterparts. In particular, major efforts are being conducted in the field of polymer science and technology to prepare macromolecular materials based on renewable resources. The concept of the bio-refinery, viz. the rational exploitation of the vegetable biomass in terms of the separation of its components and their utilisation as such, or after suitable chemical modifications, is thus gaining momentum and considerable financial backing from both the public and private sectors.This collection of chapters, each one written by internationally recognised experts in the corresponding field, covers in a comprehensive fashion all the major aspects related to the synthesis, characterization and properties of macromolecular materials prepared using renewable resources as such, or after appropriate modifications. Thus, monomers such as terpenes and furans, oligomers like rosin and tannins, and polymers ranging from cellulose to proteins and including macromolecules synthesized by microbes, are discussed with the purpose of showing the extraordinary variety of materials that can be prepared from their intelligent exploitation.Particular emphasis has been placed on recent advances and imminent perspectives, given the incessantly growing interest that this area is experiencing in both the scientific and technological realms. This book discusses bio-refining with explicit application to materials. It is replete with examples of applications of the concept of sustainable development. It presents an impressive variety of novel macromolecular materials.

872 citations


"Using Alternative Flours as Partial..." refers background in this paper

  • ...This can occur because of the hydration of the protein, a process in which protein goes from its dry stage to the solution stage and is affected by the amino acid composition of the protein (Belgacem and Gandini, 2008)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Variation in the composition of DDGS was not related to variation in corn composition and probably was due to variations in processing streams or processing techniques, which implies that reducing the variation in composition ofDDG will require modification of processing strategies.

418 citations


"Using Alternative Flours as Partial..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Furthermore, variation in the composition of corn can affect the composition of the final DDGS (Belyea et al, 2004)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: No link between acrylamide levels in food and cancer risk has been established and based on the evidence to date, the UK Food Standards Agency has advised the public not to change their diet or cooking methods.
Abstract: SUMMARY 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 General structure of grains 1.2 Wheat 1.3 Rice 1.4 Maize 1.5 Barley 1.6 Oats 1.7 Rye 1.8 Millet 1.9 Sorghum 1.10 Triticale 1.11 Other grains 1.12 Key points 2TECHNICAL ASPECTS OF CEREALS 2.1 Cereal production 2.2 Storage 2.3 Processing 2.4 Cereals and food safety 2.5 Key points 3THE ROLE OF CEREALS IN HEALTH AND DISEASE 3.1 History of cereals in diet 3.2 Nutritional value of cereals 3.3 Contribution of cereals and cereal products in the diet 3.4 Cereals in health and disease 3.5 Labelling and health claims 3.6 Consumer understanding 3.7 Key points 4FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS 4.1 Fortification 4.2 Genetic modification 4.3 Gene–nutrient interactions 4.4 Key points 5CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS REFERENCES GLOSSARY Summary Cereals are the edible seeds or grains of the grass family, Gramineae. A number of cereals are grown in different countries, including rye, oats, barley, maize, triticale, millet and sorghum. On a worldwide basis, wheat and rice are the most important crops, accounting for over 50% of the world's cereal production. All of the cereals share some structural similarities and consist of an embryo (or germ), which contains the genetic material for a new plant, and an endosperm, which is packed with starch grains. After harvest, correct storage of the grain is important to prevent mould spoilage, pest infestation and grain germination. If dry grains are held for only a few months, minimum nutritional changes will take place, but if the grains are held with a higher amount of moisture, the grain quality can deteriorate because of starch degradation by grain and microbial amylases (enzymes). Milling is the main process associated with cereals, although a range of other techniques are also used to produce a variety of products. Slightly different milling processes are used for the various grains, but the process can generally be described as grinding, sifting, separation and regrinding. The final nutrient content of a cereal after milling will depend on the extent to which the outer bran and aleurone layers are removed, as this is where the fibre, vitamins and minerals tend to be concentrated. There is potential for contamination of cereals and cereal products by pests, mycotoxins, rusts and smuts. Recently, acrylamide (described as a probable carcinogen) has been found in starchy baked foods. No link between acrylamide levels in food and cancer risk has been established and based on the evidence to date, the UK Food Standards Agency has advised the public not to change their diet or cooking methods. However, the Scientific Committee on Food of the European Union (EU) has endorsed recommendations made by Food and Agriculture Organisation/World Health Organization which include researching the possibility of reducing levels of acrylamide in food by changes in formulation and processing. Cereals have a long history of use by humans. Cereals are staple foods, and are important sources of nutrients in both developed and developing countries. Cereals and cereal products are an important source of energy, carbohydrate, protein and fibre, as well as containing a range of micronutrients such as vitamin E, some of the B vitamins, magnesium and zinc. In the UK, because of the mandatory fortification of some cereal products (e.g. white flour and therefore white bread) and the voluntary fortification of others (e.g. breakfast cereals), cereals also contribute significant amounts of calcium and iron. Cereals and cereal products may also contain a range of bioactive substances and there is growing interest in the potential health benefits these substances may provide. Further research is required in this area, including identification of other substances within cereals and their bioavailability. There is evidence to suggest that regular consumption of cereals, specifically wholegrains, may have a role in the prevention of chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease, diabetes and colorectal cancer. The exact mechanisms by which cereals convey beneficial effects on health are not clear. It is likely that a number of factors may be involved, e.g. their micronutrient content, their fibre content and/or their glycaemic index. As there may be a number of positive health effects associated with eating wholegrain cereals, encouraging their consumption seems a prudent public health approach. To increase consumption of wholegrain foods, it may be useful to have a quantitative recommendation. Additionally, a wider range of wholegrain foods that are quick and easy to prepare would help people increase their consumption of these foods. As cereal products currently contribute a considerable proportion of the sodium intake of the UK population, manufacturers need to continue to reduce the sodium content of foods such as breakfast cereals and breads where possible. Nutrition labelling is currently not mandatory in the UK, although many manufacturers provide information voluntarily. The fibre content of most UK foods is still measured using the Englyst method rather than the American Association of Analytical Chemists (AOAC) method used by other EU countries and the USA. However, UK recommendations for fibre intake currently relate to fibre measured by the Englyst method and not the AOAC method, and hence need revisions. EU changes to labelling regulations will see the labelling of common foods and ingredients causing allergic reactions, including cereals containing gluten and products derived from these foods. The introduction of EU legislation covering health claims may help consumers identify foods with proven health benefits. Several misconceptions exist among the public with regard to cereals and cereal products. Firstly, many more people believe they have a food intolerance or allergy to these foods than evidence would suggest and, secondly, cereals are seen by some as ‘fattening’. The public should not be encouraged to cut out whole food groups unnecessarily and, as cereals and cereal products provide a range of macro- and micronutrients and fibre, eliminating these foods without appropriate support and advice from a registered dietitian or other health professional could lead to problems in the long term. In the future it is possible that white flour in the UK may be fortified with folic acid (the synthetic form of the B vitamin folate) to decrease the incidence of neural tube defects during pregnancy. Such a move could also be of benefit for heart health, as poor folate status is associated with high homocysteine levels, an emerging risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, high intakes of folic acid can mask vitamin B12 deficiency, a condition that occurs more frequently with age and has serious neurological symptoms affecting the peripheral nervous system. Manipulating the expression of native genes can increase the disease resistance of cereal crops. Novel genes may also be used for this purpose, as well as for developing cereals with resistance to herbicides, and cereals with improved nutritional properties (e.g. increased levels of iron in cereals and of beta-carotene in rice). The long-term consequences and consumer acceptability of such advances must be considered and consumer choice maintained. There is a continual growth in the knowledge of the interactions between human genes and nutrients, and in the future it may be possible to target specific nutrition messages to people with specific genetic profiles.

382 citations


"Using Alternative Flours as Partial..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Cereals and cereal products are an important source of energy, protein and fiber (Mckevith, 2004)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The physical characteristics, chemical composition, and nutritional value of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) from seven beverage alcohol and two fuel alcohol manufacturers were evaluated in studies with chicks and pigs and performance responses to various blends of DD GS paralleled those of the chick trial.
Abstract: The physical characteristics, chemical composition, and nutritional value of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) from seven beverage alcohol and two fuel alcohol manufacturers were evaluated in studies with chicks and pigs. Color scores of the DDGS ranged from very light to very dark and odor scores ranged from normal to burnt or smoky. The DDGS ranged from 23.4 to 28.7% CP, 2.9 to 12.8% fat, 8.8 to 36.9% ADIN, 28.8 to 40.3% NDF, 10.3 to 18.1% ADF, and 3.4 to 7.3% ash. Lysine concentrations of the DDGS ranged from .43 to .89%. In the first experiment, 12 corn-based diets were fed to 1-d-old chicks for 21 d to assess the nutritional value of the DDGS sources. A low-protein basal diet was supplemented with soybean meal to provide 13.6, 16.5, or 19.0% CP or supplemented with 20% DDGS, which supplied approximately the same amount of CP as the highest level of soybean meal. Weight gain, feed intake, and feed/gain were influenced (P < .01) by source of DDGS. The weight gain of chicks fed the DDGS sources ranged from 85% of that chicks fed the highest level of soybean meal to less than that of chicks fed the low-protein basal diet. Blends of the three best sources of DDGS and the three poorest sources of DDGS were evaluated in a subsequent chick trial. The relative nutritional values of the two blends were similar to the average of the sources that made up the blends. Performance responses to various blends of DDGS in the pig experiment paralleled those of the chick trial.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

299 citations


"Using Alternative Flours as Partial..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...Different methods can be used in production of DDGS and the method chosen then affects the physiochemical properties of the final product (Cromwell et al, 1993)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, different cereal fibres (wheat, maize, oat and barley) were added at 3, 6 and 9 grams/100 grams level into a gluten-free bread formulation based on corn starch, rice flour and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC).
Abstract: The enrichment of gluten-free baked products with dietary fibre seems to be necessary since it has been reported that coeliac patients have generally a low intake of fibre due to their gluten-free diet. In the present study different cereal fibres (wheat, maize, oat and barley) were added at 3, 6 and 9 g/100 g level into a gluten-free bread formulation based on corn starch, rice flour and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC). Doughs were evaluated based on consistency, viscosity and thermal properties. Results showed that maize and oat fibre can be added to gluten-free bread with positive impact on bread nutritional and sensory properties. All breads with 9 g/100 g fibre increased the fibre content of control by 218%, but they were rated lower than those with 3 and 6 g/100 g fibre due to their powdery taste. The formulation containing barley fibre produced loaves that had more intense color and volume comparable to the control. During storage of breads a reduction in crumb moisture content and an increase in firmness were observed. The micrographs of the crumb showed the continuous matrix between starch and maize and/or oat fibre obtaining a more aerated structure.

236 citations


"Using Alternative Flours as Partial..." refers background in this paper

  • ...A minimum particle size results in increasing the water binding capacity (Sabanis et al, 2009)....

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  • ...These properties can be the water content, pH, reducing sugar and amino acid content of the flour which was used in the production of the dough (Sabanis et al, 2009)....

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  • ...In a study done by Sabanis et al (2009), the amount of fiber increased in the bread sample, and the moisture content of both crumb and crust increased....

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