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Book ChapterDOI

Using middleware as a certifying authority in LBS applications

12 Dec 2011-pp 242-255
TL;DR: The authors proposed an alternative solution which helps in avoiding a bottleneck in the existing system in terms of performance and availability as the entire client's service transactions are routed through the middleware to the actual Location Based Service Providers (LSP).
Abstract: The trusted middleware is the most commonly used solution to address the location privacy in location based services as generally such service providers are un-trusted entities that can be adversary attack sensitive points. The authors proposed an alternative solution which helps in avoiding a bottleneck in the existing system in terms of performance and availability as the entire client's service transactions are routed through the middleware to the actual Location Based Service Providers (LSP). In the proposed solution, the client and the LSPs can directly communicate with the same level of location security, privacy and anonymity. The trusted middleware is used as certifying authority that generates authentication certificates which contains the Proxy Identity (also called Pseudonyms), and the services subscribed with validity period. The encrypted certificate fulfills the authentication requirements at the LSP servers. In this paper we are reporting the implementation of the proposed system as a proof of concept using Struts Technology of Java. While evaluating the system features such as response time, delay, drop rate etc., the Google Map's location services and the internet browser have been considered as a service provider and client respectively. Performance analysis of our solution and that of prevalent architecture is done using Packmime model for http traffic generation of NS2 (Network Simulator 2) tool. The comparative graphs of the simulation results show that the proposed solution is better in terms of throughput, response time, drop rate and scalability in comparison to the existing middleware architectures in which the request response is every time routed through middleware, thus increasing the overheads.
Citations
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Proceedings ArticleDOI
23 Jul 2012
TL;DR: In this article, the authors explored the use of zero knowledge proof for authentication and authorization in the domain of location based services and presented correspondence between the authentication techniques used in above said architecture and zero-knowledge proof technique.
Abstract: The increasing trend of embedding positioning capabilities (e.g., GPS) in mobile devices facilitates the widespread use of Location Based Services. For such applications to succeed, privacy and confidentiality are key issues. Over all privacy will have to be managed through a combination of technology, legislation, corporate policy, and social norms. There are many data privacy schemes including Zero Knowledge Proof (ZKP) those can be used for location privacy. ZKP is also useful for removing the bottleneck problem introduced by use of trusted third party. In the earlier work, authors proposed the concept of middleware architecture in which, request and response are not routed through middleware for every transaction. This has reduced the dependency on middleware. This paper presents correspondence between the authentication techniques used in above said architecture and zero knowledge proof technique. Use of the concept of zero knowledge proof for authentication and authorization in the domain of location based services is also explored.

9 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
23 Jul 2012
TL;DR: The broader idea of the work is to use the existing LBS infrastructure to track the user and achieve other navigation objectives in the system as the freely available up-to-date internet infrastructure is used as the information source.
Abstract: The geographical areas that are considered to be popular and interesting are called Region of Interest (ROI). There are multiple sources that can be used for erecting the ROIs such as user trajectory, POI databases, internet news etc. A tourist spot, historical region, monuments, a forest reserve, city, state or country's administrative boundaries are considered as the ROI objects. The interesting facts of the regions can be used for on-the-spot infotainment (information + entertainment) while user is walking, driving or just sitting idle on the flight. One may want the information in different level of details based on the interests, travel direction, and speed. The best way to get the recent information is going through the internet news, discussion forums, and encyclopedias on the web. The challenge is that there is no universal database available that contains the region information along with the location based search capabilities. The maintaining the granularity of the information based on the size or the details of the region adds more challenges. The broader idea of our work is to use the existing LBS infrastructure to track the user and achieve other navigation objectives in the system. However, the freely available up-to-date internet infrastructure is used as the information source. Initially, the user location is determined by the conventional methods. In order to relate the location with the web content, we use the semantic labels associated to the underlying location. The semantic labels are fetched by using reverse geocoding that returns the local attractions, street city, state and country names etc. Then these labels are used to search the associated detailed content in the web. The region data is maintained in two forms i.e. locally populated database and the web databases. The locally populated database can be updated on the preconfigured time interval in order to avoid data staleness problem. We have used Wikipedia as the internet data source in our prototype. The further research is in progress extracting the ROI information from the POI databases with their spatial and non-spatial attributes.

8 citations


Cites background or methods from "Using middleware as a certifying au..."

  • ...We are proposing a practical architecture using the available ready-to-use LBS and internet infrastructure....

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  • ...The infotainment systems need updated information that reflects the experience and views of a wide variety of people....

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Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Jan 2012
TL;DR: The e-Learning system is used for the LBL with the help of navigation capabilities without modifying the existing systems, and the learning content geocoding, reverse-geocoded, and real-time learning plan generation based on the user preferences and constraints have been proposed.
Abstract: Huge information is inherently associated with certain places in the globe. The ancient cities have multiple locations with large historical, geographical, cultural and architectural specialties. E-Learning systems allow the learners to learn irrespective of their time and place. The location based learning (LBL) is another aspect where the site seeing, and touching the building walls are the means of real-time experience of the sites. This manifestation motivates us to extend the capabilities of conventional E-learning systems so that the information can be accessed at the real-time based on the user's location. In this paper, the e-Learning system is used for the LBL with the help of navigation capabilities without modifying the existing systems. The learning content geocoding, reverse-geocoding, and real-time learning plan generation based on the user preferences and constraints have been proposed. The on-the-way learning is another aspect of the LBL that has been proposed with a prototype implementation. The implemented system is a flexible and visually appealing LBL platform with a possibility to get the real-time location specific information both from webdatabases and locally stored content. (6 pages)

3 citations

Proceedings Article
01 Jan 2012
TL;DR: An efficient solution for finding boundary points in multi-dimensional datasets that uses the BORDER method as a foundation which is based on Gorder knearest neighbors (kNN) join and an Adjacent Grid Block Selection (AGBS) method to compute the kNN-join of two datasets.
Abstract: Interpretability, usability, and boundary points detection of the clustering results are of fundamental importance. The cluster boundary detection is important for many real world applications, such as geo-spatial data analysis and point-based computer graphics. In this paper, we have proposed an efficient solution for finding boundary points in multi-dimensional datasets that uses the BORDER [1] method as a foundation which is based on Gorder knearest neighbors (kNN) join [10]. We have proposed an Adjacent Grid Block Selection (AGBS) method to compute the kNN-join of two datasets. Further, the AGBS method has been used for the boundary points detection method named as AGBS-BORDER. It executes AGBS join for each element in the dataset to get the paired (qi, pi) kNN values. The kNN-graphs are generated at the same time while computing the kNN-join of the underlying datasets. The nodes maintain a list of kNN which indicate the outgoing edges of the graph; however the incoming edges denote the Reverse kNN (RkNN) for the corresponding nodes. Finally, threshold filter is applied the node whose number of RkNN is less than the threshold values are marked as the border nodes. We have implemented both the BORDER [1] and AGBS-BORDER methods and tested the same using randomly generated geographical points. The AGBS based boundary computation over performs the existing BORDER method.

2 citations

References
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Book
01 Jun 2003

1,218 citations

Book
01 May 2004
TL;DR: Schiller et al. as discussed by the authors present a case study of the Find Friends application and present a middleware for location-based services for Mobile Location-Based Services (LBS).
Abstract: Introduction - Jochen Schiller and Agnes Voisard * Chapter 1 General Aspects of Location Based Services - Sarah Spiekermann * Chapter 2 Case Study: The Development of the Find Friends Application - Mark Strassman and Clay Collier * Chapter 3 Navigation Systems: A Spatial Database Perspective - Shashi Shekhar, Ranga Raju Vatsavai, Xiaobin Ma, and Jin Soung Yoo * Chapter 4 Middleware for Location-Based Services - Hans-Arno Jacobsen, University of Toronto * Chapter 5 Database Aspects of Location-Based Services - Christian Jensen * Chapter 6 LBS Interoperability Through Standards - Lance McKee * Chapter 7 Data Collection - Joerg Roth * Chapter 8 Data Transmission in Mobile Communication Systems - Holger Karl

758 citations

Book ChapterDOI
08 May 2005
TL;DR: It is argued that obfuscation is an important technique for protecting an individual's location privacy within a pervasive computing environment and a formal framework within which obfuscated location-based services are defined is set out.
Abstract: Obfuscation concerns the practice of deliberately degrading the quality of information in some way, so as to protect the privacy of the individual to whom that information refers. In this paper, we argue that obfuscation is an important technique for protecting an individual's location privacy within a pervasive computing environment. The paper sets out a formal framework within which obfuscated location-based services are defined. This framework provides a computationally efficient mechanism for balancing an individual's need for high-quality information services against that individual's need for location privacy. Negotiation is used to ensure that a location-based service provider receives only the information it needs to know in order to provide a service of satisfactory quality. The results of this work have implications for numerous applications of mobile and location-aware systems, as they provide a new theoretical foundation for addressing the privacy concerns that are acknowledged to be retarding the widespread acceptance and use of location-based services.

566 citations

07 Apr 2004
TL;DR: A customizable kanonymity model for protecting privacy of location data and a novel spatio-temporal cloaking algorithm, called CliqueCloak, which provides location k-anonymity for mobile users of a LBS provider.
Abstract: Continued advances in mobile networks and positioning technologies have created a strong market push for location-based services (LBSs). Examples include location-aware emergency services, location based service advertisement, and location sensitive billing. One of the big challenges in wide deployment of LBS systems is the privacy-preserving management of location-based data. Without safeguards, extensive deployment of location based services endangers location privacy of mobile users and exhibits significant vulnerabilities for abuse. In this paper, we describe a customizable kanonymity model for protecting privacy of location data. Our model has two unique features. First, we provide a customizable framework to support kanonymity with variable k, allowing a wide range of users to benefit from the location privacy protection with personalized privacy requirements. Second, we design and develop a novel spatio-temporal cloaking algorithm, called CliqueCloak, which provides location k-anonymity for mobile users of a LBS provider. The cloaking algorithm is run by the location protection broker on a trusted server, which anonymizes messages from the mobile nodes by cloaking the location information contained in the messages to reduce or avoid privacy threats before forwarding them to the LBS provider(s). Our model enables each message sent from a mobile node to specify the desired level of anonymity as well as the maximum temporal and spatial tolerances for maintaining the required anonymity. We study the effectiveness of the cloaking algorithm under various conditions using realistic location data synthetically generated using real road maps and traffic volume data. Our experiments show that the location k-anonymity model with multi-dimensional cloaking and tunable k parameter can achieve high guarantee of k anonymity and high resilience to location privacy threats without significant performance penalty.

211 citations

Book ChapterDOI
28 Jun 2006
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present an efficient construction of a private disjointness testing protocol that is secure against malicious provers and honest-but-curious (semi-honest) verifiers without the use of random oracles.
Abstract: We present an efficient construction of a private disjointness testing protocol that is secure against malicious provers and honest-but-curious (semi-honest) verifiers, without the use of random oracles. In a completely semi-honest setting, this construction implements a private intersection cardinality protocol. We formally define both private intersection cardinality and private disjointness testing protocols. We prove that our construction is secure under the subgroup decision and subgroup computation assumptions. A major advantage of our construction is that it does not require bilinear groups, random oracles, or non-interactive zero knowledge proofs. Applications of private intersection cardinality and disjointness testing protocols include privacy-preserving data mining and anonymous login systems.

71 citations