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Proceedings ArticleDOI

Utilization-based power consumption profiling in smartphones

TL;DR: An efficient on-demand-online profiler, called pProf, that learns from offline-precomputed model parameters to reduce the online profiling cost, and consumes typically 10–15% lesser energy.
Abstract: Energy cost of crowd-sourced continuous sensing is reported to be quite high. As the number of on-board active sensors increases, complications arise due to inter-sensor interactions. The energy-cost of the Smartphones is primarily due to wireless communications (in various modes, such as, cellular radio, GPS, Wi-Fi direct, and Bluetooth) and environmental sensing using its embedded sensors in a wireless personal area network setting. The existing popular on-device-online energy-cost profilers for Android Smartphones, namely, Amobisense and PowerTutor, are energy-hungry. In this paper, we report an efficient on-demand-online profiler, called pProf, that learns from offline-precomputed model parameters to reduce the online profiling cost. We have tested our proposed technique in a customized test-bed setup comprising of the Android Smart-phones with embedded sensors that also communicate with the neighborhood sensors on smart-wearables and Sensorcon's Sensordrone platform. Our experimental measurement studies demonstrate that, compared to the popular profilers, such as Amobisense and PowerTutor, pProf consumes typically 10–15% lesser energy.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper provides a generalized, but detailed analysis of the power consumption causes (internal and external) of a smartphone and also offers suggestive measures to minimize the consumption for each factor.
Abstract: The advancement and popularity of smartphones have made it an essential and all-purpose device. But lack of advancement in battery technology has held back its optimum potential. Therefore, considering its scarcity, optimal use and efficient management of energy are crucial in a smartphone. For that, a fair understanding of a smartphone’s energy consumption factors is necessary for both users and device manufacturers, along with other stakeholders in the smartphone ecosystem. It is important to assess how much of the device’s energy is consumed by which components and under what circumstances. This paper provides a generalized, but detailed analysis of the power consumption causes (internal and external) of a smartphone and also offers suggestive measures to minimize the consumption for each factor. The main contribution of this paper is four comprehensive literature reviews on: 1) smartphone’s power consumption assessment and estimation (including power consumption analysis and modelling); 2) power consumption management for smartphones (including energy-saving methods and techniques); 3) state-of-the-art of the research and commercial developments of smartphone batteries (including alternative power sources); and 4) mitigating the hazardous issues of smartphones’ batteries (with a details explanation of the issues). The research works are further subcategorized based on different research and solution approaches. A good number of recent empirical research works are considered for this comprehensive review, and each of them is succinctly analysed and discussed.

87 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An overview of the most used models in the literature is presented and a comparative analysis of these models according to a set of criteria, such as the modeling assumptions, the necessary instrumentation necessary, the accuracy, and the complexity of implementation is offered.

8 citations


Cites background or methods from "Utilization-based power consumption..."

  • ...pProf [20] Power profiling with reduced overhead Device Software API Yes Linear (Regression) On-line Off-line On-device...

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  • ...Regression-based power models have been thoroughly studied in the literature [28, 29, 80, 32, 20, 55], especially for smartphones....

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  • ...Power profilers are tools that allow for the measurement or the estimation of power consumption on a system-wide level [20] or down to components [21] or applications [22]....

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  • ...Thus, the continuing trend in power profiling and the flux of new power models [20, 32, 33, 34, 35]....

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Dissertation
10 Dec 2019
TL;DR: Le developpement d’outils de surveillance and de diagnostic des systemes electroniques embarques, en particuliers les SoC, est devenu l’un des verrous scientifiques a lever pour assurer une large utilisation of ces systemes dans les equipements a risque en toute securite.
Abstract: Les systemes-sur-puce (Systems on Chip, SoC) sont de plus en plus embarques dans des systemes a risque comme les systemes aeronautiques et les equipements de production d’energie. Cette evolution technologique permet un gain de temps et de performance, mais presente des limites en termes de fiabilite et de securite. Ainsi, le developpement d’outils de surveillance et de diagnostic des systemes electroniques embarques, en particuliers les SoC, est devenu l’un des verrous scientifiques a lever pour assurer une large utilisation de ces systemes dans les equipements a risque en toute securite. Ce travail de these s’inscrit dans ce contexte, et a pour objectif le developpement d’une approche de detection et identification des derives des performances des SoC embarques. L’approche proposee est basee sur un modele incremental, construit a partir de modules reutilisables et echangeables pour correspondre a la large gamme de SoC existants sur le marche. Le modele est ensuite utilise pour estimer un ensemble de caracteristiques relatives a l’etat de fonctionnement du SoC. L’algorithme de diagnostic developpe dans ce travail consiste a generer des indices de derives par la comparaison en ligne des caracteristiques estimees a celles mesurees. L’evaluation des residus et la prise de decision sont realisees par des methodes statistiques appropriees a la nature de chaque indice de derive. L’approche developpee a ete validee experimentalement sur des SoC differents, ainsi que sur un demonstrateur developpe dans le cadre de ce travail. Les resultats experimentaux obtenus, montrent l’efficacite et la robustesse de l’approche developpee

6 citations


Cites background from "Utilization-based power consumption..."

  • ...En reprenant les exemples du paragraphe précédent, un profiler conçu pour estimer la puissance consommée par le système possède la granularité la moins fine (niveau système) [94]....

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  • ...Les profilers d’énergie, par exemple, peuvent être utilisés pour mesurer l’énergie consommée par le système [94, 122], ou par un composant spécifique [123, 124], ainsi que pour surveiller ce système et détecter des anomalies [6, 76]....

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  • ...Les modèles de puissance basés sur la régression linéaire ont été bien étudiés dans la littérature, en particulier pour les smartphones [18, 87, 92, 13, 94, 103]....

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Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Jul 2017
TL;DR: In this article, the authors proposed a new DC/DC Buck converter architecture where parasitic inductance available in a USB cable is utilized for energy storage element in an example mobile battery charger application.
Abstract: This paper presents merits and feasibility of a new DC/DC Buck converter architecture where parasitic inductance available in a USB cable is utilized for energy storage element in an example mobile battery charger application. In this proposed architecture, strategizing the cable as inductor and the converter's active devices at the cable's input side enables inductor heat spread along the cable that has a large surface area. It also allows board size reduction and removes battery charger heat from the load system, e.g. in smart phones, whose stringent thermal limit has been a serious constraint. Since the load and active circuits are on different sides of the cable, the Indirect Control method is proposed to regulate the actual output voltage without directly sensing it as in conventional converters. The Indirect Control is analytically analyzed and verified in simulations and experiments using a 10W smart-USB-cable charger prototype for Li-ion battery application. The converter is switched at 2 MHz for a target voltage conversion from 5V to 3.3V and achieves stable operation across a wide load range and load transients.

5 citations


Cites background from "Utilization-based power consumption..."

  • ...Nevertheless, mobile users still clearly sense this unwanted heat especially when functions such as GPS [10] are also used while charging....

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Proceedings ArticleDOI
25 Oct 2018
TL;DR: A new accurate power profiler for embedded systems and smartphones is presented and a tutorial explaining the main steps to build power profilers for embedded and mobile systems, in general is explained.
Abstract: The main objective of this paper is to present a new accurate power profiler for embedded systems and smartphones. The second objective is, for it, to be a tutorial explaining the main steps to build power profilers for embedded and mobile systems, in general. We start our work by firstly describing the general methodology of building a power profiler. Then, we showcase how each step is undertaken to build a profiler with two power models. The first one was an artificial neural network (called N2) that presented a lot of noise in its estimation. After debugging and improvement, the second model, a NARX neural network (we call N3) was built. It eliminated all the drawback of the first model and had a mean absolute percentage error of 2.8%.

3 citations


Cites background from "Utilization-based power consumption..."

  • ...These tools allow the user to estimate the power consumption of the whole device [12], specific components [11], or the applications [10]....

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  • ...More recently, several other models also found their place in the literature [2, 3, 12]....

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper provides a taxonomy based on the D2D communicating spectrum and review the available literature extensively under the proposed taxonomy to provide new insights into the over-explored and under- Explored areas that lead to identify open research problems of D1D communications in cellular networks.
Abstract: Device-to-device (D2D) communications was initially proposed in cellular networks as a new paradigm for enhancing network performance. The emergence of new applications such as content distribution and location-aware advertisement introduced new user cases for D2D communications in cellular networks. The initial studies showed that D2D communications has advantages such as increased spectral efficiency and reduced communication delay. However, this communication mode introduces complications in terms of interference control overhead and protocols that are still open research problems. The feasibility of D2D communications in Long-Term Evolution Advanced is being studied by academia, industry, and standardization bodies. To date, there are more than 100 papers available on D2D communications in cellular networks, but there is no survey on this field. In this paper, we provide a taxonomy based on the D2D communicating spectrum and review the available literature extensively under the proposed taxonomy. Moreover, we provide new insights into the over-explored and under-explored areas that lead us to identify open research problems of D2D communications in cellular networks.

1,784 citations


"Utilization-based power consumption..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Usage patterns of Wi-Fi direct on Smartphones paired with Smartwatches suggest that out-of-band device-to-device (D2D) connection among nearby devices is of growing interest [1]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a taxonomy based on the D2D communicating spectrum and review the available literature extensively under the proposed taxonomy is provided, which provides new insights to the over-explored and underexplored areas which lead to identify open research problems of D2DM communication in cellular networks.
Abstract: Device-to-Device (D2D) communication was initially proposed in cellular networks as a new paradigm to enhance network performance. The emergence of new applications such as content distribution and location-aware advertisement introduced new use-cases for D2D communications in cellular networks. The initial studies showed that D2D communication has advantages such as increased spectral efficiency and reduced communication delay. However, this communication mode introduces complications in terms of interference control overhead and protocols that are still open research problems. The feasibility of D2D communications in LTE-A is being studied by academia, industry, and the standardization bodies. To date, there are more than 100 papers available on D2D communications in cellular networks and, there is no survey on this field. In this article, we provide a taxonomy based on the D2D communicating spectrum and review the available literature extensively under the proposed taxonomy. Moreover, we provide new insights to the over-explored and under-explored areas which lead us to identify open research problems of D2D communication in cellular networks.

1,590 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
24 Oct 2010
TL;DR: PowerBooter is an automated power model construction technique that uses built-in battery voltage sensors and knowledge of battery discharge behavior to monitor power consumption while explicitly controlling the power management and activity states of individual components.
Abstract: This paper describes PowerBooter, an automated power model construction technique that uses built-in battery voltage sensors and knowledge of battery discharge behavior to monitor power consumption while explicitly controlling the power management and activity states of individual components. It requires no external measurement equipment. We also describe PowerTutor, a component power management and activity state introspection based tool that uses the model generated by PowerBooter for online power estimation. PowerBooter is intended to make it quick and easy for application developers and end users to generate power models for new smartphone variants, which each have different power consumption properties and therefore require different power models. PowerTutor is intended to ease the design and selection of power efficient software for embedded systems. Combined, PowerBooter and PowerTutor have the goal of opening power modeling and analysis for more smartphone variants and their users.

1,225 citations


"Utilization-based power consumption..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...We have proposed pProf power model which is updated PowerBooter model [11] for Samsung Galaxy S4 and Google Nexus 5 Smartphones....

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  • ...PowerBooter [11] uses Multivariate Linear regression using Least Squares to estimate βi for various energy drainers present on a Smartphone....

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  • ...Unlike earlier profilers[12], [11], [13] it does not introduce bias and consumes typically 10-15% less energy....

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  • ...PowerTutor developed at University of Michigan contained fine-grained energy accounting power model called PowerBooter for HTC Dream phone which was claimed to be device independent and supposed to work on other Android phones as well [11]....

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Proceedings ArticleDOI
25 Feb 1999
TL;DR: Using PowerScope, a tool for profiling energy usage by applications, the approach combines hardware instrumentation to measure current level with kernel software support to perform statistical sampling of system activity.
Abstract: We describe the design and implementation of PowerScope, a tool for profiling energy usage by applications. PowerScope maps energy consumption to program structure, in much the same way that CPU profilers map processor cycles to specific processes and procedures. Our approach combines hardware instrumentation to measure current level with kernel software support to perform statistical sampling of system activity. Postprocessing software maps the sample data to program structure and produces a profile of energy usage by process and procedure. Using PowerScope, we have been able to reduce the energy consumption of an adaptive video playing application by 46%.

547 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...PowerScope which includes offline profiler[14]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Direct graphene growth over silicon nanoparticles without silicon carbide formation is reported, suggesting that two-dimensional layered structure of graphene and its siliconcarbide-free integration with silicon can serve as a prototype in advancing silicon anodes to commercially viable technology.
Abstract: Silicon is receiving discernable attention as an active material for next generation lithium-ion battery anodes because of its unparalleled gravimetric capacity. However, the large volume change of silicon over charge–discharge cycles weakens its competitiveness in the volumetric energy density and cycle life. Here we report direct graphene growth over silicon nanoparticles without silicon carbide formation. The graphene layers anchored onto the silicon surface accommodate the volume expansion of silicon via a sliding process between adjacent graphene layers. When paired with a commercial lithium cobalt oxide cathode, the silicon carbide-free graphene coating allows the full cell to reach volumetric energy densities of 972 and 700 Wh l−1 at first and 200th cycle, respectively, 1.8 and 1.5 times higher than those of current commercial lithium-ion batteries. This observation suggests that two-dimensional layered structure of graphene and its silicon carbide-free integration with silicon can serve as a prototype in advancing silicon anodes to commercially viable technology. The volume expansion of silicon is a big problem in lithium-ion batteries with silicon anodes. Here, the authors report direct graphene growth on silicon nanoparticles, which effectively mitigates the problem, leading to excellent electrochemical performance.

476 citations


"Utilization-based power consumption..." refers background in this paper

  • ...search shows hope to add more volumetric capacity to battery on smaller footprint [4]....

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