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Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2021.02.28.21252610

Vaccine hesitancy and reasons for refusing the COVID-19 vaccination among the U.S. public: A cross-sectional survey

02 Mar 2021-medRxiv (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press)-
Abstract: ImportanceAlthough widespread vaccination will be the most important cornerstone of the public health response to the COVID-19 pandemic, a critical question remains as to how much of the United States population will accept it. ObjectiveDetermine: 1) rate of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in the United States public, 2) patient characteristics associated with hesitancy, 3) reasons for hesitancy, 4) healthcare sites where vaccine acceptors would prefer to be vaccinated. Design43-question cross-sectional survey conducted November 17-18, 2020, distributed on Amazon Mechanical Turk, an online labor marketplace where individuals receive a nominal fee (here, $1.80) for anonymously completing tasks. Eligible ParticipantsUnited States residents 18-88 years of age, excluding healthcare workers. A total 1,756 volunteer respondents completed the survey (median age 38 years, 53% female). Main Outcome MeasureMultivariable logistic regression modeled the primary outcome of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy (defined as non-acceptance or being unsure about acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine) with respondent characteristics. ResultsA total 663 respondents (37.8%) were COVID-19 vaccine hesitant (374 [21.3%] non-acceptors and 289 [16.5%] unsure about accepting). Vaccine hesitancy was associated with not receiving influenza vaccination in the past 5 years (odds ratio [OR] 4.07, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.26-5.07, p<0.01), female gender (OR 2.12, 95%CI 1.70-2.65, p<0.01), Black race (OR 1.54, 95%CI 1.05-2.26, p=0.03), having a high school education or less (OR 1.46, 95%CI 1.03-2.07, p=0.03), and Republican party affiliation (OR 2.41, 95%CI 1.88-3.10, p<0.01). Primary reasons for hesitancy were concerns about side effects, need for more information, and doubts about vaccine efficacy. Preferred sites for vaccination for acceptors were primary doctors offices/clinics, pharmacies, and dedicated vaccination locations. ConclusionsIn this recent national survey, over one-third of respondents were COVID-19 vaccine hesitant. To increase vaccine acceptance, public health interventions should target vaccine hesitant populations with messaging that addresses their concerns about safety and efficacy.

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Topics: Vaccine efficacy (61%), Vaccination (53%), Population (52%) ... show more
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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/VACCINES9101071
24 Sep 2021-Vaccine
Abstract: Countries across the globe are currently experiencing a third or fourth wave of SARS-CoV-2 infections; therefore, the need for effective vaccination campaigns is higher than ever. However, effectiveness of these campaigns in disease reduction is highly dependent on vaccination uptake and coverage in susceptible populations. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis estimated the vaccination intention and identified determinants of willingness and hesitancy. This study updates the existing body of literature on vaccination willingness, and was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines. PubMed was searched for publications, selecting only studies published between 20 October 2020 and 1 March 2021, in English, with participants aged >16 years of age. The search identified 411 articles, of which 63 surveys were included that accounted for more than 30 countries worldwide. The global COVID-19 vaccination willingness was estimated at 66.01% [95% CI: 60.76–70.89% I2 = 99.4% [99.3%; 99.4%]; τ2 = 0.83]. The vaccination willingness varied within as well as between countries. Age, gender, education, attitudes and perceptions about vaccines were most frequently observed to be significantly associated with vaccine acceptance or refusal.

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Topics: Vaccination (52%)

1 Citations


Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2021.09.29.21264315
01 Oct 2021-medRxiv
Abstract: Objective This study examined characteristics associated with being unvaccinated among a sample of university staff and faculty prior to university campus reopening for in-person learning in spring-summer 2021. Methods Staff and faculty responded to an email invitation to complete an online survey. Survey questions included demographic data (race/ethnicity, age, sex), COVID-19 knowledge and behaviors, employment specific data including division and subdivision (healthcare vs. non-healthcare related division); and self-reported vaccination status. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to determine significant characteristics associated with the likelihood of being unvaccinated for COVID-19. Results Participants identifying as Asian and Asian American, Hispanic/Latinx or Multicultural/Other had greater odds of being unvaccinated compared to Non-Hispanic White participants. Other characteristics associated with greater likelihood of being unvaccinated included working as university staff member (vs. faculty), older age, decrease in income, inability to work remotely and not traveling outside of Los Angeles area. Political affiliation as an Independent or as something else were more likely to be unvaccinated compared to participants identifying as Democrat. Conclusions Findings suggest several factors associated with racial and social disparities may delay the uptake of COVID-19 vaccination. This study highlights the need for targeted educational interventions to promote vaccination among university staff and faculty.

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Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2021.03.26.21254433
Leah S. Witus1, Larson E1Institutions (1)
29 Mar 2021-medRxiv
Abstract: Increasing acceptance of COVID–19 vaccines is imperative for public health, as unvaccinated individuals may impede the ability to reach herd immunity. Previous research on educational interventions to overcome vaccine hesitancy have shown mixed effects in increasing vaccination intention, although much of this work has focused on parental attitudes toward childhood vaccination. In this study, we conducted a randomized controlled trial to investigate whether vaccination intention changes after viewing an animated YouTube video explaining how COVID–19 mRNA vaccines work. We exposed participants to one of four interventions — watching the video with a male narrator, watching the same video with a female narrator, reading the text of the transcript of the video, or receiving no information (control group). We found that participants who watched the version of the video with a male narrator expressed statistically significant increased vaccination intention compared to the control group. The video with a female narrator had more variation in results. As a whole, there was a non–significant increased vaccination intention when analyzing all participants who saw the video with a female narrator; however, for politically conservative participants there was decreased vaccination intention for this intervention, particularly at a threshold between being currently undecided and expressing probable interest. These results are encouraging for the ability of interventions as simple as YouTube videos to increase vaccination propensity, although the inconsistent response to the video with a female narrator demonstrates the potential for bias to affect how certain groups respond to different messengers.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CELREP.2021.109942
02 Nov 2021-Cell Reports
Abstract: Anti-viral monoclonal antibody (mAb) treatments may provide immediate but short-term immunity from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in high-risk populations, such as people with diabetes and the elderly; however, data on their efficacy in these populations are limited. We demonstrate that prophylactic mAb treatment blocks viral replication in both the upper and lower respiratory tracts in aged, type 2 diabetic rhesus macaques. mAb infusion dramatically curtails severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-mediated stimulation of interferon-induced chemokines and T cell activation, significantly reducing development of interstitial pneumonia. Furthermore, mAb infusion significantly dampens the greater than 3-fold increase in SARS-CoV-2-induced effector CD4 T cell influx into the cerebrospinal fluid. Our data show that neutralizing mAbs administered preventatively to high-risk populations may mitigate the adverse inflammatory consequences of SARS-CoV-2 exposure.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/HPM.3259
Abstract: Patients have historically travelled from across the world to the United States for medical care that is not accessible locally or not available at the same perceived quality. The COVID-19 pandemic has nearly frozen the cross-border buying and selling of healthcare services, referred to as medical tourism. Future medical travel to the United States may also be deterred by the combination of an initially uncoordinated public health response to the pandemic, an overall troubled atmosphere arising from widely publicized racial tensions and pandemic-related disruptions among medical services providers. American hospitals have shifted attention to domestic healthcare needs and risk mitigation to reduce and recover from financial losses. While both reforms to the US healthcare system under the Biden Presidency and expansion to the Affordable Care Act will influence inbound and outbound medical tourism for the country, new international competitors are also likely to have impacts on the medical tourism markets. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, US-based providers are forging new and innovative collaborations for delivering care to patients abroad that promise more efficient and higher quality of care which do not necessitate travel.

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Topics: Medical tourism (62%), Tourism (57%), Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (55%) ... show more
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20 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA2034577
Abstract: Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and the resulting coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) have afflicted tens of millions of people in a world...

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4,222 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.VACCINE.2014.01.081
17 Apr 2014-Vaccine
Abstract: Vaccine "hesitancy" is an emerging term in the literature and discourse on vaccine decision-making and determinants of vaccine acceptance. It recognizes a continuum between the domains of vaccine acceptance and vaccine refusal and de-polarizes previous characterization of individuals and groups as either anti-vaccine or pro-vaccine. The primary aims of this systematic review are to: 1) identify research on vaccine hesitancy; 2) identify determinants of vaccine hesitancy in different settings including its context-specific causes, its expression and its impact; and 3) inform the development of a model for assessing determinants of vaccine hesitancy in different settings as proposed by the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts Working Group (SAGE WG) for dealing with vaccine hesitancy. A broad search strategy, built to capture multiple dimensions of public trust, confidence and hesitancy around vaccines, was applied across multiple databases. Peer-reviewed studies were selected for inclusion if they focused on childhood vaccines [≤ 7 years of age], used multivariate analyses, and were published between January 2007 and November 2012. Our results show a variety of factors as being associated with vaccine hesitancy but they do not allow for a complete classification and confirmation of their independent and relative strength of influence. Determinants of vaccine hesitancy are complex and context-specific - varying across time, place and vaccines.

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Topics: Vaccination (51%)

843 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.15585/MMWR.SS6501A1
Walter W. Williams1Institutions (1)
05 Feb 2016-
Abstract: Problem/condition Overall, the prevalence of illness attributable to vaccine-preventable diseases is greater among adults than among children. Adults are recommended to receive vaccinations based on their age, underlying medical conditions, lifestyle, prior vaccinations, and other considerations. Updated vaccination recommendations from CDC are published annually in the U.S. Adult Immunization Schedule. Despite longstanding recommendations for use of many vaccines, vaccination coverage among U.S. adults is low. Reporting period August 2013-June 2014 (for influenza vaccination) and January-December 2014 (for pneumococcal, tetanus and diphtheria [Td] and tetanus and diphtheria with acellular pertussis [Tdap], hepatitis A, hepatitis B, herpes zoster, and human papillomavirus [HPV] vaccination). Description of system The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) is a continuous, cross-sectional national household survey of the noninstitutionalized U.S. civilian population. In-person interviews are conducted throughout the year in a probability sample of households, and NHIS data are compiled and released annually. The survey objective is to monitor the health of the U.S. population and provide estimates of health indicators, health care use and access, and health-related behaviors. Results Compared with data from the 2013 NHIS, increases in vaccination coverage occurred for Tdap vaccine among adults aged ≥19 years (a 2.9 percentage point increase to 20.1%) and herpes zoster vaccine among adults aged ≥60 years (a 3.6 percentage point increase to 27.9%). Aside from these modest improvements, vaccination coverage among adults in 2014 was similar to estimates from 2013 (for influenza coverage, similar to the 2012-13 season). Influenza vaccination coverage among adults aged ≥19 years was 43.2%. Pneumococcal vaccination coverage among high-risk persons aged 19-64 years was 20.3% and among adults aged ≥65 years was 61.3%. Td vaccination coverage among adults aged ≥19 years was 62.2%. Hepatitis A vaccination coverage among adults aged ≥19 years was 9.0%. Hepatitis B vaccination coverage among adults aged ≥19 years was 24.5%. HPV vaccination coverage among adults aged 19-26 years was 40.2% for females and 8.2% for males. Racial/ethnic differences in coverage persisted for all seven vaccines, with higher coverage generally for whites compared with most other groups. Adults without health insurance were significantly less likely than those with health insurance to report receipt of influenza vaccine (aged ≥19 years), pneumococcal vaccine (aged 19-64 years with high-risk conditions and aged ≥65 years), Td vaccine (aged ≥19 years), Tdap vaccine (aged ≥19 years and 19-64 years), hepatitis A vaccine (aged ≥19 years overall and among travelers), hepatitis B vaccine (aged ≥19 years, 19-49 years, and 19-59 years with diabetes), herpes zoster vaccine (aged ≥60 years and 60-64 years), and HPV vaccine (females aged 19-26 years and males aged 19-26 years). Adults who reported having a usual place for health care generally were more likely to receive recommended vaccinations than those who did not have a usual place for health care, regardless of whether they had health insurance. Vaccination coverage was significantly higher among those reporting one or more physician contacts in the past year compared with those who had not visited a physician in the past year, regardless of whether they had health insurance. Even among adults who had health insurance and ≥10 physician contacts within the past year, 23.8%-88.8% reported not having received vaccinations that were recommended either for all persons or for those with some specific indication. Overall, vaccination coverage among U.S.-born respondents was significantly higher than that of foreign-born respondents with few exceptions (influenza vaccination [adults aged 19-49 years], hepatitis A vaccination [adults aged ≥19 years], hepatitis B vaccination [adults with diabetes aged ≥60 years], and HPV vaccination [males aged 19-26 years]). Interpretation Overall, increases in adult vaccination coverage are needed. Although modest gains occurred in Tdap vaccination coverage among adults aged ≥19 years and herpes zoster vaccination coverage among adults aged ≥60 years, coverage for other vaccines and risk groups did not improve, and racial/ethnic disparities persisted for routinely recommended adult vaccines. Coverage for all vaccines for adults remained low, and missed opportunities to vaccinate adults continued. Although having health insurance coverage and a usual place for health care are associated with higher vaccination coverage, these factors alone do not assure optimal adult vaccination coverage. Public health actions Assessing associations with vaccination is important for understanding factors that contribute to low coverage rates and to disparities in vaccination, and for implementing strategies to improve vaccination coverage. Practices that have been demonstrated to improve vaccination coverage should be used. These practices include assessment of patients' vaccination indications by health care providers and routine recommendation and offer of needed vaccines to adults, implementation of reminder-recall systems, use of standing-order programs for vaccination, and assessment of practice-level vaccination rates with feedback to staff members. For vaccination to be improved among those least likely to be up-to-date on recommended adult vaccines, efforts also are needed to identify adults who do not have a regular provider or insurance and who report fewer health care visits.

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Topics: Vaccination (57%), Hepatitis A vaccine (55%), Influenza vaccine (54%) ... show more

467 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1371/JOURNAL.PONE.0170550
Philipp Schmid1, Dorothee Rauber1, Cornelia Betsch1, Gianni Lidolt1  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
26 Jan 2017-PLOS ONE
Abstract: Background Influenza vaccine hesitancy is a significant threat to global efforts to reduce the burden of seasonal and pandemic influenza. Potential barriers of influenza vaccination need to be identified to inform interventions to raise awareness, influenza vaccine acceptance and uptake. Objective This review aims to (1) identify relevant studies and extract individual barriers of seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccination for risk groups and the general public; and (2) map knowledge gaps in understanding influenza vaccine hesitancy to derive directions for further research and inform interventions in this area. Methods Thirteen databases covering the areas of Medicine, Bioscience, Psychology, Sociology and Public Health were searched for peer-reviewed articles published between the years 2005 and 2016. Following the PRISMA approach, 470 articles were selected and analyzed for significant barriers to influenza vaccine uptake or intention. The barriers for different risk groups and flu types were clustered according to a conceptual framework based on the Theory of Planned Behavior and discussed using the 4C model of reasons for non-vaccination. Results Most studies were conducted in the American and European region. Health care personnel (HCP) and the general public were the most studied populations, while parental decisions for children at high risk were under-represented. This study also identifies understudied concepts. A lack of confidence, inconvenience, calculation and complacency were identified to different extents as barriers to influenza vaccine uptake in risk groups. Conclusion Many different psychological, contextual, sociodemographic and physical barriers that are specific to certain risk groups were identified. While most sociodemographic and physical variables may be significantly related to influenza vaccine hesitancy, they cannot be used to explain its emergence or intensity. Psychological determinants were meaningfully related to uptake and should therefore be measured in a valid and comparable way. A compendium of measurements for future use is suggested as supporting information.

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Topics: Influenza vaccine (68%), Pandemic (53%), Vaccination (51%)

438 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.VACCINE.2015.04.040
14 Aug 2015-Vaccine
Abstract: The purpose of this systematic review is to identify, describe and assess the potential effectiveness of strategies to respond to issues of vaccine hesitancy that have been implemented and evaluated across diverse global contexts. Methods A systematic review of peer reviewed (January 2007–October 2013) and grey literature (up to October 2013) was conducted using a broad search strategy, built to capture multiple dimensions of public trust, confidence and hesitancy concerning vaccines. This search strategy was applied and adapted across several databases and organizational websites. Descriptive analyses were undertaken for 166 (peer reviewed) and 15 (grey literature) evaluation studies. In addition, the quality of evidence relating to a series of PICO (population, intervention, comparison/control, outcomes) questions defined by the SAGE Working Group on Vaccine Hesitancy (WG) was assessed using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria; data were analyzed using Review Manager. Results Across the literature, few strategies to address vaccine hesitancy were found to have been evaluated for impact on either vaccination uptake and/or changes in knowledge, awareness or attitude (only 14% of peer reviewed and 25% of grey literature). The majority of evaluation studies were based in the Americas and primarily focused on influenza, human papillomavirus (HPV) and childhood vaccines. In low- and middle-income regions, the focus was on diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis, and polio. Across all regions, most interventions were multi-component and the majority of strategies focused on raising knowledge and awareness. Thirteen relevant studies were used for the GRADE assessment that indicated evidence of moderate quality for the use of social mobilization, mass media, communication tool-based training for health-care workers, non-financial incentives and reminder/recall-based interventions. Overall, our results showed that multicomponent and dialogue-based interventions were most effective. However, given the complexity of vaccine hesitancy and the limited evidence available on how it can be addressed, identified strategies should be carefully tailored according to the target population, their reasons for hesitancy, and the specific context.

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Topics: Population (52%)

424 Citations